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Chapter 97 : Occurrence and Diversity of in Water Samples from the Brazilian Environment

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Occurrence and Diversity of in Water Samples from the Brazilian Environment, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

The diversity of sources and degree of bacterial contamination limit the use of a single method for the recovery of legionellae from environmental samples. In addition, direct fluorescence antibody (DFA) stain and coculture with axenic amoeba are important methods to detect legionellae at low concentrations. In this case, the procedures can be applied in environments with nutritional restriction and submitted to biocide treatment or extreme ranges of pH and temperature. This chapter talks about techniques used to screen the occurrence and diversity of strains from the aquatic environment in Brazil. Water samples were collected from the main reservoirs of Sao Paulo, dental units, and cooling towers and boilers from hospitals and industries. The nine isolates obtained in a study were identified as through the sequencing and comparison of the gene sequences deposited in the GenBank database. The phylogenetic tree obtained from the sequences of nine isolates from this study showed the presence of three distinct clusters and the diversity of the strains (BR strains). In addition, Sanden and collaborators reported that coculture of water samples with free-living amoebae for several days increased the recovery of spp., which was related to proliferation of amoebae in the samples. Detection of legionellae in environmental samples by using PCR and gene probes in conjunction with DFA staining was previously proposed.

Citation: R. S. Carvalho F, S. Foronda A, H. Pellizari V. 2006. Occurrence and Diversity of in Water Samples from the Brazilian Environment, p 414-416. In Cianciotto N, Kwaik Y, Edelstein P, Fields B, Geary D, Harrison T, Joseph C, Ratcliff R, Stout J, Swanson M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815660.ch97

Key Concept Ranking

Legionella pneumophila
0.82170886
Acanthamoeba castellanii
0.5277778
0.82170886
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Figures

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FIGURE 1

Phylogenetic tree showing distances based on the gene sequences (599 bp) among nine strains obtained in this work and sequences from GenBank (accession numbers in parentheses). The dendrogram was generated by using programs from MEGA software packages version 3.0. Bootstrap analyses were applied to the data, and the values obtained from 10 replications are represented at internal nodes.

Citation: R. S. Carvalho F, S. Foronda A, H. Pellizari V. 2006. Occurrence and Diversity of in Water Samples from the Brazilian Environment, p 414-416. In Cianciotto N, Kwaik Y, Edelstein P, Fields B, Geary D, Harrison T, Joseph C, Ratcliff R, Stout J, Swanson M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815660.ch97
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References

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1. Chedid, M. B. F.,, D. O. Ilha,, M. F. Chedid,, P. R. Dalcin,, M. Buzzetti,, P. J. Saraiva,, D. Griza, and, S. S. M. Barreto. 2005. Community-acquired pneumonia by Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1-6 in Brazil.
2. La Scola, B.,, L. Mezi,, P. J. Weiller, and, D. Raoult. 2001. Isolation of Legionella anisa using an amoebic coculture procedure. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:365366.
3. Paszko-Kolva, C.,, H. Yamamoto,, M. Sha-hamat, and, R. R. Cowel. 1993. Polymerase chain reaction, gene probe, and direct fluorescent antibody staining of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 in drinking water and environmental samples, p. 181183. In J. M. Barbaree,, R. F. Breiman, and, A. P. Dufour (ed.). Legionella: Current Status and Emerging Perspectives. ASM Press, Wash-ington, D. C.
4. Pellizari, V. H., and, M. T. Martins. 1995. Occurrence of Legionella sp in water samples from man-made systems of Sao Paulo—Brazil. Rev. Microbiol. 26:186191.
5. Pereira Gomes, J. C.,, N. A. Mazieri,, C. V. Godoy, and, S. R. Ados. 1990. Legionella pneumophila associated with acute respiratory insufficiency: first isolation in Brazil. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo 31:368376.
6. Ratcliff, R. M.,, J. A. Lanser,, P. A. Manning, and, M. W. Heuzenroeder. 1998. Sequence-based classification scheme for the genus Legionella targeting the mip gene. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:15601567.
7. Sanden, G. N.,, W. E. Morril,, B. S. Fields,, R. F. Breiman, and, J. M. Barbaree. 1992. Incubation of water samples containing amoebae improves detection of legionellae by the culture method. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:20012004.

Tables

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TABLE 1

Occurrence of spp. in environmental samples analyzed by different detection methods

Citation: R. S. Carvalho F, S. Foronda A, H. Pellizari V. 2006. Occurrence and Diversity of in Water Samples from the Brazilian Environment, p 414-416. In Cianciotto N, Kwaik Y, Edelstein P, Fields B, Geary D, Harrison T, Joseph C, Ratcliff R, Stout J, Swanson M (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815660.ch97

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