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Chapter 36 : Distribution of Genotypes in Patients and Environmental Sources

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Distribution of Genotypes in Patients and Environmental Sources, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Legionellae are part of the microbial community of aquatic ecosystems, natural as well as man-made, which explains why legionellosis occurs worldwide. In many countries Legionnaires’ disease is a notifiable disease. This chapter presents the preliminary results of the distribution of genotypes cultured from patients and environmental sources. Between August 2002 and September 2005, sero- and genotyping of 130 patient isolates and 220 environmental isolates showed that 98% of the patient strains were from the genus. The genotypes 004 Lyon and 010 London, responsible for almost one-third of all Legionnaires’ disease patients in the authors' study period in The Netherlands, were not found in the environmental samples collected from the potential sources that resulted from the structured interviews according to the questionnaires. The preliminary results of the study indicate that systematic collection and sampling gives insight to the distribution of the genus and to serotypes and genotypes in humans and in the environment. Based on the findings, actions in The Netherlands should be more aggressive for the European Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLI) genotypes 004 Lyon and 010 London. Legionellae are capable of infecting humans by aerosol inhalation or by drinking and subsequent aspiration of water.

Citation: Yzerman E, P. Bruin J, W. den Boer J, P. Verhoef L, W. van der Zwaluw K. 2006. Distribution of Genotypes in Patients and Environmental Sources, p 135-138. In Cianciotto N, Kwaik Y, Edelstein P, Fields B, Geary D, Harrison T, Joseph C, Ratcliff R, Stout J, Swanson M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815660.ch36

Key Concept Ranking

Legionella pneumophila
0.5909091
Aquatic Microbial Communities
0.44403017
0.5909091
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Figures

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FIGURE 1

Distribution of serogroup 1 isolates from patients and the environment in EWGLI genotypes (%). 1, 001 Lugano; 2, 001 Lugano/028 Rome; 3, 003 Glasgow; 4, 004 Lyon; 5, 005 Rome; 6, 006 Copenhagen; 7, 008 Stockholm; 8, 009 London; 9, 010 London; 10, 015 Dresden; 11, 017 Lugano; 12, 013 London/030 Stockholm; 13, 020 Rome; 14, 028 Rome; 15, 029 London; 16, not yet designated.

Citation: Yzerman E, P. Bruin J, W. den Boer J, P. Verhoef L, W. van der Zwaluw K. 2006. Distribution of Genotypes in Patients and Environmental Sources, p 135-138. In Cianciotto N, Kwaik Y, Edelstein P, Fields B, Geary D, Harrison T, Joseph C, Ratcliff R, Stout J, Swanson M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815660.ch36
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References

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1. Anonymous. 2002. European Working Group for Legionella Infections. Part 2. Definitions and Procedures for Reporting and Responding to Cases of Travel Associated Legionnaires’ Disease, p. 1520. In European Guidelines for Control and Prevention of Travel Associated Legionnaires’ Disease. PHLS, London and http://www.ewgli.org.
2. Bohte, R.,, R. van Furth, and, P. J. van den Broek. 1995. Aetiology of community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective study among adults requiring admission to hospital. Thorax 50:543547.
3. Den Boer, J. W.,, I. H. Friesema, and, J. D. Hooi. 2002. Reported cases of Legionella pneumonia in the Netherlands, 1987-2000. Ned. Tijdschr. Geneeskd. 146:315320.
4. Fry, N. K.,, J. M. Bangsborg,, A. Bergmans,, S. Bernander,, J. Etienne,, L. Franzin,, V. Gaia,, P. Hasenberger,, B. Baladron Jimenez,, D. Jonas,, D. Lindsay,, S. Mentula,, A. Papoutsi,, M. Struelens,, S. A. Uldum,, P. Visca,, W. Wannet, and, T. G. Harrison. 2002. Designation of the European Working Group on Legionella Infection (EWGLI) amplified fragment length polymorphism types of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 and results of intercentre proficiency testing using a standard protocol. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 21:722728.
5. Marston, B. J.,, H. B. Lipman, and, R. F. Breiman. 1994. Surveillance for Legionnaires’ disease. Risk factors for morbidity and mortality. Arch. Intern. Med. 154:24172422.
6. Vegelin, A.L.,, P. Bissumbhar,, J. C. Joore,, J. W. Lammers, and, I. M. Hoepelman. 1999. Guidelines for severe community-acquired pneumonia in the western world. Neth. J. Med. 55:110117.

Tables

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TABLE 1

Distribution of strains from patients and the environment in serogroups (sg)

Citation: Yzerman E, P. Bruin J, W. den Boer J, P. Verhoef L, W. van der Zwaluw K. 2006. Distribution of Genotypes in Patients and Environmental Sources, p 135-138. In Cianciotto N, Kwaik Y, Edelstein P, Fields B, Geary D, Harrison T, Joseph C, Ratcliff R, Stout J, Swanson M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815660.ch36

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