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Chapter 5 : Cellular Impact of Sublethal Pressures on

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Abstract:

This chapter focuses on the molecular effects and genetic consequences of sublethal pressures on . Early key experiments examining the behavior of bacteria under high pressure (HP) probed their ability to still perform basic cellular functions such as DNA replication, transcription, and translation. A more detailed in vivo study found that the block in protein synthesis did not occur at the level of amino acid permeability, aminoacyl-tRNA formation, or maintenance of polysomal integrity. Many of these pressure-induced proteins were upregulated transiently, and among them 11 heat shock proteins (HSPs), such as ClpB, ClpP, Lon, RpoH, DnaK, GroEL, GroES, and GrpE and 4 cold shock proteins (CSPs), such as RecA and H-NS were identified. The simultaneous expression of HSPs and CSPs that emerged during this proteomic approach was later confirmed by genome-wide transcription profiling of growing at 30 and 50 MPa. The presence of HSPs, either induced by HP or constitutively present in emerging HP-resistant mutants, could give rise to cross-resistance to other stress factors. Indeed, it was recently found that HP-resistant mutants show increased resistance to oxidative stress. Although HP induction of heat and cold shock responses conform to the extrapolation of thermodynamic HP effects on protein denaturation and membrane fluidity, respectively, induction of a third stress regulon was quite surprising. Apparently, a sublethal HP treatment is able to trigger the SOS response in .

Citation: Aertsen A, Michiels C. 2008. Cellular Impact of Sublethal Pressures on , p 87-100. In Michiels C, Bartlett D, Aersten A (ed), High-Pressure Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815646.ch5

Key Concept Ranking

DNA Synthesis
0.51990676
DNA Damage and Repair
0.4890053
Outer Membrane Proteins
0.48079053
SOS Response
0.45554438
Cold Shock Response
0.42405364
Heat Shock Response
0.4028203
0.51990676
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Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Induction of the SOS response after HP shock. Cells of MG1655 containing a reporter plasmid with the promoter of fused to the green fluorescent protein gene were either left untreated (A and B) or shocked by HP (100 MPa, 15 min, 20°C) (C and D). After treatment, cultures were incubated for 3 h at 37°C and subsequently analyzed by both phase-contrast (A and C) and epifluorescence (B and D) microscopy. While untreated cells display no fluorescence (B), cells of the HP-shocked sample clearly show expression of green fluorescent protein driven by the promoter (D).

Citation: Aertsen A, Michiels C. 2008. Cellular Impact of Sublethal Pressures on , p 87-100. In Michiels C, Bartlett D, Aersten A (ed), High-Pressure Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815646.ch5
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Cells of wild-type MG1655 and its isogenic knockout mutants deprived of Mrr , Lon , or both Lon and Mrr were either left untreated (control) or shocked by UV (0.1 kJ/m) or HP (100 MPa, 15 min, 20°C). After treatment, cultures were incubated for 3 h at 37°C and subsequently analyzed by phase-contrast microscopy. Compared to wild-type cells, cells display an exaggerated filamentation when exposed to SOS-inducing treatments such as UV or HP shock. Please note that the Mrr protein specifically affects the SOS response induced by HP while leaving the UV response unaltered. Adapted from reference .

Citation: Aertsen A, Michiels C. 2008. Cellular Impact of Sublethal Pressures on , p 87-100. In Michiels C, Bartlett D, Aersten A (ed), High-Pressure Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815646.ch5
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Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Cells of wild-type MG1655 and its isogenic knockout mutants deprived of Lon, SulA, or both Lon and SulA were treated with different pressures (15 min, 20°C) and survival was expressed as log CFU per milliliter. Due to exaggerated filamentation after HP treatment, cells are hypersensitive to HP, unless they are rescued by inactivating the gene. Adapted from reference .

Citation: Aertsen A, Michiels C. 2008. Cellular Impact of Sublethal Pressures on , p 87-100. In Michiels C, Bartlett D, Aersten A (ed), High-Pressure Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815646.ch5
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Image of Figure 4.
Figure 4.

Induction of prophage λ (A), H-19B (B), and 933W (C) in corresponding lysogens of MG1655 by HP shock (100 MPa, 15 min, 20°C). The evolution of phage particle count (log PFU per milliliter) in untreated and HP-treated cultures over time is shown. Phage H-19B and 933W are lamboid phages carrying the genes for Stx1 and Stx2, respectively. Please note that the drop in PFU of phage 933W per milliliter directly after HP treatment is due to the pronounced HP sensitivity of the phage particle. Adapted from references and .

Citation: Aertsen A, Michiels C. 2008. Cellular Impact of Sublethal Pressures on , p 87-100. In Michiels C, Bartlett D, Aersten A (ed), High-Pressure Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815646.ch5
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