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Chapter 20 : Integrons and Superintegrons

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Integrons and Superintegrons, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Numerous studies have appeared that describe the importance of resistance integrons (RIs) and superintegrons (SIs) in antibiotic resistance, microbial physiology, and environmental adaptation in phylogenetically diverse gram-negative bacteria. This chapter describes the genetic organization of an integron; summarizes the different classes of RIs and highlights their importance in antibiotic resistance; describes the organization of an SI; and highlights the structure of the key component of the integron, the integrase, and its binding to an site. There are two types of recombinases: tyrosine recombinases (integrases) and serine recombinases (resolvases or invertases). The site is an imperfect inverted repeat located at the 3' end of the gene. Cassettes are always integrated in the same orientation and are cotranscribed from one or two common promoters (P1 or P2) located in the 5' conserved segment (CS). To date, five distinct integron classes have been found associated with cassettes that contain antibiotic resistance genes. Three main classes of integrons (classes 1, 2, and 3) have been described in gram-negative bacteria. The similarity between the three integrases (40 to 58% genetic identity) suggests that their evolutionary divergence extended beyond the introduction of antibiotics into clinical medicine.

Citation: Bonomo R, Hujer A, Hujer K. 2007. Integrons and Superintegrons, p 331-338. In Bonomo R, Tolmasky M (ed), Enzyme-Mediated Resistance to Antibiotics. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815615.ch20

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Figures

Image of Figure 20.1
Figure 20.1

Organization of a class 1 integron.

Citation: Bonomo R, Hujer A, Hujer K. 2007. Integrons and Superintegrons, p 331-338. In Bonomo R, Tolmasky M (ed), Enzyme-Mediated Resistance to Antibiotics. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815615.ch20
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Image of Figure 20.2
Figure 20.2

Strand exchange produces a Holliday junction. A single-stranded (ss) nick in the donor DNA is followed by DNA synthesis to cause strand displacement. The ss DNA pairs with the recipient DNA to form a heteroduplex. The unpaired recipient DNA forms a “D loop.” Nuclease removes the unpaired “D loop DNA.” Strand exchange (X over) then produces a Holliday junction. This is followed by isomerization (adapted from www.sci.sdsu.edu/…/Rec-HollidayJunction1.gif).

Citation: Bonomo R, Hujer A, Hujer K. 2007. Integrons and Superintegrons, p 331-338. In Bonomo R, Tolmasky M (ed), Enzyme-Mediated Resistance to Antibiotics. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815615.ch20
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Image of Figure 20.3
Figure 20.3

Representation of In53, a class 1 integron from . Listed are the 10 different antibiotic resistance genes: , a member of the small multidrug resistance family of proteins that serves as an exporter protein that mediates resistance to intercalating dyes and quaternary ammonium compounds; , a 2″-aminoglycoside nucleotidyltransferase that confers resistance to kanamycin, tobramycin, and gentamicin; , a novel 6′--acetyltransferase; , an ESBL;, see above;, an enzyme that inactivates rifampin by ribosylation; , a novel nonenzymatic chloramphenicol resistance gene of the family; /, a fused gene cassette of an ESBL and an aminoglycoside adenyltransferase as a single cassette. The IS-related inverted right and left repeats are not shown (adapted from Naas et al. [ ]).

Citation: Bonomo R, Hujer A, Hujer K. 2007. Integrons and Superintegrons, p 331-338. In Bonomo R, Tolmasky M (ed), Enzyme-Mediated Resistance to Antibiotics. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815615.ch20
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Image of Figure 20.4
Figure 20.4

Map of the integron region of Tn

Citation: Bonomo R, Hujer A, Hujer K. 2007. Integrons and Superintegrons, p 331-338. In Bonomo R, Tolmasky M (ed), Enzyme-Mediated Resistance to Antibiotics. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815615.ch20
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References

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