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Chapter 72 : Interaction with the Ciliate May Predispose to Infect Human Cells

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Interaction with the Ciliate May Predispose to Infect Human Cells, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter aims at determining whether the interaction of with freshwater ciliates provides additional insights into the factors that may predispose to infect human cells. When ciliates feed on Philadelphia-1 strains Lp1-SVir and Lp02, the rate of pellet formation varies proportionally to the bacteria-to-ciliate ratio. The plaquing efficiency of isolated pellets was higher than that of free legionellae grown in vitro, an observation that could be accounted for by the fact that each pellet was actually formed by ~100 bacteria. The -mediated packaging of free legionellae into infectious units with a payload of ~100 bacteria may be an important predisposing factor in the infection of human cells. It should be remembered here that the intracellular replication of in cultured human macrophages is not conducive to the effective formation of mature intracellular form (MIFs). The authors specifically determined whether pelleted legionellae were more resistant to desiccation than free legionellae. The wells containing the dried legionellae were seeded with L929 cells in minimal essential medium. In summary, the interaction with ciliates may predispose to infect humans by packaging legionellae into respirable-size infectious units containing hundreds of MIFs, a process also associated with some environmental fitness advantages.

Citation: Garduño E, Faulkner G, A. Ortiz-Jimenez M, G. Berk S, A. Garduño R. 2006. Interaction with the Ciliate May Predispose to Infect Human Cells, p 297-300. In Cianciotto N, Kwaik Y, Edelstein P, Fields B, Geary D, Harrison T, Joseph C, Ratcliff R, Stout J, Swanson M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815660.ch72

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Transmission Electron Microscopy
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Figures

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FIGURE 1

Transmission electron micrograph of a sectioned specimen of sp., which had been feeding on strain Lp02 for 20 h. A partial view of a cell containing two legionellae-laden food vacuoles is seen on the top-left corner of the micrograph, whereas a partial view of an expelled pellet is seen on the bottom-right corner of the micrograph. Arrowheads point at MIFs with an irregular shape and dark cytoplasm. Arrows point at MIFs with large cytoplasmic inclusions. Size bar represents 2 μm.

Citation: Garduño E, Faulkner G, A. Ortiz-Jimenez M, G. Berk S, A. Garduño R. 2006. Interaction with the Ciliate May Predispose to Infect Human Cells, p 297-300. In Cianciotto N, Kwaik Y, Edelstein P, Fields B, Geary D, Harrison T, Joseph C, Ratcliff R, Stout J, Swanson M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815660.ch72
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References

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1. Berk, S. G.,, R. S. Ting,, G. W. Turner, and, R. J. Ashburn. 1998. Production of respirable vesicles containing live Legionella pneumophila cells by two Acanthamoeba spp. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:279286.
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Tables

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TABLE 1

sp.-expelled pellets are 10-to 100-fold more infectious than stationary phase (agar-grown) free legionellae

Citation: Garduño E, Faulkner G, A. Ortiz-Jimenez M, G. Berk S, A. Garduño R. 2006. Interaction with the Ciliate May Predispose to Infect Human Cells, p 297-300. In Cianciotto N, Kwaik Y, Edelstein P, Fields B, Geary D, Harrison T, Joseph C, Ratcliff R, Stout J, Swanson M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815660.ch72

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