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Color Plates

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color plate 1

(chapter 6) The FrzS-Gfp protein may oscillate between poles along a helical filament. FrzS may track along a helical filament. (A) Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of a dynamic FrzS cluster. The cell was filmed for 5 min. White arrows point to the observed dynamic FrzS spot. (B) Trajectory of the moving complex. (Left) Enhanced view of the cell shown in panel A after 2.5 min (top) and schematics of the fluorescence signal (bottom). (Top right) The images shown in panel A were overlaid, and the spots observed at different times were linked to obtain a trajectory. The numbers refer to the times at which the foci were seen at a particular subcellular location. (Bottom right) Schematics of the trajectory (blue line) overlaid on the proposed coiled track (red line). (C) FrzS537-548 is defective for vegetative swarming. Motility phenotypes of the wild-type (WT) and 537-548 strains on S-motilityspecific Casitone-yeast-extract-rich medium 0.3% agar plates. (D) Subcellular localization of Frz. The localization pattern of FrzS was determined by immunostaining using the FrzS-specific antiserum. R, raw image; P, processed image. (Right) Clockwise 90° rotations of the reconstructed volume of the segment boxed in the processed image. Scale bar, 2 μm. Reprinted with permission from (Mignot et al., 2005).

Citation: Whitworth D. 2008. Color Plates, In Myxobacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Color Plate 2

(chapter 7) Model for the regulation of the Frz chemosensory pathway and its control of A- and S-motility. The input module (shaded in blue), a two-component signal transduction pathway, signals the output module (shaded in pink), a complex related in part to small GTPases, to trigger a reversal in both the S- and A-motility systems. The input module comprises the cytoplasmic MCP, FrzCD; the methyltransferase-TPR hybrid protein, FrzF; the CheW coupling protein, FrzA; and the CheA-CheY hybrid protein, FrzE. One or more unknown signals interact with FrzCD and/or interact with the TPR domain of FrzF, causing site-specific methylation and activation of FrzCD. FrzG is not represented, as its regulatory role remains unclear. Activated FrzCD induces autophosphorylation of FrzE, which is under negative regulation by the C-terminal CheY domain. A CheY-CheY-like fusion protein, FrzZ, accepts phosphate from FrzE and propagates signaling to the output module. Phospho-FrzZ mediates an unknown interaction with components of the MglA complex, which independently and coordinately signals the S-motility system and the A-motility system to trigger a reversal and define a new leading pole. MglA shares homology with small GTPases and interacts with FrzS and AglZ, which are important components of the S- and A-motility systems, respectively.

Citation: Whitworth D. 2008. Color Plates, In Myxobacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Color Plate 3

(chapter 17) Phylogenomic mapping. (a) Sequence data from partial, single, or multiple genomes are used to produce protein predictions, which are aligned against a database of proteins from hundreds of completely sequenced genomes. (b) A phylogenomic raw bit score matrix, with each row corresponding to a specific protein and each column corresponding to a bacterial species, is then created. A heat map visualization of the matrix with array elements colored according to their corresponding shades of red is also shown. (c) From the phylogenomic matrix, a similarity matrix using Spearman’s rank correlation is calculated. (d) Finally, a combination of multidimensional scaling and force-directed placement is used to transform the similarity matrix into a two-dimensional ordination. This is then visualized in three dimensions using the computer program VxInsight.

Citation: Whitworth D. 2008. Color Plates, In Myxobacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Color Plate 4

(chapter 17) A total of 15 ORFs are selected from five different clusters on the map. Colored boxes denote the specific clusters selected for inactivation. The specific proteins which were selected for disruption are colored in each medium-resolution view.

Citation: Whitworth D. 2008. Color Plates, In Myxobacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Color Plate 5

(chapter 18) A drawing from Thaxter’s sketchbook: , later designated as . Reproduced from the original preserved in the Archives of the Farlow Library of Cryptogamic Botany, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.

Citation: Whitworth D. 2008. Color Plates, In Myxobacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Color Plate 6

(chapter 18) cells on their way into an aggregation center (left). Fruiting bodies of DW4/3-1. A fruiting body is about 100 μm in height (right). Reprinted, with permission, from the cover of , volume 56, issue no. 5.

Citation: Whitworth D. 2008. Color Plates, In Myxobacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Color Plate 7

(chapter 19) (a) Filter paper after 2 weeks of incubation. Growth of occurs in the orange zone of the white filter paper. In the next inner circle the cellulose fibers are increasingly lysed. In the center of the filter, square red-brown fruiting bodies appear. (b) Typical swarms with cable-like veins and rings growing outside the filter paper on the agar surface. (c) Sporangioles suspended in buffer. (d) Typical fruiting bodies from . Sporangioles are packed together into dense parcels. Light is reflected by a slime cover.

Citation: Whitworth D. 2008. Color Plates, In Myxobacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Color Plate 8

(chapter 19) Heterologous production of flaviolin in . (a) Flaviolin biosynthetic pathway; (b) phenotypes of wild-type and a mutant strain expressing the gene from (c) HPLC analysis of culture extracts of producing flaviolin.

Citation: Whitworth D. 2008. Color Plates, In Myxobacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Color Plate 9

(chapter 22) Protein localization in . The subcellular localization patterns of regulatory proteins during the course of the cell cycle. For proteins that localize to more than one site, the sizes of the dots indicate the predominant localization. Lines across the cell indicate diffuse cytoplasmic protein. Colored lines around the periphery of the cell indicate diffuse membrane-bound protein.

Citation: Whitworth D. 2008. Color Plates, In Myxobacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Color Plate 10

(chapter 23) An image of fluorescence of sp. expressing the gene for obelin, an indicator of calcium ions. With coelenterazine present, the intensity of blue fluorescence generated by obelin is linearly related to the concentration of calcium ions. Filaments of sp. incubated with coelenterazine for 30 min were excited by near-UV light and observed by fluorescence microscopy. The red fluorescence (>600 nm) is derived from the phycobiliproteins and chlorophyll of the vegetative cells. The blue fluorescence of the heterocysts measures their concentration of free calcium. Blue fluorescence of vegetative cells (wavelengths shorter than 600 nm) was much weaker than that of heterocysts. Calcium-concentration-dependent blue fluorescence increases in developing cells before morphological changes are observed (Zhao et al., 2005). Three light flecks were removed from the image by Adobe Photoshop CS.

Citation: Whitworth D. 2008. Color Plates, In Myxobacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Color Plate 11

(chapter 24) Apical growth in . (a) Staining of the sites of nascent peptidoglycan incorporation using fluorescently labeled vancomycin in vegetative hyphae of . The fluorescence image is shown in inverted gray scale. Hyphal tips are indicated by a “t,” cross walls are indicated by arrowheads, and the spore from which the hyphae grew out is indicated by “Sp.” (b) Subcellular localization of DivIVA-EGFP (green color) overlaid on a phase-contrast image of nascent mycelium growing out of a spore (Sp). Bars, 5 μm. (c) Simplified illustration of polarized growth in hyphae. The apical cell is extending its cell wall only at the tip (green). Once this cell has divided by forming a new hyphal cross wall, the subapical daughter cell becomes unable to grow and eventually switches its polarity to generate a lateral branch with a new extending tip. A consequence of tip growth is that DNA, which replicates along most of the hyphal length, has to move towards the tip and into new branches—a process designated nucleoid migration (Flärdh, 2003b). For clarity, only a few schematic nucleoids are drawn (red), and they are not meant to reflect the actual number of chromosomes per cell. Furthermore, individual nucleoids are typically not observed in vivo as separated bodies in growing hyphae. Reprinted from Flärdh (2003b), with permission from Elsevier.

Citation: Whitworth D. 2008. Color Plates, In Myxobacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Color Plate 12

(chapter 24) Visualization of septation and nucleoid segregation in wild-type . (a) Phase-contrast micrograph of aerial filaments. (b) Fluorescence image of the same filaments showing sites of cell wall synthesis stained with fluo-WGA. (c) Fluorescence image of the same filaments showing nucleoids stained with 7-AAD. The figure shows representative aerial hyphae from colonies that had developed for 3 days on mannitol MM plates before being prepared for microscopy. Bar, 10 μm. Reproduced with permission from Flärdh et al. (1999).

Citation: Whitworth D. 2008. Color Plates, In Myxobacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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