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Chapter 102 : Growth of in Nonsterilized, Naturally Contaminated Bathing Water in a System that Circulates the Water

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Growth of in Nonsterilized, Naturally Contaminated Bathing Water in a System that Circulates the Water, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

In recent years, many public bathhouses introduced bathing water circulating systems for extended use, in which a sand filtration unit was installed. However, this resulted in several large scale outbreaks of legionellosis due to the microbiologically insufficient maintenance of the bathing facilities. Occurrence of in bathing water circulating systems, appears to be common and is a serious public health concern in Japan. The authors constructed a life-size model plant of a bathing water circulating system for the simulation experiment. These experiments are aimed at monitoring changes in the microbial constituents, especially a possible occurrence of in a bathing water circulating system, and developing preventive measures and intervention strategies. As a result of experiment 1, was detected in both the bathing water and the filter water at concentrations of 6.6 X 10 CFU/100 ml on the 3rd day after residual chlorine disappeared. The number of amoebae in the filter water fluctuated and amounted to 12 cells/ml at the end of the experiment. In the experiments, it was clearly demonstrated that occurred in the bathing water circulating system within a short period in a sequential manner of microbial growth. Namely, concentration of organic matter (dirt) in the bathing water can be monitored as the KMnO consumption value increased in correlation to the number of bathers. The deposited dirt allows bacteria to rapidly undergo multiplication in the bathing water, which consequently supports the occurrence of a large number of host amoebae.

Citation: Ohata K, Sugiyama K, Suzuki M, Shimogawara R, Izumiyama S, Yagita K, Endo T. 2006. Growth of in Nonsterilized, Naturally Contaminated Bathing Water in a System that Circulates the Water, p 431-435. In Cianciotto N, Kwaik Y, Edelstein P, Fields B, Geary D, Harrison T, Joseph C, Ratcliff R, Stout J, Swanson M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815660.ch102

Key Concept Ranking

Escherichia coli
0.50961536
Sodium Hypochlorite
0.4513265
Water
0.4077322
0.50961536
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

A system that circulates bathing water of the model plant. The pointed arrows show the flow of the circulating water.

Citation: Ohata K, Sugiyama K, Suzuki M, Shimogawara R, Izumiyama S, Yagita K, Endo T. 2006. Growth of in Nonsterilized, Naturally Contaminated Bathing Water in a System that Circulates the Water, p 431-435. In Cianciotto N, Kwaik Y, Edelstein P, Fields B, Geary D, Harrison T, Joseph C, Ratcliff R, Stout J, Swanson M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815660.ch102
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

The growth of etc. in the bathing water (A) and the filter water (B) in experiment 1. For 10 days about 16 volunteers took baths under the system with chlorine control, in which the chlorine injector was turned off. After that, five volunteers took baths, and the ultraviolet irradiation was turned off (day 0). The bathing water was circulated under nonsterilization (1st to 23rd days). At the end of the experiment (23rd day) the whole system was sterilized by 10 ppm sodium hypochloride solution. From the day when the chlorine injector was turned off, there was microbial monitoring for the number of , total viable bacterial counts, heterotrophic bacteria, and free-living amoebae.

Citation: Ohata K, Sugiyama K, Suzuki M, Shimogawara R, Izumiyama S, Yagita K, Endo T. 2006. Growth of in Nonsterilized, Naturally Contaminated Bathing Water in a System that Circulates the Water, p 431-435. In Cianciotto N, Kwaik Y, Edelstein P, Fields B, Geary D, Harrison T, Joseph C, Ratcliff R, Stout J, Swanson M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815660.ch102
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

The growth of etc. in the bathing water (A) and the filter water (B) in experiment 2. For 14 days about 40 volunteers took baths under the system with chlorine control, in which the chlorine injector was turned off. After that, three volunteers took baths (0 to 1st days) and the ultraviolet irradiation was turned off (2nd day). The bathing water was circulated under nonsterilization (3rd to 31st days). After bathing water was exchanged (31st day), it was recirculated (31st to 36th days). At the end of the experiment (36th day) the whole system was sterilized with 6% H2O2. From the day when the chlorine injector was turned off, there was microbial monitoring for the number of , total viable bacterial counts, heterotrophic bacteria, and the amount of KMnO4 consumption.

Citation: Ohata K, Sugiyama K, Suzuki M, Shimogawara R, Izumiyama S, Yagita K, Endo T. 2006. Growth of in Nonsterilized, Naturally Contaminated Bathing Water in a System that Circulates the Water, p 431-435. In Cianciotto N, Kwaik Y, Edelstein P, Fields B, Geary D, Harrison T, Joseph C, Ratcliff R, Stout J, Swanson M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815660.ch102
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815660.ch102
1. Sugiyama, K.,, T. Nishio,, Y. Gouda,, Z. Fanfei,, K. Masuda, and, M. Akiyama. 2000. Relationship between Legionella contamination of environmental water and occurrence of legionellosis: an outbreak of legionellosis linked to bath water circulating through a filter and examinations. Bull. Shizuoka Inst. Environ. Hyg. 43:14.
2. Sugiyama, K.,, T. Okitsu,, H. Miyamoto, and, N. Nakamura. 1996. Contamination and disinfection of Legionella in bath waters of recirculating systems at homes and large-scale bathing facilities. Bull. Shizuoka Inst. Environ. Hyg. 39:4752

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