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Chapter 24 : Legionnaires’ Disease in Europe 1995-2004: A Ten-Year Review

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Legionnaires’ Disease in Europe 1995-2004: A Ten-Year Review, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

The European surveillance scheme for travel-associated Legionnaires’ disease (EWGLINET) supports ongoing microbiological research and development for improved laboratory detection of clinical and environmental sources of infection using standardized methods within European countries. Adherence to the EWGLI guidelines, introduced in 2002, for control and prevention of travel-associated cases of Legionnaires’ disease is leading to greater protection of travelers in all European countries. This review covers EWGLINET’s role in the collection of national legionella data that enables trends over time at the aggregate level to be studied as well as historical trends within and between European countries. It covers the 10-year period 1995 to 2004 and mainly focuses on trends in aggregate data. The European data set from contributing countries between 1995 and 2004 is composed of 27,244 cases of Legionnaires’ disease. Community-acquired cases comprise the largest proportion of cases in Europe, at 38% overall, but vary from year to year depending on the number and size of reported outbreaks. This short review of surveillance data on cases of Legionnaires’ disease in Europe has mainly focused on descriptive aggregated data for the period 1995 to 2004. Major differences between countries in number of cases, category of exposure, number and range of outbreaks, and methods of diagnosis can only be highlighted rather than examined in depth. All countries with data in this review acknowledge the importance of international collaborations since these also benefit microbiological and epidemiological developments at the national level.

Citation: A. Joseph C, D. Ricketts* K. 2006. Legionnaires’ Disease in Europe 1995-2004: A Ten-Year Review, p 89-93. In Cianciotto N, Kwaik Y, Edelstein P, Fields B, Geary D, Harrison T, Joseph C, Ratcliff R, Stout J, Swanson M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815660.ch24

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Legionella pneumophila
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Legionella
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References

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1. Anonymous. 1997. Legionnaires’ disease in Europe, 1996. Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 72:253–260.
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7. Helbig, J. H.,, S. A. Uldum,, S. Bernander,, P. C. Luck,, G. Wewalka,, W. Abraham,, V. Gaia, and, T. G. Harrison. 2003. Clinical utility of urinary antigen detection for diagnosis of community-acquired, travel-associated and nosocomial Legionnaires’ disease. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:838840.
8. Joseph, C. A.,, J. V. Lee,, J. Van Wijngaarten,, M. Castellani Pastoris, and, V. Drasar on behalf of the European Working Group for Legionella Infections. 2002. European Guidelines for Control and Prevention of Travel Associated Legionnaires’ Disease. Public Health Laboratory Service, London and http://www.ewgli.org.
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10. Joseph, C. A. 2002. New outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease in the United Kingdom. Editorial. Br. Med. J. 325:347348.
11. Ricketts, K. D. and, C. A. Joseph on behalf of the European Working Group for Legionella Infections. 2005. Legionnaires’ Disease in Europe 2003-2004. http://www.eurosurveillance.org/em/v10n12/1012-226.asp.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1a

Total reported cases and rate per million population, 1995 to 2004

Citation: A. Joseph C, D. Ricketts* K. 2006. Legionnaires’ Disease in Europe 1995-2004: A Ten-Year Review, p 89-93. In Cianciotto N, Kwaik Y, Edelstein P, Fields B, Geary D, Harrison T, Joseph C, Ratcliff R, Stout J, Swanson M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815660.ch24
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Cases and proportion by category of infection, 1995 to 2004

Citation: A. Joseph C, D. Ricketts* K. 2006. Legionnaires’ Disease in Europe 1995-2004: A Ten-Year Review, p 89-93. In Cianciotto N, Kwaik Y, Edelstein P, Fields B, Geary D, Harrison T, Joseph C, Ratcliff R, Stout J, Swanson M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815660.ch24
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Cases and proportion by main method of diagnosis, 1995 to 2004

Citation: A. Joseph C, D. Ricketts* K. 2006. Legionnaires’ Disease in Europe 1995-2004: A Ten-Year Review, p 89-93. In Cianciotto N, Kwaik Y, Edelstein P, Fields B, Geary D, Harrison T, Joseph C, Ratcliff R, Stout J, Swanson M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815660.ch24

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