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Chapter 65 : Acetylation of Lipopolysaccharide

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Acetylation of Lipopolysaccharide, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter determines whether developmental changes in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) affect the ability of to alter phagosome maturation. Modifications of the LPS of serogroup 1 strains have been correlated to virulence and serum sensitivity. Spontaneous mutants lacking the gene lose reactivity with MAb 3/1, and expression of the gene in trans restores MAb 3/1 reactivity as well as acetyltransferase activity. To test whether acetylation of the O-antigen affects phagosome maturation, the authors constructed a mutant and compared its fate in murine macrophages to a wild-type serogroup 1 strain (Lp02). Thus, the authors examined any -specific effects by also analyzing a double mutant in addition to a single mutant. The authors first investigated whether the LPS of the mutant differed from wild type by using immunofluorescence, Western blot, and bacterial adherence to hydrocarbon (BATH) assays. Cytotoxicity was determined by analyzing macrophage viability after a 1-h incubation with bacteria at a high multiplicity of infection. Accordingly, their working model is that, by acetylating its LPS during the replicative phase, intracellular bacteria release the inhibition to fusion with endosomal vacuoles while increasing their resistance to lysosomal enzymes. By modifying the pathogen’s surface according to growth phase, the LPS armor can alternately contribute both to transmission and to replication within key defenders of the human immune system.

Citation: N. Whitfield N, S. Swanson M. 2006. Acetylation of Lipopolysaccharide, p 265-268. In Cianciotto N, Kwaik Y, Edelstein P, Fields B, Geary D, Harrison T, Joseph C, Ratcliff R, Stout J, Swanson M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815660.ch65

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Type IV Secretion Systems
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Figures

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FIGURE 1

Model for role of LPS acetylation of in lysosomal evasion. E, exponential growth phase; PE, postexponential growth phase.

Citation: N. Whitfield N, S. Swanson M. 2006. Acetylation of Lipopolysaccharide, p 265-268. In Cianciotto N, Kwaik Y, Edelstein P, Fields B, Geary D, Harrison T, Joseph C, Ratcliff R, Stout J, Swanson M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815660.ch65
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References

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1. Byrne, B., and, M. S. Swanson. 1998. Expression of Legionella pneumophila virulence traits in response to growth conditions. Infect. Immun. 66:30293034.
2. Fernandez-Moreira, E.,, J. H. Helbig, and, M. S. Swanson. Membrane vesicles shed by Legionella pneumophila inhibit fusion of phagosomes with lysosomes. Infect. Immun. 74:32853295.
3. Kooistra, O.,, E. Luneberg,, B. Lindner,, Y. A. Knirel,, M. Frosch, and, U. Zahringer. 2001. Complex O-acetylation in Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 lipopolysaccharide. Evidence for two genes involved in 8-O-acetylation of legion-aminic acid. Biochemistry 40:76307640.
4. Luck, P. C.,, T. Freier,, C. Steudel,, Y. A. Knirel,, E. Luneberg,, U. Zahringer, and, J. H. Helbig. 2001. A point mutation in the active site of Le-gionella pneumophila O-acetyltransferase results in modified lipopolysaccharide but does not influence virulence. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 291:345352.
5. Luneberg, E.,, U. Zahringer,, Y. A. Knirel,, D. Steinmann,, M. Hartmann,, I. Steinmetz,, M. Rohde,, J. Kohl, and, M. Frosch. 1998. Phasevariable expression of lipopolysaccharide contributes to the virulence of Legionella pneumophila. J. Exp. Med. 188:4960.
6. Molofsky, A. B., and, M. S. Swanson. 2004. Differentiate to thrive: lessons from the Legionella pneumophila life cycle. Mol. Microbiol. 53:2940.
7. Sexton, J. A., and, J. P. Vogel. 2002. Type IVB secretion by intracellular pathogens. Traffic 3:178185.
8. Sturgill-Koszycki, S., and, M. S. Swanson. 2000. Legionella pneumophila replication vacuoles mature into acidic, endocytic organelles. J. Exp. Med. 192:12611272.
9. Swanson, M. S., and, E. Fernandez-Moreira. 2002. A microbial strategy to multiply in macrophages: the pregnant pause. Traffic 3:170177.
10. Zou, C. H.,, Y. A. Knirel,, J. H. Helbig,, U. Zahringer, and, C. S. Mintz. 1999. Molecular cloning and characterization of a locus responsible for O acetylation of the O polysaccharide of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 lipopolysac-charide. J. Bacteriol. 181:41374141.

Tables

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TABLE 1

Effect of acetylation on growth phase-regulated phenotypes of

Citation: N. Whitfield N, S. Swanson M. 2006. Acetylation of Lipopolysaccharide, p 265-268. In Cianciotto N, Kwaik Y, Edelstein P, Fields B, Geary D, Harrison T, Joseph C, Ratcliff R, Stout J, Swanson M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815660.ch65

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