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Chapter 123 : Temperature Regimens versus Ionization and TMVs

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Temperature Regimens versus Ionization and TMVs, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Thermal eradication of bacteria (superheat and flush) is only a temporary palliative when levels pose an immediate problem. bacteria are inhibited at 60°C (140°F), but it may be very difficult to maintain this water temperature throughout the system due to heat loss from the pipes, as water frequently takes a long and tortuous path from leaving the heating system to its return via the hot water circulation loop. It has been shown that prior to fitting thermostatic mixing valves (TMVs) devices bacteria had been absent or in very low numbers, but following the installation of these devices, high levels of were detected at outlets. Treatment of the hot water may consist of raising the water temperature and/or injecting a chemical such as chlorine, chlorine dioxide, or nonchemical ionization. Micro-pore filters fitted to outlets and showers are very effective at preventing the dissemination of bacteria when present at outlets, particularly in sensitive areas such as intensive care units, operating theaters, and areas where patients have reduced immunity. TMVs were introduced to prevent the scalding of the aged and those unable to react quickly when presented with very hot water. If water temperatures can be reduced and protected by an effective biocidal regimen then the problems and cost associated with TMVs are avoided.

Citation: Hayes J. 2006. Temperature Regimens versus Ionization and TMVs, p 509-512. In Cianciotto N, Kwaik Y, Edelstein P, Fields B, Geary D, Harrison T, Joseph C, Ratcliff R, Stout J, Swanson M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815660.ch123

Key Concept Ranking

Chlorine Dioxide
0.54651165
Calcium Carbonate
0.4842019
Water
0.40773222
0.54651165
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Hot water circulation loop operating at 60°C with TMVs.

Citation: Hayes J. 2006. Temperature Regimens versus Ionization and TMVs, p 509-512. In Cianciotto N, Kwaik Y, Edelstein P, Fields B, Geary D, Harrison T, Joseph C, Ratcliff R, Stout J, Swanson M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815660.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Hot water circulation loop operating at 43°C with no TMV’s.

Citation: Hayes J. 2006. Temperature Regimens versus Ionization and TMVs, p 509-512. In Cianciotto N, Kwaik Y, Edelstein P, Fields B, Geary D, Harrison T, Joseph C, Ratcliff R, Stout J, Swanson M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815660.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Treatment of incoming water supply to cover both hot and cold water with proportional dosing (no TMVs).

Citation: Hayes J. 2006. Temperature Regimens versus Ionization and TMVs, p 509-512. In Cianciotto N, Kwaik Y, Edelstein P, Fields B, Geary D, Harrison T, Joseph C, Ratcliff R, Stout J, Swanson M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815660.ch123
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References

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1. Health & Safety Commission (UK). Approved Code of Practice and Guidance L8 2000, p. 48 (ISBN 0-7176-1772-6).
2. Gerba P. C., and, R. B. Thurman. 1989. The molecular mechanisms of copper and silver on disinfection of bacteria and viruses. CRC Crit. Rev. Environ. Control 18:295315.
3. Kramer, S., and, S. Leung. 1997. Disinfection with Ozone. Water Technology Primer. Environmental Engineering Management, Civil Engineering Dept., Virginia Tech. http://ewr.cee.vt.edu/environmental/teach/wtprimer/ozone/ozone.html.
5. Lin Y.-S. E,, J. E. Stout,, V. L. Yu, and, R. D. Vidic. 1998. Disinfection of water distribution systems for legionella. Semin. Respir. Infect. Vol 13:147159.
6. Sheffer P. J.,, J. E. Stout,, M. M. Wagener, and, R. R. Muder. 2005. Efficacy of a new point of use water filter for preventing exposure to Legionella and water-borne bacteria. Am. J. Infect. Control 33:S20–S25.
7. Stout J. E, and, V. L. Yu. 1994. Controlled evaluation of copper-silver ionization in eradicating Legionella pneumophila from a hospital water distribution system. J. Infect. Dis. 169:919922.
8. Vonberg R. P.,, J. Bruderek, and, P. Gastmeier. 2004. The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA), Philadelphia P. A. Abstract 191.

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