1887

Chapter 6 : Cytopathic Properties of HIV

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Cytopathic Properties of HIV, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815653/9781555813932_Chap06-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815653/9781555813932_Chap06-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter reviews various processes associated with the cytopathic effects of HIV. Besides cell:cell fusion, the cytopathology and cell death that occur during acute HIV infection in vitro can be associated with an accumulation of unintegrated viral DNA in the cytoplasm of the cells. Importantly, some studies suggest that the HIV envelope can facilitate virus replication within CD4 cells without inducing an activation state. HIV induces cell:cell fusion by an interaction of its envelope gp120 with CD4. Coreceptors on the cell surface may help in enabling this virus envelope:cell membrane fusion, which involves gp41 and can result in cell death. Accumulation of viral extrachromosomal DNA can be responsible for cell death. HIV infection can be associated with apoptosis, resulting from the direct action of viral proteins (e.g., Nef, Vpu, Vpr, and Tat), gp120 binding to the CD4 molecule, disorders in antigen-presenting cells, and superantigens. HIV gp120 and Vpr can cause apoptosis of CD4cells by blocking replication at the G stage of the cell cycle. Superantigens can play a role in up-regulating cell replication and inducing cell activation associated with apoptosis. A portion of gp120 can serve as a superantigen for VH3 B cells and thus could induce some of the B-cell responses observed in HIV infection.

Citation: Levy J. 2007. Cytopathic Properties of HIV, p 133-148. In HIV and the Pathogenesis of AIDS, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815653.ch06

Key Concept Ranking

MHC Class I
0.4638624
MHC Class II
0.4638624
T Cell Receptor
0.4638624
MHC Class I
0.4638624
MHC Class II
0.4638624
T Cell Receptor
0.4638624
MHC Class II
0.4638624
T Cell Receptor
0.4638624
0.4638624
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 6.1
Figure 6.1

Multinucleated giant cells formed by cell:cell fusion during acute infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells by HIV-1. Balloon degeneration of the cells is also evident. Phase microscopy; magnification, ×80.

Citation: Levy J. 2007. Cytopathic Properties of HIV, p 133-148. In HIV and the Pathogenesis of AIDS, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815653.ch06
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 6.2
Figure 6.2

Membrane permeability changes resulting from HIV infection. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were infected with HIV strains with different cyto-pathic effects (CPE), and the influx of radioactive potassium (K) was measured by standard procedures. A correlation of cytopathology with a greater ingress of K was noted. UC1 is from a relatively noncytopathic HIV-2 isolate (1231). Experiments conducted with R. Garry.

Citation: Levy J. 2007. Cytopathic Properties of HIV, p 133-148. In HIV and the Pathogenesis of AIDS, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815653.ch06
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 6.3
Figure 6.3

Processes of cell death. The sequential ultrastructural changes occurring in apoptosis and necrosis are shown. In apoptosis (right), a normal cell undergoes compaction and segregation of chromatin into sharply delineated masses that lie against the nuclear envelope. Condensation of the cytoplasm and convolution of the nuclear and cellular outlines occur. Rapid progression of the process is associated within minutes with nuclear fragmentation, marked convolution of the cellular surface, and the development of pedunculative protuberances. The protuberances then separate to produce membrane-bound apoptotic bodies which are phagocytized and digested by macrophages. In necrosis (left), chromatin is clumped into ill-defined masses and gross volume organelles, and folliculin densities appear in the matrix. Membranes break down and the cell disintegrates at the late stages. Figure modified from reference 2163 with permission.

Citation: Levy J. 2007. Cytopathic Properties of HIV, p 133-148. In HIV and the Pathogenesis of AIDS, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815653.ch06
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 6.4
Figure 6.4

Activation-induced apoptosis in human CD4 peripheral blood T lymphocytes following CD4 ligation by anti-CD4 antibody or by anti-gp120. (A) Agarose gel elec-trophoresis of total DNA after treatment of cells with anti-T-cell receptor (anti-TCR) (lane 2), with gp120 cross-linked with polyclonal anti-gp120 antibody and then incubated with anti-TCR (lane 3), with 500 rads of gamma radiation (lane 4), and with gp120 cross-linked with polyclonal anti-gp120 (lane 5). Lane 1 shows untreated cells. The typical ladder pattern of DNA digestion associated with apoptosis is observed only after gamma irradiation and the cross-linking experiments conducted with anti-gp120 and anti-TCR antibodies. (B) Ultrastructural morphology of apoptotic T cells induced by ligation of the TCR after gp120:CD4 interaction. (a) Untreated CD4 cells; (b and c) CD4 T cells treated with the re-combinant chimeric protein gp120 plus antibody to gp120 and then incubated with anti-TCR. No apoptotic cells were seen in the control sample (a). Apoptosis in its early (b) and late (c) stages was observed in the treated samples. Bar, 1 μm. Figure provided by T. Finkel. Reproduced in part from (235). Copyright 1992 The Rockefeller University Press.

Citation: Levy J. 2007. Cytopathic Properties of HIV, p 133-148. In HIV and the Pathogenesis of AIDS, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815653.ch06
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 6.5
Figure 6.5

Cell killing by noncytopathic HIV-1 isolates. A proposed mechanism for indirect loss of CD4 cells is shown. HIV-1 infection of macrophages can lead to the production of cytokines (e.g., tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]) that can induce programmed cell death (apoptosis) of CD4 cells (infected or uninfected) (835). Moreover, the loss of interleukin-1 (IL-1) production by infected macrophages (1209, 3830) can cause apoptosis of CD4 cells, particularly in the presence of antigen. In some cases, infection of CD4 cells may increase this process of programmed cell death. Reprinted from reference 2520 with permission.

Citation: Levy J. 2007. Cytopathic Properties of HIV, p 133-148. In HIV and the Pathogenesis of AIDS, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815653.ch06
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815653.ch06

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 6.1

Possible mechanisms of cytopathology by HIV or its proteins

Citation: Levy J. 2007. Cytopathic Properties of HIV, p 133-148. In HIV and the Pathogenesis of AIDS, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815653.ch06
Generic image for table
Table 6.2

Factors influencing cell:cell fusion in HIV infection

Citation: Levy J. 2007. Cytopathic Properties of HIV, p 133-148. In HIV and the Pathogenesis of AIDS, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815653.ch06
Generic image for table
Table 6.3

Viral proteins that can be cytotoxic

Citation: Levy J. 2007. Cytopathic Properties of HIV, p 133-148. In HIV and the Pathogenesis of AIDS, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815653.ch06
Generic image for table
Table 6.4

Causes of apoptosis in HIV infection

Citation: Levy J. 2007. Cytopathic Properties of HIV, p 133-148. In HIV and the Pathogenesis of AIDS, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815653.ch06
Generic image for table
Table 6.5

Effect of cytokines on CD4 cell and CD8 cell apoptosis

Citation: Levy J. 2007. Cytopathic Properties of HIV, p 133-148. In HIV and the Pathogenesis of AIDS, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815653.ch06

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error