1887

7 The Frz Chemosensory System of

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

7 The Frz Chemosensory System of , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815677/9781555814205_Chap07-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815677/9781555814205_Chap07-2.gif

Abstract:

has attracted much scientific interest because of its complex life cycle and morphogenetic potential. Western blot analysis showed that vegetative cells are highly methylated (about 50% of FrzCD is methylated) but cells that are starved are relatively unmethylated. The methylation changes in FrzCD suggest that during aggregation, FrzCD senses a chemical(s) produced by other cells that promotes cell movements towards aggregation centers. S-motility in , like twitching motility in , has been shown to involve the extension and retraction of type IV pili localized at the leading cell pole. The stimulatory mutations blocked both vegetative swarming and developmental aggregation. The inhibitory mutations blocked developmental aggregation at low cell density, but not at high cell density, suggesting that specific methylation sites may be required for sensing low concentrations of developmental signals. The different phenotypes of the mutants observed in this study suggest that differential methylation could provide a potential signal input to the Frz chemosensory pathway. FrzS was also studied by constructing in-frame deletion mutants that express stable cryptic proteins; these mutants showed loss of function and/or distinct localization defects. Specifically, in-frame deletions of the pseudoreceiver domain, the coiled-coil domain, and a motif located at the very C terminus of the protein each resulted in aberrant localization and loss of function defects.

Citation: Zusman D, Inclán Y, Mignot T. 2008. 7 The Frz Chemosensory System of , p 123-132. In Whitworth D (ed), Myxobacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815677.ch7

Key Concept Ranking

Type IV Pili
0.4742679
0.4742679
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Developmental aggregation and vegetative swarming phenotypes of wild-type and mutants. Cells from wild-type strain DZ2 and Δ (, or ) mutants were concentrated to 4 × 10 CFU ml and spotted on CYE media containing 0.3% agar to analyze swarming or on CF agar (1.5%) to analyze fruiting body formation. The plates were examined under a dissecting microscope after 72 h of incubation at 32°C. The figure is modified from photographs published by .

Citation: Zusman D, Inclán Y, Mignot T. 2008. 7 The Frz Chemosensory System of , p 123-132. In Whitworth D (ed), Myxobacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815677.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

The operon contains genes that are homologous to proteins encoded by genes from the enteric bacteria.

Citation: Zusman D, Inclán Y, Mignot T. 2008. 7 The Frz Chemosensory System of , p 123-132. In Whitworth D (ed), Myxobacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815677.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815677.ch07
1. Arnold, J. W., and, L. J. Shimkets. 1988. Cell-surface properties correlated with cohesion in Myxococcus xanthus. J. Bacteriol. 170:57715777.
2. Astling, D. P. 2003. Novel Regulatory Mechanisms of a Chemotaxis Pathway in the Gliding Bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Ph.D. thesis. University of California, Berkeley.
3. Astling, D. P.,, J. Y. Lee, and, D. R. Zusman. 2006. Differential effects of chemoreceptor methylation-domain mutations on swarming and development in the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Mol. Microbiol. 59:4555.
4. Blackhart, B. D., and, D. R. Zusman. 1985. “Frizzy” genes of Myxococcus xanthus are involved in control of frequency of reversal of gliding motility. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82:87678770.
5. Bonner, P. J.,, Q. Xu,, W. P. Black,, Z. Li,, Z. Yang, and, L. J. Shimkets. 2005. The Dif chemosensory pathway is directly involved in phosphatidylethanolamine sensory transduction in Myxococcus xanthus. Mol. Microbiol. 57:14991508.
6. Bowden, M. G., and, H. B. Kaplan. 1998. The Myxococcus xanthus lipopolysaccharide O-antigen is required for social motility and multicellular development. Mol. Microbiol. 30:275284.
7. Bustamante, V. H.,, I. Martinez-Flores,, H. C. Vlamakis, and, D. R. Zusman. 2004. Analysis of the Frz signal transduction system of Myxococcus xanthus shows the importance of the conserved C-terminal region of the cytoplasmic chemoreceptor FrzCD in sensing signals. Mol. Microbiol. 53:15011513.
8. Dworkin, M., and, D. Eide. 1983. Myxococcus xanthus does not respond chemotactically to moderate concentration gradients. J. Bacteriol. 154:437442.
9. Fraser, J. S.,, J. P. Merlie, Jr.,, N. Nichols,, S. R. Westfield,, T. Mignot,, D. E. Wemmer,, D. R. Zusman, and, T. Alber. 2007. An atypical receiver domain controls the dynamic polar localization of the Myxococcus xanthus social motility protein FrzS. Mol. Microbiol. 65:317332.
10. Geng, Y.,, Y. Yang,, J. Downard,, D. Zusman, and, W. Shi. 1998. Methylation of FrzCD defines a discrete step in the developmental program of Myxococcus xanthus. J. Bacteriol. 180:57655768.
11. Hodgkin, J., and, D. Kaiser. 1979. Genetics of gliding motility in Myxococcus xanthus (Myxobacterales)—two gene systems control movement. Mol. Gen. Genet. 171:177191.
12. Igoshin, O. A.,, A. Goldbeter,, D. Kaiser, and, G. Oster. 2004. A biochemical oscillator explains several aspects of Myxococcus xanthus behavior during development. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:1576015765.
13. Inclán, Y. F.,, H. C. Vlamakis, and, D. R. Zusman. 2007. FrzZ, a dual CheY-like response regulator, fuctions as an output for the Frz chemosensory pathway of Myxococcus xanthus. Mol. Microbiol. 65:90102.
14. Kearns, D. B.,, P. J. Bonner,, D. R. Smith, and, L. J. Shimkets. 2002. An extracellular matrix-associated zinc metalloprotease is required for dilauroyl phosphatidylethanolamine chemotactic excitation in Myxococcus xanthus. J. Bacteriol. 184:16781684.
15. Klose, K. E.,, D. S. Weiss, and, S. Kustu. 1993. Glutamate at the site of phosphorylation of nitrogen-regulatory protein NTRC mimics aspartyl-phosphate and activates the protein. J. Mol. Biol. 232:6778.
16. Li,, Y.,, Y. Sun,, X. Ma,, A. Lu,, R. Lux,, D. Zusman, and, W. Shi. 2003. Extracellular polysaccharides mediate pilus retraction during social motility of Myxococcus xanthus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:54435448.
17. McBride, M. J. 2001. Bacterial gliding motility: multiple mechanisms for cell movement over surfaces. Annu. Rev. Micro-biol. 55:4975.
18. McBride, M. J.,, T. Kohler, and, D. R. Zusman. 1992. Methylation of FrzCD, a methyl-accepting taxis protein of Myxococcus xanthus, is correlated with factors affecting cell behavior. J. Bacteriol. 174:42464257.
19. McBride, M. J.,, R. A. Weinberg, and, D. R. Zusman. 1989. “Frizzy” aggregation genes of the gliding bacterium Myxococcus xanthus show sequence similarities to the chemotaxis genes of enteric bacteria. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:424428.
20. Mignot, T.,, T. P. Merlie, and, D. R. Zusman. 2005. Regulated pole-to-pole oscillations of a bacterial gliding motility protein. Science 310:855857.
21. Mignot, T.,, T. P. Merlie, Jr., and, D. R. Zusman. 2007a. Two localization motifs mediate polar residence of FrzS during cell movement and reversals of Myxococcus xanthus. Mol. Microbiol. 65:363372.
22. Mignot, T., T., W. Shaevitz,, P. L. Hartzell, and, D. R. Zusman. 2007b. Evidence that focal adhesion complexes power bacterial gliding motility. Science 315:853856.
23. O’Connor, K. A., and, D. R. Zusman. 1991. Development in Myxococcus xanthus involves differentiation into two cell types, peripheral rods and spores. J. Bacteriol. 173:33183333.
24. Reichenbach, H. 1999. The ecology of the myxobacteria. Environ. Microbiol. 1:1521.
25. Shi, W.,, W. Kohler, and, D. R. Zusman. 1993. Chemotaxis plays a role in the social behaviour of Myxococcus xanthus. Mol. Microbiol. 9:601611.
26. Sliusarenko, O.,, O.,J. Neu,, D. R. Zusman, and, G. Oster. 2006. Accordion waves in Myxococcus xanthus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:15341539.
27. Søgaard-Andersen, L., and, D. Kaiser. 1996. C factor, a cell-surface-associated intercellular signaling protein, stimulates the cytoplasmic Frz signal transduction system in Myxococcus xanthus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:26752679.
28. Spormann, A. M. 1999. Gliding motility in bacteria: insights from studies of Myxococcus xanthus. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 63:621641.
29. Sun, H.,, H. R. Zusman, and, W. Y. Shi. 2000. Type IV pilus of Myxococcus xanthus is a motility apparatus controlled by the frz chemosensory system. Curr. Biol. 10:11431146.
30. Trudeau, K. G.,, M. J. Ward, and, D. R. Zusman. 1996. Identification and characterization of FrzZ, a novel response regulator necessary for swarming and fruiting-body formation in Myxococcus xanthus. Mol. Microbiol. 20:645655.
31. Ward, M. J.,, H. Lew, and, D. R. Zusman. 2000. Social motility in Myxococcus xanthus requires FrzS, a protein with an extensive coiled-coil domain. Mol. Microbiol. 37:13571371.
32. Ward, M. J., and, D. R. Zusman. 1999. Motility in Myxococcus xanthus and its role in developmental aggregation. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 2:624629.
33. West, A. H., and, A. M. Stock. 2001. Histidine kinases and response regulator proteins in two-component signaling systems. Trends Biochem. Sci. 26:369376.
34. Wolgemuth, C.,, E. Hoiczyk,, D. Kaiser, and, G. Oster. 2002. How myxobacteria glide. Curr. Biol. 12:369377.
35. Youderian, P.,, N. Burke,, D. J. White, and, P. L. Hartzell. 2003. Identification of genes required for adventurous gliding motility in Myxococcus xanthus with the transposable element mariner. Mol. Microbiol. 49:555570.
36. Yu, R., and, D. Kaiser. 2007. Gliding motility and polarized slime secretion. Mol. Microbiol. 63:454467.
37. Zusman, D. R. 1982. “Frizzy” mutants: a new class of aggregation-defective developmental mutants of Myxococcus xanthus. J. Bacteriol. 150:14301437.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error