Chapter 3 : HIV Infection and Stroke: the Changing Face of a Rising Problem

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

HIV Infection and Stroke: the Changing Face of a Rising Problem, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815691/9781555813697_Chap03-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815691/9781555813697_Chap03-2.gif


The reporting of stroke in HIV-infected subjects has faced several challenges that have limited one's ability to determine whether a direct association between cerebrovascular disease and HIV infection exists. With increased survival, aging of the HIV-infected cohorts is accompanied not infrequently by metabolic and lipid disorders, which are observed often in subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Recent evidence for the development of premature atherosclerotic disease in this population calls for a revision of the association between stroke and HIV infection. The majority of strokes reported in the clinical and postmortem series were associated with underlying diseases. Intracranial hemorrhage was usually associated with underlying thrombocytopenia, primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma, or metastatic Kaposi’s sarcoma. The chapter discusses potential mechanisms of ischemic stroke in HIV-infected patients, and presents new insights into the mechanisms of stroke in HIV-infected patients. Pathological studies of a different vascular bed provide support for the possibility of an HIV-related vasculopathy inducing endothelial cell disturbance. Future studies will be required to better assess the macrovascular and microvascular complications that may result from HIV infection, the metabolic derangements induced by HAART, or both, as well as to determine the optimal treatment and prevention for this specific patient population.

Citation: Concha M, Rabinstein A. 2009. HIV Infection and Stroke: the Changing Face of a Rising Problem, p 45-56. In Goodkin K, Shapshak P, Verma A (ed), The Spectrum of Neuro-AIDS Disorders. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815691.ch3

Key Concept Ranking

Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha
Coronary Artery Disease
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Abuaf, N.,, S. Laperche,, B. Rajoely,, R. Carsique,, A. Deschaps,, A. Rouquette,, C. Barthet,, Z. Khaled,, C. Marbot,, N. Saab,, J. Rozen,, P. Girard, and, W. Rozenbaum. 1997. Autoantibodies to phospholipids and to the coagulation proteins in AIDS. Thromb. Haemost. 77:856861.
2. Anders, K.,, H. Latta,, B. Chang,, U. Tomiyasu,, A. Quddusi, and, H. Vinters. 1989. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis and malignant lymphoma of the central nervous system in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Hum. Pathol. 20:326334.
3. Anders, K.,, W. Guerra,, U. Tomiyasu, and, H. Vinters. 1986. The neuropathology of AIDS: UCLA experience and review. Am. J. Pathol. 124:537558.
4. Bacellar, H.,, A. Munoz,, E. Miller,, B. Cohen,, D. Besley,, O. Selnes,, J. Becker, and, J. McArthur. 1994. Temporal trends in the incidence of HIV-1-related neurologic diseases: Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, 1985–1992. Neurology 44:18921900.
5. Barbaro, G.,, G. Di Lorenzo,, B. Grisorio, and, G. Barbarini. 1998. Incidence of dilated cardiomyopathy and detection of HIV in myocardial cells of HIV-positive patients. N. Engl. J. Med. 15:10931099.
6. Behrens, G.,, H. Schmidt,, D. Meyer,, M. Stoll, and, R. E. Schmidt. 1998. Vascular complications associated with the use of HIV protease inhibitors. Lancet 351:1958.
7. Berger, J.,, J. Harris,, J. Gragorios, and, M. Norenberg. 1990. Cerebrovascular disease in AIDS: a case-control study. AIDS 4:239244.
8. Berger, J.,, L. Moskowitz,, M. Fischl, and, R. Kelley. 1987. Neurological disease as the presenting manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. South. Med. J. 80:683686.
9. Best, T.,, and M. Finlayson. 1979. Two forms of encephalitis in opportunistic toxoplasmosis. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 103:693696
10. Blann, A.,, J. Constans,, F. Dignat-George, and, M. Seigneur. 1998. The platelet and endothelium in HIV infection. Br. J. Haematol. 100:613614.
11. Brannagan, T. 1999. Retroviral-associated vasculitis of the nervous system. Neurol. Clin. 15:927944.
12. Brew, B.,, and J. Miller. 1996. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-related transient neurological deficits. Am. J. Med. 101:257261.
13. Brilla, R.,, D. Nabavi,, G. Schulte-Altedorneburg,, V. Kemény,, D. Reichelt,, S. Evers,, U. Schiemann, and, I. Husstedt. 1999. Cerebral vasculopathy in HIV infection revealed by transcranial Doppler: a pilot study. Stroke 30:811813.
14. Brinkman, K.,, J. Smeitink,, J. Romijn, and, P. Reiss. 1999. Mitochondrial toxicity induced by nucleoside-analogue reverse-transcriptase inhibitors is a key factor in the pathogenesis of antiretroviral-therapy-related lipodystrophy. Lancet 354:11121115.
15. Brust, J. 1993a. Opioids, p. 16–41. In J. Brust, Neurological Aspects of Substance Abuse. Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, MA.
16. Brust, J. C. 1993b. Clinical, radiological, and pathological aspects of cerebrovascular disease associated with drug abuse. Stroke 24(Suppl. 12):I129I135.
17. Budka, H.,, G. Costanzi,, S. Cristini,, A. Lechi,, C. Parravicini,, R. Trabattoni, and, L. Vago. 1987. Brain pathology induced by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A histological, immunocytochemical and electron microscopical study of 100 autopsy cases. Acta Neuropathol. 75:185198.
18. Bursztyn, E.,, B. Lee, and, J. Bauman. 1984. CT of AIDS. Am. J. Neuroradiol. 5:711714.
19. Cardoso, J.,, B. Moura,, L. Martins,, A. Mota-Miranda,, F. Rocha-Goncalves, and, H. Lecour. 1998. Left ventricular dysfunction in human immunodeficicency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Int. J. Cardiol. 63:3745.
20. Carr, A.,, K. Samaras,, S. Burton,, J. Freund,, D. Chisholm, and, D. Cooper. 1998. A syndrome of peripheral lipodystrophy, hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance in patients receiving HIV protease inhibitors. AIDS 12:F51F58.
21. Casado Naranjo, I.,, J. Toledo Santos, and, M. Antolin Rodriguez. 1992. Ischemic stroke as the sole manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Stroke 23:117118.
22. Cho, E.,, L. Sharer,, N. Peress, and, B. Little. 1987. Intimal proliferation of leptomeningeal arteries and brain infarcts in subjects with AIDS. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 43:385.
23. Chokshi, S. K.,, R. Moore,, N. G. Pandian, and, J. M. Isner. 1989. Reversible cardiomyopathy associated with cocaine intoxication. Ann. Intern. Med. 111:10391040.
24. Citron, B. P.,, M. Halpern,, M. McCarron,, G. D. Lundberg,, R. McCormick,, I. J. Pincus,, D. Tatter, and, B. J. Haverback. 1970. Necrotizing angiitis associated with drug abuse. N. Engl. J. Med. 283:10031011.
25. Cole, J.,, A. Pinto,, J. Hebel,, D. Buchholz,, C. Earley,, C. Johnson,, R. Macko,, T. Price,, M. Sloan,, B. Stern,, R. Wityk,, M. Wozniak, and, S. Kittner. 2004. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the risk of stroke. Stroke 35:5156.
26. Concha, M.,, S. Symes,, K. Goodkin,, S. Nathan,, P. Zortea,, J. Romano,, A. Forteza, and, M. Kolber. 2003. Risk of cerebrovascular disease in HIV-1-infected subjects with lipodystrophy syndrome and long-term exposure to protease inhibitors. Stroke 34:295.
27. Connor, M.,, G. Lammie,, J. Bell,, C. Warlow,, P. Simmonds, and, R. Brettle. 2000. Cerebral infarction in adult AIDS patients: observations form the Edimburgh HIV autopsy cohort. Stroke 31:21172126.
28. d’Arminio, A.,, C. Sabin,, A. Phillips,, P. Reiss,, R. Weber,, O. Kirk,, W. El-Sadr,, S. De Wit,, K. Mateu,, K. Petoumenos,, F. Dabis,, C. Pradier,, L. Morfeldt,, J. Lundgren,, N. Friis-Møller,and Writing Committee of the D:A:D: Study Group. 2004. Cardio- and cerebrovascular events in HIV-infected persons. AIDS. 18:18111817.
29. Dejaco-Ruhswurm, I.,, B. Kiss,, G. Rainer,, K. Krepler,, A. Wedrich,, S. Dallinger,, A. Rieger, and, L. Schmetterer. 2001. Ocular blood flow in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 132:720726.
30. de la Monte, S.,, D. Ho,, R. Schooley,, M. Hirsch, and, E. Richardson. 1987. Subacute encephalomyelitis of AIDS and its relation to HTVL-III infection. Neurology 37:562569.
31. Delaney, P.,, and M. Estes. 1980. Intracranial hemorrhage with amphetamine abuse. Neurology 30:11251128.
32. Doyle, P.,, G. Gibson, and, C. Dolman. 1983. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus with contralateral hemiplegia: identification of cause. Ann. Neurol. 14:8485.
33. Dube, M.,, J. Stein,, J. Aberg,, C. Fichtenbaum,, J. Gerber,, K. Tashima,, W. Henry,, J. Currier,, D. Sprecher,, M. Glesby,the Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group Cardiovascular Subcommittee, and the HIV Medical Association of the Infectious Disease Society of America. 2003. Guidelines for the evaluation and management of dyslipidemia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy: recommendations of the HIV Medical Association of the Infectious Disease Society of America and the Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37:613627.
34. Duong, M.,, M. Buisson,, Y. Cottin,, L. Piroth,, I. Lhuillier,, M. Grappin,, P. Chavanet,, J. Wolff, and, H. Portier. 2001. Coronary heart disease associated with the use of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 protease inhibitors: report of four cases and review. Clin. Cardiol. 24:690694.
35. Eidelberg, D.,, A. Sotrel,, D. Horoupian,, P. Neumann,, T. Pumarola-Sune, and, R. Price. 1986. Thrombotic cerebral vasculopathy associated with herpes zoster. Ann. Neurol. 19:714.
36. Engstrom, J.,, D. Lowenstein, and, D. Breseden. 1989. Cerebral infarctions and transient neurological deficits associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am. J. Med. 86:528532.
37. Evers, S.,, D. Navabi,, A. Rahmann,, C. Heese,, D. Reichelt, and, I. Husstedt. 2003. Ischaemic cerebrovascular events in HIV infection: a cohort study. Cerebrovasc. Dis. 15:199205.
38. Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. 2001. Executive summary of the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 285:24862497.
39. Fisher, S.,, and S. Lipshultz. 2001. Epidemiology of cardiovascular involvement in HIV disease and AIDS. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 946:1322.
40. Foulkes, M.,, P. Wolf,, T. Price,, J. Mohr, and, D. Hier. 1988. The Stroke Data Bank: design, methods, and baseline characteristics. Stroke 19:547554.
41. Friis-Moller, N.,, C. Sabin,, R. Weber,, A. d’Arminio Monforte,, W. El-Sadr,, P. Reiss,, R. Thiebaut,, L. Morfeldt,, S. De Wit,, C. Pradier,, G. Calvo,, M. Law,, O. Kirk,, A. Phillips,, J. Lundgren,and the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (DAD) Study Group. 2003a. Combination antiretroviral therapy and the risk of myocardial infarction. N. Engl. J. Med. 349:19932003.
42. Friis-Moller, N.,, R. Weber,, P. Reiss,, R. Thiebaut,, O. Kirk,, A. d’Arminio Monforte,, C. Pradier,, L. Morfeldt,, S. Mateu,, M. Law,, W. El-Sadr,, S. De Wit,, C. Sabin,, A. Phillips,, J. Lundgren,and the DAD Study Group. 2003b. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in HIV patients—association with antiretroviral therapy. Results from the DAD study. AIDS 17:11791193.
43. Garcia, I.,, V. Fainstein,, A. Rios,, M. Luna,, P. Mansell,, J. Reuben, and, E. Hersh. 1983. Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis in a male homosexual with Kaposi’s sarcoma. Arch. Intern. Med. 143:12431244.
44. Gasperetti, C.,, and S. Song. 1985. Contralateral hemiparesis following herpes zoster ophthalmicus. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 48:338341.
45. Gherardi, R.,, L. Belec,, C. Mhiri,, F. Gray,, M. Lescs,, A. Sobel,, L. Guillevin, and, J. Wechsler. 1993. The spectrum of vasculitis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. A clinicopathologic evaluation. Arthritis Rheum. 36:11641174.
46. Glick, R.,, J. Hoying,, L. Cerullo, and, S. Perlman. 1987. Phenylpropanolamine: an over-the-counter drug causing central nervous system vasculitis and intracerebral hemorrhage. Case report and review. Neurosurgery 20:969974.
47. Goldfrank, L. R.,, and R. S. Hoffman. 1991. The cardiovascular effects of cocaine. Ann. Emerg. Med. 20:165175.
48. Goodman, S. J.,, and D. P. Becker. 1970. Intracranial hemorrhage associated to amphetamine abuse. JAMA 212:480.
49. Graham, N. 2000. Metabolic disorders among HIV-infected patients treated with protease inhibitors: a review. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 25:S4S11.
50. Grindal, A.,, R. Cohen,, R. Saul, and, J. Taylos. 1978. Cerebral infarction in young adults. Stroke 9:3942.
51. Grunfeld, C.,, D. Kotler,, J. Shigenaga,, W. Doerrler,, A. Tierney,, J. Wang,, R. Pierson, and, K. Feingold. 1991. Circulating interferon-alpha levels and hypertriglyceridemia in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am. J. Med. 90:154162.
52. Harrington, H.,, H. A. Heller,, D. Dawson,, L. Caplan, and, C. Rumbaugh. 1983. Intracerebral hemorrhage and oral amphetamine. Arch. Neurol. 40:503507.
53. Henry, K.,, H. Melroe,, J. Huebsch,, J. Hermundson,, C. Levine,, L. Swensen, and, J. Daley. 1998. Severe premature coronary artery disease with protease inhibitors. Lancet 351:1328.
54. Hoffmann, M.,, J. Berger,, A. Nath, and, M. Rayens. 2000. Cerebrovascular disease in young, HIV-infected, black Africans in the KwaZulu Natal province of South Africa. J. Neurovirol. 6:229236.
55. Hsieh, F.,, L. Chia, and, W. Shen. 1992. Locations of cerebral infarctions in tuberculous meningitis. Neuroradiology 34:197199.
56. Iloeje, U.,, Y. Yuan,, G. L’Italien,, J. Mauskopf,, S. Holmberg,, A. Moorman,, K. Wood, and, R. Moore. 2005. Protease inhibitor exposure and increased risk of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients. HIV Med. 6:3744.
57. Imanse, J.,, and J. Vanneste. 1990. Intraventricular hemorrhage following amphetamine abuse. Neurology 40:13181319.
58. Jensen, R.,, T. S. Olsen, and, B. B. Winther. 1990. Severe non-occlusive ischemic stroke in young heroin addicts. Acta Neurol. Scand. 81:354357.
59. Johns, D.,, M. Tiernet, and, D. Felsenstein. 1987. Alteration in the natural history of neurosyphilis by concurrent infection with the human immunodeficiency virus. N. Engl. J. Med. 316:15691572.
60. Johnson, D. A.,, H. S. Etter, and, D. M. Reeves. 1983. Stroke and phenylpropanolamine use. Lancet ii:970.
61. Jorizzo, J.,, M. McNeely,, R. Baughn,, A. Solomon,, T. Cavallo, and, E. Smith. 1986. Role of circulating immune complexes in human secondary syphilis. J. Infect. Dis. 153:10141022.
62. Kase, C.,, S. Levitz,, J. Wolinsky, and, C. A. Sulis. 1988. Pontine pure motor hemiparesis due to meningovascular syphilis in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. Arch. Neurol. 45:832.
63. Kato, T.,, A. Hirano,, J. Llena, and, H. Dembitzer. 1987. Neuropathology of AIDS in 53 autopsy cases with particular emphasis on microglial nodules and multinucleated giant cells. Acta Neuropathol. 73:287294.
64. Kieburtz, K.,, T. Eskin,, L. Ketonen, and, M. Tuite. 1993. Opportunistic cerebral vasculopathy and stroke in patients with AIDS. Arch. Neurol. 50:430432.
65. Koeppen, A.,, L. Lansing,, S. Peng, and, R. Smith. 1981. Central nervous system vasculitis in cytomegalovirus infection. J. Neurol. Sci. 51:395410.
66. Koppel, B.,, G. Wormser,, A. Tuchman,, S. Maayan,, D. Hewlett, and, M. Daras. 1985. Central nervous system involvement in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Acta Neurol. Scand. 71:337353.
67. Lafeuillade, A.,, M. Alessi,, I. Poizot-Martin,, C. Boyer-Neumann,, C. Zandotti,, J. Gastaut,, R. Quilichini,, L. Aubert,, C. Tamalet, and, I. Juhan-Vague. 1992. Endothelial cell dysfunction in HIV infection. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 5:127131.
68. Lafeuillade, A.,, M. Alessi,, I. Poizot-Martin,, C. Dhiver,, R. Quilichini,, L. Aubert,, J. Gastaut, and, I. Juhan-Vague. 1991. Protein S deficiency and HIV infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 324:1220.
69. Lahmeyer, H.,, and R. Steingold. 1980. Pentazocine and tripelenamine: a drug abuse epidemic? Int. J. Addict. 15:12191232.
70. Laurence, J. 1998. Vascular complications associated with the use of HIV protease inhibitors. Lancet 351:1960.
71. Levine, S.,, J. Brust,, N. Futrell,, K. Ho,, D. Blake,, C. Millikan,, L. Brass,, P. Fayad,, L. Schultz,, J. Selwa, and, K. Welch. 1990. Cerebrovascular complications of the use of the ‘crack’ form of alkaloidal cocaine. N. Engl. J. Med. 323:699704.
72. Levy, R.,, and D. Breseden. 1988. CNS dysfunction in AIDS. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 1:4164.
73. Lieberman, A. N.,, W. Bloom,, P. S. Kishore, and, J. P. Lin. 1974. Carotid artery occlusion following ingestion of LSD. Stroke 5:213215.
74. Louie, J.,, L. Hsu,, D. Osmond,, M. Katz, and, S. Schwarcz. 2002. Trends in causes of death among persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, San Francisco, 1994–1998. J. Infect. Dis. 186:10231027.
75. Maggi, P.,, F. Perilli., A. Lillo,, M. Gargiulo,, S. Ferraro,, B. Grisorio,, S. Ferrara,, V. Carito,, C. Bellacosa,, G. Pastore,, A. Chirianni, and, G. Regina. 2007. Rapid progression of carotid lesions in HAART-treated HIV-1 patients. Atherosclerosis 192:407412.
76. Maggi, P.,, G. Serio,, G. Epifani,, G. Fiorentino,, A. Saracino,, C. Fico,, F. Perilli,, A. Lillo,, S. Ferraro,, M. Gargiulo,, A. Chirianni,, G. Angarano,, G. Rehina, and, G. Pastore. 2000. Premature lesions of the carotid vessels in HIV-infected patients treated with protease inhibitors. AIDS 14:123128.
77. Maqbool, Z.,, and H. H. Billett. 1982. Unwitting heparin abuse in a drug addict. Ann. Intern. Med. 96:790791.
78. Margolis, M. T.,, and T. H. Newton. 1971. Methamphetamine (“speed”) arteritis. Neuroradiology 2:179182.
79. Martin, C.,, A. Matlow,, E. Chew,, D. Sutton and, W. Pruzanski. 1989. Hyperviscosity syndrome in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch. Intern. Med. 149:14351436.
80. Mary-Krause, M.,, L. Cotte,, A. Simon,, M. Partisani,, D. Costagliola,and the Clinical Epidemiology Group from the French Hospital Database. 2003. Increased risk of myocardial infarction with duration of protease inhibitor therapy in HIV-infected men. AIDS 17:24792486.
81. Masuda, J.,, C. Yutani,, R. Waki,, J. Ogata,, Y. Kuriyama, and, T. Yamaguchi. 1992. Histopathological analysis of the mechanisms of intracranial hemorrhage complicating infective endocarditis. Stroke 23:843850.
82. Matick, H.,, D. Anderson, and, J. Brumlik. 1983. Cerebral vasculitis associated with oral amphetamine overdose. Arch. Neurol. 40:253254.
83. Matsuyama, T.,, N. Kobayashi, and, N. Yamamoto. 1991. Cytokines and HIV infection: is AIDS a tumor necrosis factor disease? AIDS 5:14051417.
84. McArthur, J. 1987. Neurological manifestations of AIDS. Medicine 66:407437.
85. Menge, T.,, T. Neumann-Haefelin,, H. von Geisen, and, G. Arendt. 2000. Progressive stroke in an HIV-1-positive patient under protease inhibitors. Eur. Neurol. 44:252254.
86. Mesquita, E.,, R. Ramos,, A. Ferrari,, W. Martins, and, G. da Cruz. 1996. Rheumatic heart disease and infective endocarditis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arq. Bras. Cardiol. 67:255257.
87. Messadi, D.,, J. Pober,, W. Fiers,, M. Gimbrone, and, G. Murphy. 1987. Induction of an activation antigen on postcapillary venular endothelium in human skin organ culture. J. Immunol. 139:15571562.
88. Mizusawa, H.,, A. Hirano,, J. Llena, and, M. Shintaku. 1988. Cerebrovascular lesions of AIDS. Acta Neuropathol. 76:451457.
89. Mocroft, A.,, S. Vella,, T. Benfield,, A. Chiesi,, V. Miller,, P. Gargalianos,, A. d’Arminio Monforte,, I. Yust,, J. Bruun,, A. Phillips,, J. Lundgren, et al. 1998. Changing patterns of mortality across Europe in patients infected with HIV-1. Lancet 8:17251730.
90. Morgello, S.,, E. Cho,, S. Nielsen,, O. Devinsky, and, C. Petito. 1987. Cytomegalovirus encephalitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: an autopsy study of 30 cases and a review of the literature. Hum. Pathol. 18:289297.
91. Morrow, W.,, M. Wharton,, R. Stricker, and, J. Levy. 1986. Circulating immune complexes in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome contain the AIDS-associated retrovirus. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 40:515524.
92. Moskowitz, L.,, G. Hensley,, J. Chan,, F. Conley,, M. Post, and, S. Gonzalez-Arias. 1994. Brain biopsies in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 108:368371.
93. Moskowitz, L.,, G. Hensley,, J. Chan,, J. Gregorios, and, F. Conley. 1984. The neuropathology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 108:867872.
94. Navia, B.,, E. Cho,, C. Petito, and, R. Price. 1986. The AIDS dementia complex. II. Neuropathology. Ann. Neurol. 19:525535.
95. Newsome, D.,, W. Green, and, E. Miller. 1984. Microvascular aspects of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome retinopathy. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98:590601.
96. Palella, F.,, K. Delaney,, A. Moorman,, M. Loveless,, J. Fuhrer,, G. Satten,, D. Aschman,, S. Holmberg, et al. 1998. Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 26:853860.
97. Passalaris, J.,, K. Sepkowitz, and, M. Glesby. 2000. Coronary artery disease and human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clin. Infect. Dis. 31:787797.
98. Periard, D.,, A. Telenti,, P. Sudre,, J. Cheseaux,, P. Halfon,, M. Reymond,, S. Marcovina,, M. Glauser,, P. Nicod,, R. Darioli, and, V. Mooser. 1999. Atherogenic dyslipidemia in HIV-infected individuals treated with protease inhibitors. Circulation 100:700705.
99. Petito, C.,, E. Cho,, W. Lemann,, B. Navia, and, R. Price. 1986. Neuropathology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): an autopsy review. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 45:635646.
100. Pinto, A. 1996. AIDS and cerebrovascular disease. Stroke 27:538543.
101. Power, C.,, P. Kong,, T. Crawford,, S. Wesselingh,, J. Glass,, J. McArthur, and, B. Trapp. 1993. Cerebral white matter changes in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome dementia: alterations of the blood-brain barrier. Ann. Neurol. 34:339350.
102. Price, R.,, B. Brew,, J. Sidtis,, M. Rosenblum,, A. Scheck, and, P. Cleary. 1988. The brain in AIDS: central nervous system HIV-1 infection and AIDS dementia complex. Science 239:586592.
103. Pumarola-Sune, T.,, B. Navia,, C. Cordon-Cardo,, E. Cho, and, R. Price. 1987. HIV antigen in the brains of patients with the AIDS dementia complex. Ann. Neurol. 21:490496.
104. Qureshi, A.,, R. Janssen,, J. Karon,, J. Weissman,, M. Akbar,, K. Safdar, and, M. Frankel. 1997. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and stroke in young patients. Arch. Neurol. 54:11501153.
105. Rickerts, V.,, H. Brodt,, S. Staszewski, and, W. Stille. 2000. Incidence of myocardial infarctions in HIV-infected patients between 1983 and 1998: the Frankfurt HIV-cohort study. Eur. J. Med. Res. 18:329333.
106. Roldan, E.,, L. Moskowitz, and, G. Hensley. 1987. Pathology of the heart in AIDS. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 111:943946.
107. Rosemberg, S.,, M. Lopes, and, A. Tsanadis. 1986. Neuropathology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): analysis of 22 Brazilian cases. J. Neurol. Sci. 76:187198.
108. Rumbaugh, C.,, H. Fang,, R. Higgins,, R. Bergeron,, H. Segall, and, J. Teal. 1976. Cerebral microvascular injury in experimental drug abuse. Investig. Radiol. 11:282294.
109. Saif, M.,, and B. Greenberg. 2001. HIV and thrombosis: a review. AIDS Patient Care STDS 15:1524.
110. Salgado, A. V.,, A. J. Furlan, and, T. F. Keys. 1987. Mycotic aneurysm, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and indications for cerebral angiography in infective endocarditis. Stroke 18:10571060.
111. Schwartz, N.,, Y. So,, H. Hollander,, S. Allen, and, K. Fye. 1986. Eosinophilic vasculitis leading to amaurosis fugax in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch. Intern. Med. 146:20592060.
112. Selik, R.,, R. Byers, and, M. Dworkin. 2002. Trends in diseases reported on U.S. death certificates that mentioned HIV infection, 1987–1999. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 29:378387.
113. Smith, T.,, U. DeGirolami,, D. Henin,, F. Bolgert, and, J. Hauw. 1990. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) leukoencephalopathy and the microcirculation. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 49:357370.
114. Snider, W.,, D. Simpson,, S. Nielsen,, J. Gold,, C. Metroka, and, J. Posner. 1983. Neurological complications of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: analysis of 50 patients. Ann. Neurol. 14:403418.
115. Sobel, J.,, O. Espinas, and, S. Friedman. 1971. Carotid artery obstruction following LSD capsule ingestion. Arch. Intern. Med. 127:290.
116. Stahl, C.,, C. Wideman,, T. Spira,, E. Haff,, G. Hixon, and, B. Evatt. 1993. Protein S deficiency in men with long-term human immunodeficiency virus infection. Blood 81:18011807.
117. Tabib, A.,, C. Leroux,, J. Mornex, and, R. Loire. 2000. Accelerated coronary atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis in young human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive patients. Cor. Artery Dis. 11:4146.
118. Taillan, B.,, C. Roul,, J. Fuzibet,, H. Vinti,, A. Pesce,, J. Bayle,, P. Cassuto, and, P. Dujardin. 1990. Antiphospholipid antibodies associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Arch. Intern. Med. 150:1975.
119. Tran Dinh, Y.,, H. Mamo,, J. Cervoni,, C. Caulin, and, A. Saimot. 1990. Disturbances in the cerebral perfusion of HIV-1 seropositive asymptomatic subjects: a quantitative tomography study of 18 cases. J. Nucl. Med. 31:16011607.
120. Tsiodras, S.,, C. Mantzoros,, S. Hammer, and, M. Samore. 2000. Effects of protease inhibitors on hyperglycemia, hyper-lipidemia, and lipodystrophy: a 5-year cohort study. Arch. Intern. Med. 160:20502056.
121. Vinters, H.,, W. Guerra,, L. Eppolito, and, P. Keith. 1988. Necrotizing vasculitis of the nervous system in a patient with AIDS-related complex. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. 14:417424.
122. Vittecoq, D.,, L. Escaut, and, J. Monsuez. 1998. Vascular complications associated with the use of HIV protease inhibitors. Lancet 351:19581959.
123. Walsh, T.,, D. Hier, and, L. Caplan. 1985. Fungal infections of the central nervous system: comparative analysis of risk factors and clinical signs in 57 patients. Neurology 35:16541657.
124. Ward, J.,, T. O’Leary,, G. Baskin,, R. Benveniste,, C. Harris,, P. Nara, and, R. Rhodes. 1987. Immunohistochemical localization of human and simian immunodeficiency viral antigens in fixed tissue sections. Am. J. Pathol. 127:199205.
125. Wiley, C.,, R. Schrier,, J. Nelson,, P. Lampert, and, M. Oldstone. 1986. Cellular localization of human immunodeficiency virus infection within the brains of acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83:70897093.
126. Yanker, B.,, P. Skolnik,, G. Shoukimas,, D. Gabuzda,, R. Sobel, and, D. Ho. 1986. Cerebral granulomatous angiitis associated with isolation of human T-lymphotropic virus type III from the central nervous system. Ann. Neurol. 20:362364.
127. Yarnell, P. 1977. “Speed” headache and hematoma. Headache 17:6970.
128. Yu, Y. J.,, D. R. Cooper,, D. E. Wellenstein, and, B. Block. 1983. Cerebral angiitis and intracerebral hemorrhage associated with methamphetamine abuse. J. Neurosurg. 58:109111.
129. Yunis, N.,, and V. Stone. 1998. Cardiac manifestations of HIV/AIDS: a review of disease spectrum and clinical management. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 1:145154.
130. Zietz, C.,, B. Hotz,, M. Sturzl,, E. Rauch,, R. Penning, and, U. Lohrs. 1996. Aortic endothelium in HIV-1 infection: chronic injury, activation, and increased leukocyte adherence. Am. J. Pathol. 149:18871898.


Generic image for table

Proposed causes of ischemic stroke in HIV-infected patients

Citation: Concha M, Rabinstein A. 2009. HIV Infection and Stroke: the Changing Face of a Rising Problem, p 45-56. In Goodkin K, Shapshak P, Verma A (ed), The Spectrum of Neuro-AIDS Disorders. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815691.ch3
Generic image for table

IDSA-AACTG guidelines for evaluating and managing dyslipidemia in HIV-infected adults

Citation: Concha M, Rabinstein A. 2009. HIV Infection and Stroke: the Changing Face of a Rising Problem, p 45-56. In Goodkin K, Shapshak P, Verma A (ed), The Spectrum of Neuro-AIDS Disorders. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815691.ch3

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error