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Chapter 13 : Evolution of Genomic Islands and Evolution of Pathogenicity

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Abstract:

This chapter shows that genetic variability drives the evolution of microbes. During evolution, bacterium-host interactions have developed, and different types of associations have evolved. The chapter describes major facets of the genetic basis of host-microbe interaction, with particular attention to newly discovered genetic elements, so-called genomic islands (GEIs), which are parts of the genomes of many bacteria, pathogenic as well as nonpathogenic. The majority of GEIs differ with respect to the G+C content and codon usage from the rest of the core genome. The first pathogenicity islands (PAIs) were described in pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. Enterobacteria represent a diverse group of microbes; the majority of them have their habitat in the intestine of humans and many animals. The majority of genes of Buchnera and Blochmannia genomes are identical to genes that are present in the genome of E. coli. PAI I and PAI II encode α-hemolysin, and PAI I to PAI III carry genes for different fimbrial adhesins. PAI IV is identical to the so-called high-pathogenicity island that was first described for Yersinia pestis and encodes an iron uptake system, termed yersiniabactin. The capsular antigen K15 is encoded by island V. Based on the complete genome sequence of E. coli strain 536, the authors were recently able to detect four additional genomic islands, GEI VI to GEI IX. There is no doubt that the gene products of PAI I to PAI V contribute to urinary tract infections.

Citation: Hacker J. 2008. Evolution of Genomic Islands and Evolution of Pathogenicity, p 129-137. In Baquero F, Nombela C, Cassell G, Gutiérrez-Fuentes J (ed), Evolutionary Biology of Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815639.ch13
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Figures

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Figure 1.

Diagram of the relationship between symbiosis, commensalism, and pathogenesis.

Citation: Hacker J. 2008. Evolution of Genomic Islands and Evolution of Pathogenicity, p 129-137. In Baquero F, Nombela C, Cassell G, Gutiérrez-Fuentes J (ed), Evolutionary Biology of Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815639.ch13
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Interaction between enterobacteria and their relatives and host organisms. Interactions that may have an impact on the evolution of microbes are indicated.

Citation: Hacker J. 2008. Evolution of Genomic Islands and Evolution of Pathogenicity, p 129-137. In Baquero F, Nombela C, Cassell G, Gutiérrez-Fuentes J (ed), Evolutionary Biology of Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815639.ch13
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Host-pathogen interactions of enterobacteria and their relatives

Citation: Hacker J. 2008. Evolution of Genomic Islands and Evolution of Pathogenicity, p 129-137. In Baquero F, Nombela C, Cassell G, Gutiérrez-Fuentes J (ed), Evolutionary Biology of Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815639.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 2.

PAIs and GEIs of the uropathogenic strain 536

Citation: Hacker J. 2008. Evolution of Genomic Islands and Evolution of Pathogenicity, p 129-137. In Baquero F, Nombela C, Cassell G, Gutiérrez-Fuentes J (ed), Evolutionary Biology of Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815639.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Presence of the high-pathogenicity island in various enterobacteria

Citation: Hacker J. 2008. Evolution of Genomic Islands and Evolution of Pathogenicity, p 129-137. In Baquero F, Nombela C, Cassell G, Gutiérrez-Fuentes J (ed), Evolutionary Biology of Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815639.ch13

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