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Chapter 67 : Contribution of Surface to the Pregnant Pause Virulence Strategy

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Contribution of Surface to the Pregnant Pause Virulence Strategy, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

has a complex life cycle composed of at least three developmental states, each characterized by a different cell type: the replicative, transmissive, and mature intracellular forms. This chapter talks about how during its life cycle in mouse macrophages first delays and then exploits phagosomelysosome fusion, a virulence strategy that the authors have named “the pregnant pause’’. The authors tested whether these vesicles retain the same surface properties and activities as whole microbes. Specifically, the hypothesis that releases LPS-rich vesicles that arrest phagosome maturation while also remodeling the bacterial surface during differentiation to the replicative form, was also tested. Vesicles shed by or into broth were purified by gradient ultracentrifugation. As it differentiates to the transmissive form, gains the capacity to inhibit phagosome maturation and also alters the composition of the glycoconjugates on its surface. Like , fills its phagosome with membrane vesicles. The O-chain of LPS is a homopolymer of legionaminic acid, a unique sugar structurally similar to sialic acid whose striking features are the lack of free hydroxyl groups and a high degree of O-acetylation. During this pregnant pause, alters the composition of its LPS not only to release the block to fusion but also to tolerate the harsh conditions of the lysosomal compartment, which the progeny exploit as a source of nutrients and membrane to support proliferation.

Citation: Fernandez-Moreira E, H. Helbig J, S. Swanson M. 2006. Contribution of Surface to the Pregnant Pause Virulence Strategy, p 274-277. In Cianciotto N, Kwaik Y, Edelstein P, Fields B, Geary D, Harrison T, Joseph C, Ratcliff R, Stout J, Swanson M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815660.ch67

Key Concept Ranking

Escherichia coli
0.59560394
Legionella pneumophila
0.59560394
Escherichia coli
0.59560394
Legionella pneumophila
0.59560394
Escherichia coli
0.59560394
Legionella pneumophila
0.59560394
0.59560394
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

vesicles inhibit delivery of phagocytosed particles to lysosomes. (A) Membrane vesicles shed by WT broth cultures were isolated by their buoyant density on an Optiprep gradient and visualized by negative staining. Bar = 100 nm. The diagram (not to scale) illustrates that vesicles were attached to 1-ixm polystyrene beads (white) before their delivery to macrophages. (B) When coated with vesicles isolated from WT or mutant cultures, most of the beads are in arrested phagosomes, as they do not colocalize with lysosomal FDx. (C) When polystyrene beads are bound to mutant or K-12 vesicles, they typically colocalize with lysosomal FDx.

Citation: Fernandez-Moreira E, H. Helbig J, S. Swanson M. 2006. Contribution of Surface to the Pregnant Pause Virulence Strategy, p 274-277. In Cianciotto N, Kwaik Y, Edelstein P, Fields B, Geary D, Harrison T, Joseph C, Ratcliff R, Stout J, Swanson M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815660.ch67
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

The ability of membrane vesicles to inhibit phagosome maturation is developmentally regulated. (A) Vesicles purified from PE WT or cultures inhibit phagosome maturation as well as transmissive phase cells, but vesicles from PE or cultures do not. In addition to inhibiting phagosome maturation, vesicle release would also remodel the surface as it differentiates from the transmissive to the replicative form. (B) At the transition from E phase (OD < 2.0) to PE phase (OD 3.0 to 4.0), WT and mutant differentiate to the transmissive form, but regulatory mutants do not.

Citation: Fernandez-Moreira E, H. Helbig J, S. Swanson M. 2006. Contribution of Surface to the Pregnant Pause Virulence Strategy, p 274-277. In Cianciotto N, Kwaik Y, Edelstein P, Fields B, Geary D, Harrison T, Joseph C, Ratcliff R, Stout J, Swanson M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815660.ch67
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References

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1. Fernandez-Moreira, E.,, J. H. Helbib, and, M. S. Swanson. 2006. Membrane vesicles shed by Legionella pneumophila inhibit fusion of phagosomes with lysosomes. Infect. Immun. 74:32853295.
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5. Joshi, A. D.,, S. Sturgill-Koszycki, and, M. S. Swanson. 2001. Evidence that Dot-dependent and -independent factors isolate the Legionella pneumophila phagosome from the endocytic network in mouse macrophages. Cell. Microbiol. 3:99114.
6. Molofsky, A. B., and, M. S. Swanson. 2004. Differentiate to thrive: lessons from the Legionella pneumophila life cycle. Mol. Microbiol. 53:2940.
7. Sauer, J. D.,, J. G. Shannon,, D. Howe,, S. F. Hayes,, M. S. Swanson, and, R. A. Heinzen. 2005. Specificity of Legionella pneumophila and Coxiella burnetii vacuoles and versatility of Le-gionella pneumophila revealed by coinfection. Infect. Immun. 73:44944504.
8. Sturgill-Koszycki, S., and, M. S. Swanson. 2000. Legionella pneumophila replication vacuoles mature into acidic, endocytic organelles. J. Exp. Med. 192:12611272.
9. Swanson, M. S., and, E. Fernandez-Moreira. 2002. A microbial strategy to multiply in macrophages: the pregnant pause. Traffic 3:170177.

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