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Chapter 15 : Evolution of Enteric Pathogens

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Evolution of Enteric Pathogens, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter focuses on three significant human pathogens in the family : , (including Shigella), and spp. has been assigned to serovars based on the combination of antigenic properties of the polysaccharide O antigen and flagellar H1 and H2 antigens. is found in reptiles and warm-blooded vertebrates. The most common diseases caused by subspecies 1 serovars are acute enterocolitis and enteric fever. Virulence factors in are commonly in pathogenicity islands (PAIs). Early studies on evolution and population genetics of the species were centered on isolates from healthy humans and animals. Enteropathogenic (EPEC) strains carry the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) PAI encoding a type III secretion system, with proteins for effacing and attachment, and the EAF plasmid with genes for adherence. The EHEC O157:H7 clone was discovered in the early 1980s when several outbreaks of hemorrhagic colitis were associated with the serotype O157:H7, and has since been implicated worldwide in outbreaks of food and waterborne disease. Bacteria reproduce by binary fission, and as a result, all bacterial populations are clonal to some extent. The Shigella clones of , the Pestis clone of , and serovar Typhi of all have many pseudogenes, and are clearly losing many of their more general species properties as they become adapted to what appears to be in all three cases a new niche.

Citation: Lan R, Reeves P. 2006. Evolution of Enteric Pathogens, p 273-299. In Seifert H, DiRita V (ed), Evolution of Microbial Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815622.ch15

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FIGURE 1

Evolutionary tree of The tree shows phylogenetic relationships of the subspecies as determined by sequences of five housekeeping genes by Selander et al. ( ), with the external edge and strain names removed. After the subspecies number is the number of serotypes reported for each subspecies ( ), given in parentheses. Two subspecies IV serotypes were allocated to subspecies VII by genetic means (see text), and some of the remaining 69 subspecies IV serotypes may belong to subspecies VII. Major events are indicated, including the gain of SPI-1, SPI-2, and H2 antigen genes. The numbers at each node indicate the numbers of genes gained as determined by microarray analysis of LT2 genes ( ).

Citation: Lan R, Reeves P. 2006. Evolution of Enteric Pathogens, p 273-299. In Seifert H, DiRita V (ed), Evolution of Microbial Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815622.ch15
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Genetic relationships of commensal strains represented by the ECOR set strains and representative pathogenic strains as resolved by MLEE ( ). For clarity, all strain names were removed from the tree (see original paper for details). External branches, where pathogenic strains are represented or the sole member, are marked with the pathogenic form, while other branches without names are ECOR set strains.

Citation: Lan R, Reeves P. 2006. Evolution of Enteric Pathogens, p 273-299. In Seifert H, DiRita V (ed), Evolution of Microbial Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815622.ch15
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

The evolutionary tree of Shigella and other based on housekeeping genes ( ), with distribution of key characteristics of and Shigella (adapted from reference ). The pINV form is indicated as A or B ( ), or as a “+” if not known to be A or B, or non-A/non-B. The common properties of commensal are represented by K-12 (top row). Other rows correspond to the cluster or strain on the left. The Shigella strains in the three clusters are shown in the original paper. It can be clearly seen that Shigella, with the exception of Boydii 13, are clones of

Citation: Lan R, Reeves P. 2006. Evolution of Enteric Pathogens, p 273-299. In Seifert H, DiRita V (ed), Evolution of Microbial Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815622.ch15
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Distribution of proteins: core and unique genes among K-12, O157: H7 (EDL933), and uropathogenic CFT073 (adapted from reference ). Areas represent categories of genes but are not proportional to the number of genes. The percentage within a category is based on the total of 7,638 proteins. The number of proteins used for comparison in each strain is indicated under the strain name, together with the percentage of core genes.

Citation: Lan R, Reeves P. 2006. Evolution of Enteric Pathogens, p 273-299. In Seifert H, DiRita V (ed), Evolution of Microbial Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815622.ch15
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Serotypes associated with pathogenic categories

Citation: Lan R, Reeves P. 2006. Evolution of Enteric Pathogens, p 273-299. In Seifert H, DiRita V (ed), Evolution of Microbial Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815622.ch15

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