1887

Chapter 1 : Evolution of Bacterial-Host Interactions: Virulence and the Immune Overresponse

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Evolution of Bacterial-Host Interactions: Virulence and the Immune Overresponse, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815639/9781555814144_Chap01-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815639/9781555814144_Chap01-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter focuses on aspects of the evolution of the bacterium-host interactions that cannot be readily accounted for by simple, advantage-to-the individual evolutionary scenarios. It discusses how the perversity of the immune system fits with current hypotheses for the evolution of virulence and the evolution of the so-called virulence factors, and speculates on the reasons natural selection has failed to or is unable to blunt the immune overresponse to bacterial infections. The chapter provides a brief discussion of the implications of this perspective on virulence for the treatment of bacterial infections. A section discusses how the observation that morbidity and mortality of bacterial infections can be attributed to the hosts’ immune overresponse fits each of these hypotheses for the evolution of the virulence of bacteria. The conventional wisdom is an observation rather than a mechanism, an observation that focuses on the interactions between bacteria and the individual hosts they colonize. Reasonable candidates for coincidental virulence due to an immune overresponse are diseases associated with Helicobacter pylori. As a consequence of their vastly shorter generation times, haploid genomes, and propensity to receive genes and pathogenicity islands by horizontal transfer, it seems reasonable to assume that bacteria would have an edge in an evolutionary arms race with their mammal hosts.

Citation: Margolis E, Levin B. 2008. Evolution of Bacterial-Host Interactions: Virulence and the Immune Overresponse, p 3-12. In Baquero F, Nombela C, Cassell G, Gutiérrez-Fuentes J (ed), Evolutionary Biology of Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815639.ch1
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815639.ch01
1. Achtman, M.,, K. Zurth,, G. Morelli,, G. Torrea,, A. Guiyoule, and, E. Carniel. 1999. Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague, is a recently emerged clone of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:1404314048.
2. Andre, J.-B.,, S. Gupta,, S. Frank, and, M. Tibayrenc. 2004. Evolution and immunology of infectious diseases: what new? An E-debate. Infect. Genet. Evol. 4:6975.
3. Andre, J. B., and, B. Godelle. 2006. Within-host evolution and virulence in microparasites. J. Theor. Biol. 241:402409.
4. Bekker, L. G.,, A. L. Moreira,, A. Bergtold,, S. Freeman,, B. Ryffel, and, G. Kaplan. 2000. Immunopathologic effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha in murine mycobacterial infection are dose dependent. Infect. Immun. 68:69546961.
5. Bellamy, R.,, N. Beyers,, K. P. McAdam,, C. Ruwende,, R. Gie,, P. Samaai,, D. Bester,, M. Meyer,, T. Corrah,, M. Collin,, D. R. Camidge,, D. Wilkinson,, E. Hoal-Van Helden,, H. C. Whittle,, W. Amos,, P. van Helden, and, A. V. Hill. 2000. Genetic susceptibility to tuberculosis in Africans: a genome-wide scan. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:80058009.
6. Bellamy, R., and, A. V. Hill. 1998. Genetic susceptibility to mycobacteria and other infectious pathogens in humans. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 10:483487.
7. Bergeron, Y.,, N. Ouellet,, A. M. Deslauriers,, M. Simard,, M. Olivier, and, M. G. Bergeron. 1998. Cytokine kinetics and other host factors in response to pneumococcal pulmonary infection in mice. Infect. Immun. 66:912922.
8. Bone, R. C.,, C. J. Fisher, Jr.,, T. P. Clemmer,, G. J. Slotman, and, C. A. Metz. 1987. Early methylprednisolone treatment for septic syndrome and the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Chest 92:10321036.
9. Bonhoeffer, S. A., and, M. A. Nowak. 1994. Mutation and the evolution of virulence. Proc. R. Soc. London B 258:133140.
10. Braun, J. S.,, R. Novak,, K. H. Herzog,, S. M. Bodner,, J. L. Cleveland, and, E. I. Tuomanen. 1999. Neuroprotection by a caspase inhibitor in acute bacterial meningitis. Nat. Med. 5:298302.
11. Brown, N. F.,, M. E. Wickham,, B. K. Coombes, and, B. B. Finlay. 2006. Crossing the line: selection and evolution of virulence traits. PLoS Pathog. 2:e42.
12. Bull, J. J. 1994. Virulence. Evolution 48:14231437.
13. Burnet, F. 1970. Immunological Surveillance. Pergamon Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.
14. Burnet, F. M., and, D. O. White. 1972. Natural History of Infectious Diseases. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
15. Carniel, E. 2003. Evolution of pathogenic Yersinia: some lights in the dark. Adv. Exp. Med. 529:312.
16. Crow, J. F., and, M. Kimura. 1971. An Introduction to Population Genetics Theory, 1st ed. Harper & Row, New York, NY.
17. Cunningham, M. W. 2003. Autoimmunity and molecular mimicry in the pathogenesis of post-streptococcal heart disease. Front Biosci. 8:S533S543.
18. Czermak, B. J.,, V. Sarma,, C. L. Pierson,, R. L. Warner,, M. Huber-Lang,, N. M. Bless,, H. Schmal,, H. P. Friedl, and, P. A. Ward. 1999. Protective effects of C5a blockade in sepsis. Nat. Med. 5:788792.
19. Czinn, S. J., and, J. G. Nedrud. 1997. Immunopathology of Helicobacter pylori infection and disease. Springer Semin. Immunopathol. 18:495513.
20. Ebert, D., and, J. J. Bull. 2003. Challenging the trade-off model for the evolution of virulence: is virulence management feasible? Trends Microbiol. 11:1520.
21. Ebert, D., and, E. A. Herre. 1996. The evolution of parasitic diseases. Parasitol. Today 12:96101.
22. Falush, D.,, T. Wirth,, B. Linz,, J. K. Pritchard,, M. Stephens,, M. Kidd,, M. J. Blaser,, D. Y. Graham,, S. Vacher,, G. I. Perez-Perez,, Y. Yamaoka,, F. Megraud,, K. Otto,, U. Reichard,, E. Katzowitsch,, X. Wang,, M. Achtman, and, S. Suerbaum. 2003. Traces of human migrations in Helicobacter pylori populations. Science 299:15821585.
23. Fenner, F., and, F. N. Ratcliffe. 1965. Myxomatosis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
24. Finlay, B. B., and, S. Falkow 1989. Common themes in microbial pathogenicity. Microbiol. Rev. 53:210230.
25. Firoved, A. M.,, G. F. Miller,, M. Moayeri,, R. Kakkar,, Y. Shen,, J. F. Wiggins,, E. M. McNally,, W. J. Tang, and, S. H. Leppla. 2005. Bacillus anthracis edema toxin causes extensive tissue lesions and rapid lethality in mice. Am. J. Pathol. 167:13091320.
26. Fisher, C. J., Jr.,, J. M. Agosti,, S. M. Opal,, S. F. Lowry,, R. A. Balk,, J. C. Sadoff,, E. Abraham,, R. M. Schein, and, E. Benjamin. 1996. Treatment of septic shock with the tumor necrosis factor receptor:Fc fusion protein. The Soluble TNF Receptor Sepsis Study Group. N. Engl. J. Med. 334:16971702.
27. Fisher, C. J., Jr.,, G. J. Slotman,, S. M. Opal,, J. P. Pribble,, R. C. Bone,, G. Emmanuel,, D. Ng,, D. C. Bloedow, and, M. A. Catalano. 1994. Initial evaluation of human recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in the treatment of sepsis syndrome: a randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Crit. Care Med. 22:1221.
28. Fourrier, F. 2004. Recombinant human activated protein C in the treatment of severe sepsis: an evidence-based review. Crit. Care Med. 32:S534S541.
29. Frank, S. A. 1996. Models of parasite virulence. Q. Rev. Biol. 7(1): 3778.
30. Gay, R. T.,, S. Belisle,, M. A. Beck, and, S. N. Meydani. 2006. An aged host promotes the evolution of avirulent coxsackievirus into a virulent strain. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:1382513830.
31. Gibbons, R. J. 1964. Bacteriology of dental caries. J. Dent. Res. 43(Suppl): 10211028.
32. Graham, A. L.,, J. E. Allan, and, A. F. Read. 2005. Evolutionary causes and consequences of immunopathology. Annu. Rev. of Ecol. Evol. Syst. 36:373397.
33. Grech, K.,, K. Watt, and, A. F. Read. 2006. Host-parasite interactions for virulence and resistance in a malaria model system. J. Evol. Biol. 19:16201630.
34. Haldane, J. B. S. 1949. Disease and evolution. Ric. Sci. 19:6876.
35. Hilbi, H.,, A. Zychlinsky, and, P. J. Sansonetti. 1997. Macrophage apoptosis in microbial infections. Parasitology 115(Suppl):S79S87.
36. Kaushal, D.,, B. G. Schroeder,, S. Tyagi,, T. Yoshimatsu,, C. Scott,, C. Ko,, L. Carpenter,, J. Mehrotra,, Y. C. Manabe,, R. D. Fleischmann, and, W. R. Bishai. 2002. Reduced immuno-pathology and mortality despite tissue persistence in a Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutant lacking alternative sigma factor, SigH. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:83308335.
37. Klein, N. J.,, C. A. Ison,, M. Peakman,, M. Levin,, S. Hammer-schmidt,, M. Frosch, and, R. S. Heyderman. 1996. The influence of capsulation and lipooligosaccharide structure on neutrophil adhesion molecule expression and endothelial injury by Neisseria meningitidis. J. Infect. Dis. 173:172179.
38. Kurahashi, K.,, O. Kajikawa,, T. Sawa,, M. Ohara,, M. A. Gropper,, D. W. Frank,, T. R. Martin, and, J. P. Wiener-Kronish. 1999. Pathogenesis of septic shock in Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. J. Clin. Invest. 104:743750.
39. Lenski, R. E., and, R. M. May. 1994. The evolution of virulence in parasites and pathogens: reconciliation between two competing hypotheses. J. Theor. Biol. 169:253265.
40. Levin, B. R. 1996. The evolution and maintenance of virulence in microparasites. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2:93102.
41. Levin, B. R.,, A. C. Allison,, H. J. Bremermann,, L. L. Cavalli-Sforza,, B. C. Clarke,, R Frentzel-Beymem,, W. D. Hamilton,, S. A. Levin,, R. M. May, and, H. R. Thieme. 1982. Evolution of parasite systems (group report), p. 212243. In R. M. Anderson and, R. M. May (ed.), Population Biology of Infectious Diseases. Springer, Berlin, Germany.
42. Levin, B. R., and, R. Antia. 2001. Why we don’t get sick: the within-host population dynamics of bacterial infections. Science 292:11121125.
43. Levin, B. R., and, J. J. Bull. 1994. Short-sighted evolution and the virulence of pathogenic microorganisms. Trends Microbiol. 2:7681.
44. Levin, B. R.,, V. Perrot, and, N. Walker. 2000. Compensatory mutations, antibiotic resistance and the population genetics of adaptive evolution in bacteria. Genetics 154:985997.
45. Levin, B. R., and, D. E. Rozen. 2006. Non-inherited antibiotic resistance. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 4:556562.
46. Levin, B. R., and, C. Svanborg Eden. 1990. Selection and evolution of virulence in bacteria: an ecumenical excursion and modest suggestion. Parasitology 100:S103S115.
47. Levin, S. A., and, D. Pimentel. 1981. Selection of intermediate rates of increase in parasite host systems. Am. Nat. 117:308315.
48. Lipsitch, M.,, E. A. Herre, and, M. A. Nowak. 1995. Host population structure and the evolution of parasite virulence: a “law of diminishing returns.” Evolution 49:743748.
49. Lipsitch, M., and, E. R. Moxon. 1997. Virulence and transmissibility of pathogens: what is the relationship? Trends Microbiol. 5:3137.
50. Lipsitch, M.,, S. Siller, and, M. A. Nowak. 1996. The evolution of virulence in pathogens with vertical and horizontal transmission. Evolution 50:17291741.
51. Mackinnon, M. J., and, A. F. Read. 2004. Virulence in malaria: an evolutionary viewpoint. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London B 359:965986.
52. Marshall, B. J., and, J. R. Warren. 1984. Unidentified curved bacilli in the stomach of patients with gastritis and peptic ulceration. Lancet 1:13111315.
53. May, R. M., and, R. M. Anderson. 1983a. Epidemology and genetics in the coevolution of parasite and hosts. Proc. R. Soc. London B 219:281313.
54. May, R. M., and, R. M. Anderson. 1983b. Parasite-host coevolution, p. 186206. In D. J. Futuyama and, M. Slatkin (ed.), Coevolution Sinauer, Sunderland, MA.
55. McCormick, J. K.,, J. M. Yarwood, and, P. M. Schlievert. 2001. Toxic shock syndrome and bacterial superantigens: an update. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 55:77104.
56. Meyers, L. A.,, B. R. Levin,, A. R. Richardson, and, I. Stojiljkovic. 2003. Epidemiology, hypermutation, within-host evolution and the virulence of Neisseria meningitidis. Proc. Biol. Sci. 270:16671677.
57. Meynell, G. G. 1957. The applicability of the hypothesis of independent action to fatal infections in mice given Salmonella typhimurium by mouth. J. Gen. Microbiol. 16:396404.
58. Modlin, R. L. 2002. Learning from leprosy: insights into contemporary immunology from an ancient disease. Skin Pharmacol. Appl. Skin Physiol. 15:16.
59. Moss, S. F., and, M. J. Blaser. 2005. Mechanisms of disease: inflammation and the origins of cancer. Nat. Clin. Pract. Oncol. 2:9097 (quiz 1 p. following 113).
60. Moxon, E. R., and, P. A. Murphy. 1978. Haemophilus influenzae bacteremia and meningitis resulting from the survival of a single organism. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 75:15341536.
61. O’Suilleabhain, C.,, S. T. O’Sullivan,, J. L. Kelly,, J. Lederer,, J. A. Mannick, and, M. L. Rodrick. 1996. Interleukin-12 treatment restores normal resistance to bacterial challenge after burn injury. Surgery 120:290296.
62. Pfeiffer, J. K., and, K. Kirkegaard. 2005. Increased fidelity reduces poliovirus fitness and virulence under selective pressure in mice. PLoS Pathog. 1:e11.
63. Pluschke, G.,, A. Mercer,, B. Kusecek,, A. Pohl, and, M. Achtman. 1983. Induction of bacteremia in newborn rats by Escherichia coli K1 is correlated with only certain O (lipopolysaccharide) antigen types. Infect. Immun. 39:599608.
64. Regoes, R. R.,, M. A. Nowak, and, S. Bonhoeffer. 2000. Evolution of virulence in a heterogeneous host population. Evolution 54:6471.
65. Rott, O., and, B. Fleischer. 1994. A superantigen as virulence factor in an acute bacterial infection. J. Infect. Dis. 169:11421146.
66. Rubin, L. G. 1987. Bacterial colonization and infection resulting from multiplication of a single organism. Rev. Infect. Dis. 9:488493.
67. Schiavo, G.,, F. Benfenati,, B. Poulain,, O. Rossetto,, P. Polverino de Laureto,, B. R. Das-Gupta, and, C. Montecucco. 1992. Tetanus and botulinum-B neurotoxins block neurotransmitter release by proteolytic cleavage of synaptobrevin. Nature 359:832835.
68. Segal, S., and, A. V. Hill. 2003. Genetic susceptibility to infectious disease. Trends Microbiol. 11:445448.
69. Sieling, P. A.,, D. Jullien,, M. Dahlem,, T. F. Tedder,, T. H. Rea,, R. L. Modlin, and, S. A. Porcelli. 1999. CD1 expression by dendritic cells in human leprosy lesions: correlation with effective host immunity. J. Immunol. 162:18511858.
70. Sieper, J. 2001. Pathogenesis of reactive arthritis. Curr. Rheumatol. Rep. 3:412418.
71. Sorensen, T. I.,, G. Nielson,, P. Anderson, and, T. Teasdale. 1988. Genetic and environmental influences on premature death in adult adoptees. N. Engl. J. Med. 318:727732.
72. Tatematsu, M.,, T. Tsukamoto, and, T. Mizoshita. 2005. Role of Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinogenesis: the origin of gastric cancers and heterotopic proliferative glands in Mongolian gerbils. Helicobacter 10:97106.
73. Whitnack, E. 1993. Sepsis, p. 770778. In M. Schaechter,, G. Med-hoff, and, B. I. Eistenstein (ed.), Mechanisms of Microbial Disease, 2nd ed. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.
74. Wildschutte, H.,, D. M. Wolfe,, A. Tamewitz, and, J. G. Lawrence. 2004. Protozoan predation, diversifying selection, and the evolution of antigenic diversity in Salmonella. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:1064410649.
75. Wilson, M. S., and, R. M. Maizels. 2004. Regulation of allergy and autoimmunity in helminth infection. Clin. Rev. Allergy Immunol. 26:3550.
76. Yu, V. L.,, C. C. Chiou,, C. Feldman,, A. Ortqvist,, J. Rello,, A. J. Morris,, L. M. Baddour,, C. M. Luna,, D. R. Syndman,, M. Ip,, W. C. Ko,, M. B. Chedid,, A. Andremont, and, K. P. Klugman. 2003. An international prospective study of pneumococcal bacteremia: correlation with in vitro resistance, antibiotics administered, and clinical outcome. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37:230237.
77. Ziegler, E. J.,, C. J. Fisher, Jr.,, C. L. Sprung,, R. C. Straube,, J. C. Sadoff,, G. E. Foulke,, C. H. Wortel,, M. P. Fink,, R. P. Dellinger,, N. N. Teng, et al. 1991. Treatment of gram-negative bacteremia and septic shock with HA-1A human monoclonal antibody against endotoxin. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The HA-1A Sepsis Study Group. N. Engl. J. Med. 324:429436.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Some examples of virulence resulting from an immune overresponse

Citation: Margolis E, Levin B. 2008. Evolution of Bacterial-Host Interactions: Virulence and the Immune Overresponse, p 3-12. In Baquero F, Nombela C, Cassell G, Gutiérrez-Fuentes J (ed), Evolutionary Biology of Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815639.ch1

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error