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Chapter 130 : Preventing Legionellosis with Hazard Analysis and Control Systems

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Preventing Legionellosis with Hazard Analysis and Control Systems, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Most cases of legionellosis result from exposure to building water systems containing . There are two hazard analysis and control systems recommended for use today in legionellosis prevention: water safety plans (WSP) and hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) plans. Prevention of waterborne disease is most effectively achieved by use of hazard analysis and control systems. In its publication in preparation, Legionella , the use of the WSP hazard analysis and control system is highly promoted by the World Health Organization. For hazard analysis and control schemes to be useful, they must be practical, easy to develop and cost-effectively implemented. In France, the HACCP system was specified in 2005 as the preferred hazard analysis and control system for preventing legionellosis associated with cooling towers. Development of HACCP plans in the food processing/manufacturing industry is driven either by a legal mandate or by buyers of food who require suppliers to have such systems in place. In response to quantitatively documented success in the United States, the World Health Organization has adopted HACCP as the preferred recommended system for preventing food borne disease worldwide.

Citation: McCoy W. 2006. Preventing Legionellosis with Hazard Analysis and Control Systems, p 538-542. In Cianciotto N, Kwaik Y, Edelstein P, Fields B, Geary D, Harrison T, Joseph C, Ratcliff R, Stout J, Swanson M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815660.ch130

Key Concept Ranking

Foodborne Illnesses
0.41711468
Water
0.40773222
0.41711468
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Every facility should have a water management plan and budget. All facilities spend money to cover the cost of water, its disposal, and the costs of running utilities. Most facilities spend little or nothing for water safety.

Citation: McCoy W. 2006. Preventing Legionellosis with Hazard Analysis and Control Systems, p 538-542. In Cianciotto N, Kwaik Y, Edelstein P, Fields B, Geary D, Harrison T, Joseph C, Ratcliff R, Stout J, Swanson M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815660.ch130
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Schematic representation of the World Health Organization hazard control scheme ( ).

Citation: McCoy W. 2006. Preventing Legionellosis with Hazard Analysis and Control Systems, p 538-542. In Cianciotto N, Kwaik Y, Edelstein P, Fields B, Geary D, Harrison T, Joseph C, Ratcliff R, Stout J, Swanson M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815660.ch130
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Steps in the development of a WSP as recommended by the World Health Organization. Text in bold indicates key concepts in the WSP hazard analysis and control system.

Citation: McCoy W. 2006. Preventing Legionellosis with Hazard Analysis and Control Systems, p 538-542. In Cianciotto N, Kwaik Y, Edelstein P, Fields B, Geary D, Harrison T, Joseph C, Ratcliff R, Stout J, Swanson M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815660.ch130
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Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815660.ch130
1. Angelillo, I. F.,, N. M. Viggiani,, R. M. Greco, and, D. Rito. 2001. HACCP and food hygiene in hospitals: knowledge, attitudes, and practices of food-services staff in Calabria, Italy. Collaborative Group. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 22:363369.
2. Dewettinck, T.,, E. Van Houtte,, D. Geenens,, K. Van Hege, and, W. Verstraete. 2001. HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control points) to guarantee safe water reuse and drinking water production: a case study. Water Sci. Technol. 43: 3138.
3. Horman A.,, R. Rimhanen-Finne,, L. Maun-ula,, C. H. von Bonsdorff,, J. Rapala,, K. Lahti, and, M. L. Hanninen. 2004. Evaluation of the purification capacity of nine portable, small-scale water purification devices. Water Sci. Technol. 50: 179183.
4. Howard, G. 2003. Water safety plans for small systems: a model for applying HACCP concepts for cost-effective monitoring in developing countries. Water Sci. Technol. 47: 215-220.
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6. Kistemann, T.,, S. Herbst,, F. Dangendorf, and, M. Exner. 2001. GIS-based analysis of drinking-water supply structures: a module for microbial risk assessment. Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health 203: 301310.
7. Ministère de l'Écologie et du Développement Durable. 2005. Guide méthodologique pour la Réalisation d’une Analyse de Risque de Prolifération de Légionelles dans les Installations de Refroidissement par Dispersion d’Eau dans un Flux d’Air. Ministère de l'Écologie et du Développement Durable, République Française. www1.environnement.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/GUIDEWEB_analyse_de_risque_de_proliferation_des_legionelles.pdf.
8. Nadebaum, P.,, M. Chapman,, S. Ortisi, and, A. Baker. 2003 Application of quality management systems for drinking water quality Water Supply 3:359364.
9. Westrell, T.,, C. Schonning,, T. A. Stenstrom, and, N. J. Ashbolt. 2004. QMRA (quantitative microbial risk assessment) and HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control points) for management of pathogens in wastewater and sewage sludge treatment and reuse. Water Sci. Technol. 50: 2330.
10. WHO (World Health Organization). 2004. Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, 3rd ed., chapter 4. World Health Organization.

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