Chapter 30 : Ethnicity and Neuro-AIDS Conditions in the HAART Era

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Ethnicity and Neuro-AIDS Conditions in the HAART Era, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815691/9781555813697_Chap30-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815691/9781555813697_Chap30-2.gif


The nature of neurocognitve impairment associated with HIV has changed, after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), to more subtle forms, requiring the establishment of new definitional criteria. Recently, the neurological spectrum of HIV-1 infection has been divided into the eras before and after HAART. Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has had a direct impact on patient survival and the clinical manifestations of neurological complications. In the pre-HAART era, the most common neurological complications were HIV encephalitis, cytomegalovirus infection, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcus infection, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The role of host factors in HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD) has been illustrated by finding genetic mutations associated with the disease. The presence of neurocognitive impairment in HIV-1-infected individuals, which varies from subtle, mild deficits (e.g., asymptomatic with subclinical neuropsychological deficits) to minor cognitive-motor disorder (MCMD) to HAD, is one of the common neurological, neuropsychological, and neuropsychiatric complications of HIV-1 infection. There is limited literature regarding neuro-AIDS complications in ethnic groups and special populations. Assessing for neurocognitive performance in ethnic groups is critical to establish population-specific normative standards and culturally valid tests. Ethnic, gender, education or literacy, genetic, and age factors may contribute to different manifestations of HIV-1 cognitive impairment; consequently, they should be considered in research design. It is possible that the different scales used for HIV-1 cognitive function (Memorial Sloan Kettering, HDS, and AAN criteria) may fail to correctly identify cognitive impairment in different ethnic groups.

Citation: Melendez L, Mayo-Santana R, Luciano C, Wojna V. 2009. Ethnicity and Neuro-AIDS Conditions in the HAART Era, p 427-442. In Goodkin K, Shapshak P, Verma A (ed), The Spectrum of Neuro-AIDS Disorders. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815691.ch30

Key Concept Ranking

Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Albright, A. V.,, J. T. Shieh,, T. Itoh,, B. Lee,, D. Pleasure,, M. J. O’Connor,, R. W. Doms, and, F. Gonzalez-Scarano. 1999. Microglia express CCR5, CXCR4, and CCR3, but of these, CCR5 is the principal coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 dementia isolates. J. Virol. 73:205213.
2. Anderson, E.,, W. Zink,, H. Xiong, and, H. E. Gendelman. 2002. HIV-1-associated dementia: a metabolic encephalopathy perpetrated by virus-infected and immune-competent mononuclear phagocytes. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 31(Suppl 2):S43S54.
3. Antinori, A.,, G. Arendt,, J. T. Becker,, B. J. Brew,, D. A. Byrd,, M. Cherner,, D. B. Clifford,, P. Cinque,, L. G. Epstein,, K. Goodkin,, M. Gisslen,, I. Grant,, R. K. Heaton,, J. Joseph,, K. Marder,, C. M. Marra,, J. C. McArthur,, M. Nunn,, R. W. Price,, L. Pulliam,, K. R. Robertson,, N. Sacktor,, V. Valcour, and, V. E. Wojna. 2007. Updated research nosology for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Neurology 69:17891799.
4. Ardila, A.,, M. Rosselli, and, F. Ostrosky-Solis. 1992. Socio-educational, p. 181–192. In A. E. Puente and, R. J. McCaffrey (ed.), Handbook of Neuropsychological Assessment. A Biopsychosocial Perspective. Plenum Press, New York, NY.
5. Ardila-Ardila, A.,, K. Goodkin,, M. Concha-Bartolini,, R. Lecusay-Ruiz,, O. Mellan-Fajardo S,, P. Suarez-Bustamante,, R. Molina-Vasquez,, D. Lee,, G. Chayeb, and, F. L. Wilkie. 2003. HUMANS: a neuropsychological battery for evaluating HIV 1 infected patients. Rev. Neurol. 36:756762.
6. Arroyo, M. A.,, M. Hoelscher,, W. Sateren,, E. Samky,, L. Maboko,, O. Hoffmann,, G. Kijak,, M. Robb,, D. L. Birx, and, F. E. McCutchan. 2005. HIV-1 diversity and prevalence differ between urban and rural areas in the Mbeya region of Tanzania. AIDS 19:15171524.
7. Avison, M.,, J. R. Berger,, J. C. McArthur, and, A. Nath. 2003. HIV meningitis and dementia, p. 251–276. In A. Nath and, J. R. Berger (ed.), Clinical Neurovirology. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY.
8. Basso, M. R.,, and R. A. Bornstein. 2000. Effects of immunosuppression and disease severity upon neuropsychological function in HIV infection. J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol. 22:104114.
9. Beason-Hazen, S.,, H. A. Nasrallah, and, R. A. Bornstein. 1994. Self-report of symptoms and neuropsychological performance in asymptomatic HIV-positive individuals. J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 6:4349.
10. Becker, J. T.,, R. Caldararo,, O. L. Lopez,, M. A. Dew,, S. K. Dorst, and, G. Banks. 1995. Qualitative features of the memory deficit associated with HIV infection and AIDS: cross-validation of a discriminant function classification scheme. J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol. 17:134142.
11. Berger, J. R.,, M. Avison,, Y. Mootoor, and, C. Beach. 2005. Cerebrospinal fluid proteomics and human immunodeficiency virus dementia: preliminary observations. J. Neurovirol. 11:557562.
12. Boje, K. M. 2004. Nitric oxide neurotoxicity in neurodegenerative diseases. Front. Biosci. 9:763776.
13. Boni, J.,, B. S. Emmerich,, S. L. Leib,, O. D. Wiestler,, J. Schupbach, and, P. Kleihues. 1993. PCR identification of HIV-1 DNA sequences in brain tissue of patients with AIDS encephalopathy. Neurology 43:18131817.
14. Bouwman, F. H.,, R. L. Skolasky,, D. Hes,, O. A. Selnes,, J. D. Glass,, T. E. Nance-Sproson,, W. Royal,, G. J. Dal Pan, and, J. C. McArthur. 1998. Variable progression of HIV-associated dementia. Neurology 50:18141820.
15. Burdo, T. H.,, M. Nonnemacher,, B. P. Irish,, C. H. Choi,, F. C. Krebs,, S. Gartner, and, B. Wigdahl. 2004. High-affinity interaction between HIV-1 Vpr and specific sequences that span the C/EBP and adjacent NF-kappaB sites within the HIV-1 LTR correlate with HIV-1-associated dementia. DNA Cell. Biol. 23:261269.
16. Byrd, D. A.,, M. Rivera Mindt,, E. Ryan, and, S. Morgello. 2005. Assessing HIV-related cognitive disorders in U.S. ethnic minorities: effect of classification system, abstr. 60, p. 72. Central Nervous Syst. Dev. Resource Limited Settings. Edizioni Internazionali srl, Rome, Italy.
17. Carey, C. L.,, S. P. Woods,, J. D. Rippeth,, R. Gonzalez,, D. J. Moore,, T. D. Marcotte,, I. Grant, and, R. K. Heaton. 2004. Initial validation of a screening battery for the detection of HIV-associated cognitive impairment. Clin. Neuropsychol. 18:234248.
18. Carey, C. L.,, S. P. Woods,, J. D. Rippeth,, R. K. Heaton, and, I. Grant. 2006. Prospective memory in HIV-1 infection. J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol. 28:536548.
19. Carlson, K. A.,, P. Ciborowski,, C. N. Schellpeper,, T. M. Biskup,, R. F. Shen,, X. Luo,, C. J. Destache, and, H. E. Gendelman. 2004. Proteomic fingerprinting of HIV-1-infected human monocyte-derived macrophages: a preliminary report. J. Neuroimmunol. 147:3542.
20. CDC. 2003. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report. CDC, Atlanta, GA.
21. CDC. 2004. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report. CDC, Atlanta, GA.
22. Cherner, M.,, E. Masliah,, R. J. Ellis,, T. D. Marcotte,, D. J. Moore,, I. Grant, and, R. K. Heaton. 2002. Neurocognitive dysfunction predicts postmortem findings of HIV encephalitis. Neurology 59:15631567.
23. Ciborowski, P.,, Y. Enose,, A. Mack,, M. Fladseth, and, H. E. Gendelman. 2004. Diminished matrix metalloproteinase 9 secretion in human immunodeficiency virus-infected mononuclear phagocytes: modulation of innate immunity and implications for neurological disease. J. Neuroimmunol. 157:1116.
24. Cohen, M. J.,, W. B. Braunch,, W. G. Willis,, L. L. Weyandt, and, G. W. Hynd. 1992. Adult development and aging, p. 49–79. In A. E. Puente and, R. J. McCaffrey (ed.), Handbook of Neuropsychological Assessment. A Biopsychosocial Perspective. Plenum Press, New York, NY.
25. Cohen, R. A.,, R. Boland,, R. Paul,, K. T. Tashima,, E. E. Schoenbaum,, D. D. Celentano,, P. Schuman,, D. K. Smith, and, C. C. Carpenter. 2001. Neurocognitive performance enhanced by highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected women. AIDS 15:341345.
26. Conant, K.,, J. C. McArthur,, D. E. Griffin,, L. Sjulson,, L. M. Wahl, and, D. N. Irani. 1999. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of MMP-2, 7, and 9 are elevated in association with human immunodeficiency virus dementia. Ann. Neurol. 46:391398.
27. Concha, M.,, N. M. Graham,, A. Munoz,, D. Vlahov,, W. D. Royal, et al. 1992. Effect of chronic substance abuse on the neuropsychological performance of intravenous drug users with a high prevalence of HIV-1 seropositivity. Am. J. Epidemiol. 136:13381348.
28. Cook, J. A.,, M. H. Cohen,, J. Burke,, D. Grey,, K. Anastos,, L. Kirstein,, H. Palacio,, J. Richardson,, T. Wilson, and, M. Young. 2002. Effects of depressive symptoms and mental health quality of life on use of highly active antiretroviral therapy among HIV-seropositive women. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 30:401409.
29. Cook, J. A.,, D. Grey,, J. Burke,, M. H. Cohen,, A. C. Gurtman,, J. L. Richardson,, T. E. Wilson,, M. A. Young, and, N. A. Hessol. 2004. Depressive symptoms and AIDS-related mortality among a multisite cohort of HIV-positive women. Am. J. Public Health 94:11331140.
30. Cook, J. E.,, S. Dasgupta,, L. D. Middaugh,, E. C. Terry,, P. R. Gorry,, S. L. Wesselingh, and, W. R. Tyor. 2005. Highly active antiretroviral therapy and human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis. Ann. Neurol. 57:795803.
31. Corder, E. H.,, K. Robertson,, L. Lannfelt,, N. Bogdanovic,, G. Eggertsen,, J. Wilkins, and, C. Hall. 1998. HIV-infected subjects with the E4 allele for APOE have excess dementia and peripheral neuropathy. Nat. Med. 4:11821184.
32. Cornblath, D.,, V. Chaudhry,, K. Carter,, D. Lee,, M. Seysedadr,, M. Miernicki, and, T. Joh. 1999. Total neuropathy score: validation and reliability study. Neurology 53:16601664.
33. Cotter, R.,, C. Williams,, L. Ryan,, D. Erichsen,, A. Lopez,, H. Peng, and, J. Zheng. 2002. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) and brain inflammation: implications for HIV-1-associated dementia. J. Neurovirol. 8:585598.
34. Cutler, R. G.,, N. J. Haughey,, A. Tammara,, J. C. McArthur,, A. Nath,, R. Reid,, D. L. Vargas,, C. A. Pardo, and, M. P. Mattson. 2004. Dysregulation of sphingolipid and sterol metabolism by ApoE4 in HIV dementia. Neurology 63:626630.
35. Dana Consortium on Therapy for HIV Dementia and Related Cognitive Disorders. 1996. Clinical confirmation of the American Academy of Neurology algorithm for HIV-1-associated cognitive/motor disorder. Neurology 47:12471253.
36. Davis, H. F.,, R. L. Skolasky, Jr.,, O. A. Selnes,, D. M. Burgess, and, J. C. McArthur. 2002. Assessing HIV-associated dementia: modified HIV dementia scale versus the Grooved Pegboard. AIDS Read. 12:2931, 38.
37. Dougherty, R. H.,, R. L. Skolasky, Jr., and, J. C. McArthur. 2002. Progression of HIV-associated dementia treated with HAART. AIDS Read. 12:6974.
38. Durvasula, R. S.,, E. N. Miller,, H. F. Myers, and, G. E. Wyatt. 2001. Predictors of neuropsychological performance in HIV positive women. J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol. 23:149163.
39. Durvasula, R. S.,, H. F. Myers,, P. Satz,, E. N. Miller,, H. Morgenstern,, M. A. Richardson,, G. Evans, and, D. Forney. 2000. HIV-1, cocaine, and neuropsychological performance in African American men. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc. 6:322335.
40. Elkabes, S.,, E. M. DiCicco-Bloom, and, I. B. Black. 1996. Brain microglia/macrophages express neurotrophins that selectively regulate microglial proliferation and function. J. Neurosci. 16:25082521.
41. Enose, Y.,, C. J. Destache,, A. L. Mack,, J. R. Anderson,, F. Ullrich,, P. S. Ciborowski, and, H. E. Gendelman. 2005. Proteomic fingerprints distinguish microglia, bone marrow, and spleen macrophage populations. Glia 51:161172.
42. Everall, I. P.,, J. D. Glass,, J. McArthur,, E. Spargo, and, P. Lantos. 1994. Neuronal density in the superior frontal and temporal gyri does not correlate with the degree of human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia. Acta Neuropathol. 88:538544.
43. Farinpour, R.,, E. N. Miller,, P. Satz,, O. A. Selnes,, B. A. Cohen,, J. T. Becker,, R. L. Skolasky, Jr., and, B. R. Visscher. 2003. Psychosocial risk factors of HIV morbidity and mortality: findings from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol. 25:654670.
44. Fischer-Smith, T.,, S. Croul,, A. E. Sverstiuk,, C. Capini,, D. L’Heureux,, E. G. Regulier,, M. W. Richardson,, S. Amini,, S. Morgello,, K. Khalili, and, J. Rappaport. 2001. CNS invasion by CD14+/CD16+ peripheral blood-derived monocytes in HIV dementia: perivascular accumulation and reservoir of HIV infection. J. Neurovirol. 7:528541.
45. Flores, I.,, D. Pieniazek,, N. Moran,, A. Soler,, N. Rodriguez,, M. Alegria,, M. Vera,, L. M. Janini,, C. I. Bandea,, A. Ramos,, M. Rayfield, and, Y. Yamamura. 1999. HIV-1 subtype F in single and dual infections in Puerto Rico: a potential sentinel site for monitoring novel genetic HIV variants in North America. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:481483.
46. Gao, F.,, E. Bailes,, D. L. Robertson,, Y. Chen,, C. M. Rodenburg,, S. F. Michael,, L. B. Cummins,, L. O. Arthur,, M. Peeters,, G. M. Shaw,, P. M. Sharp, and, B. H. Hahn. 1999. Origin of HIV-1 in the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes. Nature 397:436441.
47. Gartner, S. 2000. HIV infection and dementia. Science 287:602604.
48. Gelbard, H. A.,, H. S. Nottet,, S. Swindells,, M. Jett,, K. A. Dzenko,, P. Genis,, R. White,, L. Wang,, Y. B. Choi,, D. Zhang, et al. 1994. Platelet-activating factor: a candidate human immunodeficiency virus type 1-induced neurotoxin. J. Virol. 68:46284635.
49. Gendelman, H.,, E. Anderson,, L. Melendez, and, J. Zheng. 2006. Chemokines and their receptors and the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 infection, p. 45–80. In H. Friedman,, S. Specter, and, M. Bendinelli (ed.), In Vivo Models of HIV Disease and Control. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.
50. Gendelman, H.,, J. Zheng,, C. Coulter,, A. Ghorpade,, M. Che, et al. 1998. The HIV-associated dementia complex: a metabolic encephalopathy reversed by highly active antiretroviral therapy. J. Infect. Dis. 178:10001007.
51. Gendelman, H. E.,, Y. Persidsky,, A. Ghorpade,, J. Limoges,, M. Stins,, M. Fiala, and, R. Morrisett. 1997. The neuropathogenesis of the AIDS dementia complex. AIDS 11(Suppl. A):S35S45.
52. Goldstein, G.,, and C. H. Shelly. 1972. Statistical and normative studies of the Halstead Neuropsychological Test Battery relevant to a neuropsychiatric hospital setting. Percept. Mot. Skills 34:603620.
53. Gomez, C. E.,, E. Iglesias,, W. Perdomo,, F. Rolo,, M. Blanco,, L. Lobaina,, A. Martin, and, C. A. Duarte. 2001. Isolates from four different HIV type 1 clades circulating in Cuba identified by DNA sequence of the C2-V3 region. AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir. 17:5558.
54. Gonzalez-Scarano, F.,, and J. Martin-Garcia. 2005. The neuropathogenesis of AIDS. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 5:6981.
55. Gonzalez, E.,, H. Kulkarni,, H. Bolivar,, A. Mangano,, R. Sanchez,, G. Catano,, R. J. Nibbs,, B. I. Freedman,, M. P. Quinones,, M. J. Bamshad,, K. K. Murthy,, B. H. Rovin,, W. Bradley,, R. A. Clark,, S. A. Anderson,, J. R. O’Connell,, B. K. Agan,, S. S. Ahuja,, R. Bologna,, L. Sen,, M. J. Dolan, and, S. K. Ahuja. 2005. The influence of CCL3L1 gene-containing segmental duplications on HIV-1/AIDS susceptibility. Science 307:14341440.
56. Gonzalez, E.,, B. H. Rovin,, L. Sen,, G. Cooke,, R. Dhanda,, S. Mummidi,, H. Kulkarni,, M. J. Bamshad,, V. Telles,, S. A. Anderson,, E. A. Walter,, K. T. Stephan,, M. Deucher,, A. Mangano,, R. Bologna,, S. S. Ahuja,, M. J. Dolan, and, S. K. Ahuja. 2002. HIV-1 infection and AIDS dementia are influenced by a mutant MCP-1 allele linked to increased monocyte infiltration of tissues and MCP-1 levels. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:1379513800.
57. Goodkin, K.,, F. L. Wilkie,, M. Concha,, D. Asthana,, P. Shapshak,, R. Douyon,, R. K. Fujimura, and, C. LoPiccolo. 1997. Subtle neuropsychological impairment and minor cognitive-motor disorder in HIV-1 infection. Neuroradiological, neurophysiological, neuroimmunological, and virological correlates. Neuroimaging Clin. N. Am. 7:561579.
58. Gorry, P. R.,, J. Taylor,, G. H. Holm,, A. Mehle,, T. Morgan,, M. Cayabyab,, M. Farzan,, H. Wang,, J. E. Bell,, K. Kunstman,, J. P. Moore,, S. M. Wolinsky, and, D. Gabuzda. 2002. Increased CCR5 affinity and reduced CCR5/CD4 dependence of a neurovirulent primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate. J. Virol. 76:62776292.
59. Grant, I.,, D. Byrd,, M. Cherner,, D. Clifford,, I. Grant,, J. Joseph,, J. McArthur,, M. Nunn,, V. Valcour, and, V. Wojna. 2005. Towards an updated nosology for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, abstr. 38, p. 49. HIV Infect. Central Nervous Syst. Dev. Resource Limited Settings. Edizioni Internazionali srl, Rome, Italy.
60. Gupta, J. D.,, P. Satishchandra,, K. Gopukumar,, F. Wilkie,, D. Waldrop-Valverde,, R. Ellis,, R. Ownby,, D. K. Subbakrishna,, A. Desai,, A. Kamat,, V. Ravi,, B. S. Rao,, K. S. Satish, and, M. Kumar. 2007. Neuropsychological deficits in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clade C-seropositive adults from South India. J. Neurovirol. 13:195202.
61. Hahn, B. H.,, G. M. Shaw,, K. M. De Cock, and, P. M. Sharp. 2000. AIDS as a zoonosis: scientific and public health implications. Science 287:607614.
62. Heese, K.,, C. Hock, and, U. Otten. 1998. Inflammatory signals induce neurotrophin expression in human microglial cells. J. Neurochem. 70:699707.
63. Heyes, M. P.,, B. J. Brew,, A. Martin,, R. W. Price,, A. M. Salazar,, J. J. Sidtis,, J. A. Yergey,, M. M. Mouradian,, A. E. Sadler,, J. Keilp, et al. 1991. Quinolinic acid in cerebrospinal fluid and serum in HIV-1 infection: relationship to clinical and neurological status. Ann. Neurol. 29:202209.
64. Ho, D. D.,, A. U. Neumann,, A. S. Perelson,, W. Chen,, J. M. Leonard, and, M. Markowitz. 1995. Rapid turnover of plasma virions and CD4 lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection. Nature 373:123126.
65. Janssen, R. S.,, D. R. Cornblath, and, L. G. Epstein. 1991. Nomenclature and research case definitions for neurological manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection: report of a Working Group of the American Academy of Neurology AIDS Task Force. Neurology 41:778.
66. Janssen, R. S.,, A. J. Saykin,, L. Cannon,, J. Campbell,, P. F. Pinsky,, N. A. Hessol,, P. M. O’Malley,, A. R. Lifson,, L. S. Doll,, G. W. Rutherford, et al. 1989. Neurological and neuropsychological manifestations of HIV-1 infection: association with AIDS-related complex but not asymptomatic HIV-1 infection. Ann. Neurol. 26:592600.
67. Jones, D. L.,, M. Ishii,, A. LaPerriere,, H. Stanley,, M. Antoni,, G. Ironson,, N. Schneiderman,, F. Van Splunteren,, A. Cassells,, K. Alexander,, Y. P. Gousse,, A. Vaughn,, E. Brondolo,, J. N. Tobin, and, S. M. Weiss. 2003. Influencing medication adherence among women with AIDS. AIDS Care 15:463474.
68. Kaul, M.,, and S. A. Lipton. 1999. Chemokines and activated macrophages in HIV gp120-induced neuronal apoptosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:82128216.
69. Kelder, W.,, J. C. McArthur,, T. Nance-Sproson,, D. McClernon, and, D. E. Griffin. 1998. Beta-chemokines MCP-1 and RANTES are selectively increased in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia. Ann. Neurol. 44:831835.
70. Khanna, K. V.,, X. F. Yu,, D. H. Ford,, L. Ratner,, J. K. Hildreth, and, R. B. Markham. 2000. Differences among HIV-1 variants in their ability to elicit secretion of TNF-alpha. J. Immunol. 164:14081415.
71. Kijak, G. H.,, and F. E. McCutchan. 2005. HIV diversity, molecular epidemiology, and the role of recombination. Curr. Infect. Dis. Rep. 7:480488.
72. Kilbourne, A.,, A. Justice,, L. Rabeneck,, M. Rodriguez-Barradas,, S. Weissman, and, V. P. Team. 2001. General medical and psychiatric comorbidity among HIV-Infected veterans in the post-HAART era. J. Clin. Epidemiol. 54(Suppl. 1):S22S28.
73. Kim, W. K.,, S. Corey,, X. Alvarez, and, K. Williams. 2003. Monocyte/macrophage traffic in HIV and SIV encephalitis. J. Leukoc. Biol. 74:650656.
74. La Rue, A. 1992. Adult development and aging, p. 81–119. In A. E. Puente and, R. J. McCaffrey (ed.), Handbook of Neuropsychological Assessment. A Biopsychosocial Perspective. Plenum Press, New York, NY.
75. Laspiur, J. P.,, E. R. Anderson,, P. Ciborowski,, V. Wojna,, W. Rozek,, F. Duan,, R. Mayo,, E. Rodriguez,, M. Plaud-Valentin,, J. Rodriguez-Orengo,, H. E. Gendelman, and, L. M. Melendez. 2007. CSF proteomic fingerprints for HIV-associated cognitive impairment. J. Neuroimmunol. 192:157170.
76. Liner, K. J., II,, C. D. Hall, and, K. R. Robertson. 2007. Impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) subtypes on HIV-associated neurological disease. J. Neurovirol. 13:291304.
77. Liu, X.,, Y. Stern,, K. Bell,, J. B. Joseph,, Z. Williams,, K. Stein,, K. Marder,, G. Dooneief,, G. Todak,, W. El Sadr,, A. A. Ehrhardt, and, R. Mayeux. 1996. Gender differences in HIV-related neurological progression in a cohort of injecting drug users followed for 3.5 years. J. Neuro-AIDS 1:1730.
78. Llorente, A. M.,, M. Turcich, and, K. A. Lawrence. 2004. Differences in neuropsychological performance associated with ethnicity in children with HIV-1 infection: preliminary findings. Appl. Neuropsychol. 11:4753.
79. Luciano, C.,, G. Ebenezer,, R. L. Skolasky,, J. Maldonado,, V. Ho-Fung,, S. Sanchez,, T. Ginebra,, E. Castillo,, P. Hauer, and, J. C. McArthur. 2005a. Increased cutaneous innervation in pediatric/adolescent HIV sensory neuropathy. 5th Annu. Conf. Spec. Neurosci. Res. Progr., Adelphi, MD.
80. Luciano, C.,, V. Ho-Fung,, S. Sanchez,, E. Castillo,, T. Ginebra,, V. Gerena,, C. Rivera, and, J. C. McArthur. 2005b. A comparison of soluble immune markers in antiretroviral toxic neuropathy and HIV distal sensory neuropathy. Neurology 64:A246.
81. Luo, X.,, K. A. Carlson,, V. Wojna,, R. Mayo,, T. M. Biskup,, J. Stoner,, J. Anderson,, H. E. Gendelman, and, L. M. Melendez. 2003. Macrophage proteomic fingerprinting predicts HIV-1-associated cognitive impairment. Neurology 60:19311937.
82. Lyketsos, C. G.,, D. R. Hoover,, M. Guccione,, W. Senterfitt,, M. A. Dew,, J. Wesch,, M. J. VanRaden,, G. J. Treisman,, H. Morgenstern, et al. 1993. Depressive symptoms as predictors of medical outcomes in HIV infection. JAMA 270:25632567.
83. Mahadevan, A.,, S. K. Shankar,, P. Satishchandra,, U. Ranga,, Y. T. Chickabasaviah,, V. Santosh,, R. Vasanthapuram,, C. A. Pardo,, A. Nath, and, M. C. Zink. 2007. Characterization of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected cells in infiltrates associated with CNS opportunistic infections in patients with HIV clade C infection. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 66:799808.
84. Marder, K. S.,, S. Albert,, G. Dooneief,, Y. Stern,, G. Ramachandran, and, L. Epstein. 1996. Clinical confirmation of the American Academy of Neurology algorithm for HIV-1-associated cognitive/motor disorder. Neurology 47:1247.
85. Martin, E. M.,, J. A. Cook,, M. Chen,, V. L. Carson,, R. A. Reed,, R. Hershow, and, J. Burke. 1999. Working memory function in HHIV-seropositive women: the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc. 5:155.
86. Martin, E. M.,, T. S. Sullivan,, R. A. Reed,, T. A. Fletcher,, D. L. Pitrak,, W. Weddington, and, M. Harrow. 2001. Auditory working memory in HIV-1 infection. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc. 7:206.
87. Masliah, E.,, R. M. DeTeresa,, M. E. Mallory, and, L. A. Hansen. 2000. Changes in pathological findings at autopsy in AIDS cases for the last 15 years. AIDS 14:6974.
88. Mason, K. I.,, A. Campbell,, P. Hawkins,, S. Madhere,, K. Johnson, and, R. Takushi-Chinen. 1998. Neuropsychological functioning in HIV-positive African-American women with a history of drug use. J. Natl. Med. Assoc. 90:665674.
89. Matthews, J. R. 1992. Sex and gender, p. 121–139. In A. E. Puente and, R. J. McCaffrey (ed.), Handbook of Neuropsychological Assessment. A Biopsychological Perspective. Plenum Press, New York, NY.
90. Mayeux, R.,, Y. Stern,, M. X. Tang,, G. Todak,, K. Marder,, M. Sano,, M. Richards,, Z. Stein,, A. A. Ehrhardt, and, J. M. Gorman. 1993. Mortality risks in gay men with human immunodeficiency virus infection and cognitive impairment. Neurology 43:176182.
91. McArthur, J. C. 2004. HIV dementia: an evolving disease. J. Neuroimmunol. 157:310.
92. McArthur, J.,, J. S. Creighton,, L. Lai,, R. Moore,, K. Carter,, S. Wesselingh, and, K. Cherry. 2004. Risk factors and determinants for HIV-associated sensory neuropathies: is hepatitis C a modifier? 11th Conf. Retrovir. Opportun. Infect., San Francisco, CA.
93. McCarthy, B. G.,, S. T. Hsieh,, S. Stocks,, P. Hauer,, C. Macko,, D. R. Cornblath,, J. W. Griffin, and, J. C. McArthur. 1995. Cutaneous innervation in sensory neuropathies: evaluation by skin biopsy. Neurology 45:18481855.
94. Melendez, L. M. 2006. 12th SNIP Meeting, abstr. SS-7.
95. Messam, C. A.,, and E. O. Major. 2000. Stages of restricted HIV-1 infection in astrocyte cultures derived from human fetal brain tissue. J. Neurovirol. 6(Suppl 1):S90S94.
96. Miller, E. N.,, O. A. Selnes,, J. C. McArthur,, P. Satz,, J. T. Becker,, B. A. Cohen,, K. Sheridan,, A. M. Machado,, W. G. Van Gorp, and, B. Visscher. 1990. Neuropsychological performance in HIV-1-infected homosexual men: The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Neurology 40:197203.
97. Millogo, A.,, A. B. Sawadogo,, A. P. Sawadogo, and, D. Lankoande. 2002. Peripheral neuropathies revealing HIV infection at the Hospital Center of Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso). Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 95:2730.
98. Mindt, M. R.,, M. Cherner,, T. D. Marcotte,, D. J. Moore,, H. Bentley,, M. M. Esquivel,, Y. Lopez,, I. Grant, and, R. K. Heaton. 2003. The functional impact of HIV-associated neuropsychological impairment in Spanish-speaking adults: a pilot study. J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol. 25:122132.
99. Modi, G.,, K. Hari,, M. Modi, and, A. Mochan. 2007. The frequency and profile of neurology in black South African HIV infected (clade C) patients—a hospital-based prospective audit. J. Neurol. Sci. 254:6064.
100. Morgello, S.,, R. Mahboob,, T. Yakoushina,, S. Khan, and, K. Hague. 2002. Autopsy findings in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected population over 2 decades: influences of gender, ethnicity, risk factors, and time. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 126:182190.
101. Moses, A. V.,, F. E. Bloom,, C. D. Pauza, and, J. A. Nelson. 1993. Human immunodeficiency virus infection of human brain capillary endothelial cells occurs via a CD4/galacto-sylceramide-independent mechanism. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:1047410478.
102. Nath, A.,, K. Conant,, P. Chen,, C. Scott, and, E. O. Major. 1999. Transient exposure to HIV-1 Tat protein results in cytokine production in macrophages and astrocytes: a hit and run phenomenon. J. Biol. Chem. 274:1709817102.
103. Nath, A.,, V. Hartloper,, M. Furer, and, K. R. Fowke. 1995. Infection of human fetal astrocytes with HIV-1: viral tropism and the role of cell to cell contact in viral transmission. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 54:320330.
104. Navia, B. A.,, E. S. Cho,, C. K. Petito, and, R. W. Price. 1986a. The AIDS dementia complex: II. Neuropathology. Ann. Neurol. 19:525535.
105. Navia, B. A.,, B. D. Jordan, and, R. W. Price. 1986b. The AIDS dementia complex: I. Clinical features. Ann. Neurol. 19:517524.
106. Navia, B. A.,, and K. Rostasy. 2005. The AIDS dementia complex: clinical and basic neuroscience with implications for novel molecular therapies. Neurotox. Res. 8:324.
107. Newman, P. J.,, and J. J. Sweet. 1986. The effects of clinical depression on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery. Int. J. Clin. Neuropsychol. 8:109114.
108. Nieves, D. M.,, M. Plaud,, V. Wojna,, R. Skolasky, and, L. M. Melendez. 2007. Characterization of peripheral blood human immunodeficiency virus isolates from Hispanic women with cognitive impairment. J. Neurovirol. 13:315327.
109. Nottet, H. S. 1999. Interactions between macrophages and brain microvascular endothelial cells: role in pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection and blood-brain barrier function. J. Neurovirol. 5:659669.
110. Parry, O.,, J. Mielke,, A. Latif,, S. Ray,, L. Levy, and, S. Siziya. 1997. Peripheral neuropathy in individuals with HIV infection in Zimbabwe. Acta Neurol. Scand. 96:218222.
111. Peeters, M.,, and P. M. Sharp. 2000. Genetic diversity of HIV-1: the moving target. AIDS 14(Suppl. 3):S129S140.
112. Polydefkis, M.,, C. Yiannoutsos,, B. Cohen,, H. Hollander,, G. Schifitto,, D. Clifford,, D. Simpson,, D. Katzenstein,, S. Shriver,, P. Hauer,, A. Brown,, A. Haidich,, L. Moo, and, J. McArthur. 2002. Reduced-intraepidermal nerve fiber density in HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. Neurology 58:115119.
113. Power, C.,, P. A. Kong,, T. O. Crawford,, S. Wesselingh,, J. D. Glass,, J. C. McArthur, and, B. D. Trapp. 1993. Cerebral white matter changes in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome dementia: alterations of the blood-brain barrier. Ann. Neurol. 34:339350.
114. Power, C.,, J. C. McArthur,, A. Nath,, K. Wehrly,, M. Mayne,, J. Nishio,, T. Langelier,, R. T. Johnson, and, B. Chesebro. 1998. Neuronal death induced by brain-derived human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope genes differs between demented and nondemented AIDS patients. J. Virol. 72:90459053.
115. Power, C.,, O. A. Selnes,, J. A. Grim, and, J. C. McArthur. 1995. HIV Dementia Scale: a rapid screening test. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 8:273278.
116. Preston, B. D.,, B. J. Poiesz, and, L. A. Loeb. 1988. Fidelity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Science 242:11681171.
117. Price, R. W.,, and B. J. Brew. 1988. The AIDS dementia complex. J. Infect. Dis. 158:10791083.
118. Price, R. W.,, C. T. Yiannoutsos,, D. B. Clifford,, L. Zaborski,, A. Tselis,, J. J. Sidtis,, B. Cohen,, C. D. Hall,, A. Erice,, K. Henry, et al. 1999. Neurological outcomes in late HIV infection: adverse impact of neurological impairment on survival and protective effect of antiviral therapy. AIDS 13:16771685.
119. Pulliam, L.,, R. Gascon,, M. Stubblebine,, D. McGuire, and, M. S. McGrath. 1997. Unique monocyte subset in patients with AIDS dementia. Lancet 349:692695.
120. Pulliam, L.,, B. Sun, and, H. Rempel. 2004. Invasive chronic inflammatory monocyte phenotype in subjects with high HIV-1 viral load. J. Neuroimmunol. 157:9398.
121. Quasney, M. W.,, Q. Zhang,, S. Sargent,, M. Mynatt,, J. Glass, and, J. McArthur. 2001. Increased frequency of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha-308 A allele in adults with human immunodeficiency virus dementia. Ann. Neurol. 50:157162.
122. Quinn, T. C.,, and J. Overbaugh. 2005. HIV/AIDS in women: an expanding epidemic. Science 308:15821583.
123. Ranki, A.,, M. Nyberg,, V. Ovod,, M. Haltia,, I. Elovaara,, R. Raininko,, H. Haapasalo, and, K. Krohn. 1995. Abundant expression of HIV Nef and Rev proteins in brain astrocytes in vivo is associated with dementia. AIDS 9:10011008.
124. Ricart, F.,, M. A. Cohen,, C. A. Alfonso,, R. G. Hoffman,, N. Quinones,, A. Cohen, and, D. Indyk. 2002. Understanding the psychodynamics of non-adherence to medical treatment in persons with HIV infection. Gen. Hosp. Psychiatry 24:176180.
125. Richardson, J. L.,, E. M. Martin,, N. Jimenez,, K. Danley,, M. Cohen,, V. L. Carson,, B. Sinclair,, J. M. Racenstein,, R. A. Reed, and, A. M. Levine. 2002. Neuropsychological functioning in a cohort of HIV infected women: importance of antiretroviral therapy. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc. 8:781793.
126. Richardson, M. A.,, E. E. Morgan,, M. J. Vielhauer,, C. A. Cuevas,, L. M. Buondonno, and, T. M. Keane. 2005. Utility of the HIV dementia scale in assessing risk for significant HIV-related cognitive-motor deficits in a high-risk urban adult sample. AIDS Care 17:10131021.
127. Richardson, M. A.,, P. F. Satz,, H. F. Myers,, E. N. Miller,, E. G. Bing,, F. I. Fawzy, and, M. Maj. 1999. Effects of depressed mood versus clinical depression on neuropsychological test performance among African American men impacted by HIV/AIDS. J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol. 21:769783.
128. Riedel, D.,, M. Ghate,, M. Nene,, R. Paranjape,, S. Mehendale,, R. Bollinger,, N. Sacktor,, J. McArthur, and, A. Nath. 2006. Screening for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) dementia in an HIV clade C-infected population in India. J. Neurovirol. 12:3438.
129. Rosenberger, P. H.,, R. A. Bornstein,, H. A. Nasrallah,, M. F. Para,, C. C. Whitaker,, R. J. Fass, and, R. R. Rice, Jr. 1993. Psychopathology in human immunodeficiency virus infection: lifetime and current assessment. Compr. Psychiatry 34:150158.
130. Ross, H. L.,, S. Gartner,, J. C. McArthur,, J. R. Corboy,, J. J. McAllister,, S. Millhouse, and, B. Wigdahl. 2001. HIV-1 LTR C/EBP binding site sequence configurations preferentially encountered in brain lead to enhanced C/EBP factor binding and increased LTR-specific activity. J. Neurovirol. 7:235249.
131. Roth, W. W.,, P. N. Levett,, C. P. Hudson,, T. C. Roach,, C. Womack, and, V. C. Bond. 1997. HIV type 1 envelope sequences from seroconverting patients in Barbados. AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir. 13:14431446.
132. Rozek W.,, M. Ricardo-Dukelow,, S. Holloway,, V. Wojna,, L. M. Melendez,, H. E. Gendelman, and, P. Ciborowski. 2007. Cereprospinal fluid Proteomic profiling of HIV-infected patients with cognitive impairment. J. Proteome Res. 6:41894199.
133. Rutkove, S.,, M. Kothari,, E. Raynor,, M. Levy,, R. Fadic, and, R. Nardin. 1997. Sural/radial amplitude in the diagnosis of mild axonal polyneuropathy. Muscle Nerve 20:12361241.
134. Ryan, E. L.,, R. Baird,, M. R. Mindt,, D. Byrd,, J. Monzones, and, S. M. Bank. 2005. Neuropsychological impairment in racial/ethnic minorities with HIV infection and low literacy levels: effects of education and reading level in participant characterization. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc. 11:889898.
135. Sacktor, N. 2002. The epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurological disease in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. J. Neurovirol. 8(Suppl. 2):115121.
136. Sacktor, N.,, R. H. Lyles,, R. Skolasky,, C. Kleeberger,, O. A. Selnes,, E. N. Miller,, J. T. Becker,, B. Cohen, and, J. C. McArthur. 2001. HIV-associated neurologic disease incidence changes: Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, 1990–1998. Neurology 56:257260.
137. Sacktor, N.,, M. P. McDermott,, K. Marder,, G. Schifitto,, O. A. Selnes,, J. C. McArthur,, Y. Stern,, S. Albert,, D. Palumbo,, K. Kieburtz,, J. A. De Marcaida,, B. Cohen, and, L. Epstein. 2002. HIV-associated cognitive impairment before and after the advent of combination therapy. J. Neurovirol. 8:136142.
138. Sacktor, N.,, R. L. Skolasky,, T. Ernst,, X. Mao,, O. Selnes,, M. G. Pomper,, L. Chang,, K. Zhong,, D. C. Shungu,, K. Marder,, D. Shibata,, G. Schifitto,, L. Bobo, and, P. B. Barker. 2005. A multicenter study of two magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques in individuals with HIV dementia. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 21:325333.
139. Sacktor, N.,, R. Skolasky,, O. A. Selnes,, M. Watters,, P. Poff,, B. Shiramizu,, C. Shikuma, and, V. Valcour. 2007. Neuropsychological test profile differences between young and old human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals. J. Neurovirol. 13:203209.
140. Sacktor, N. C.,, H. Bacellar,, D. R. Hoover,, T. E. Nance-Sproson,, O. A. Selnes,, E. N. Miller,, G. J. Dal Pan,, C. Kleeberger,, A. Brown,, A. Saah, and, J. C. McArthur. 1996. Psychomotor slowing in HIV infection: a predictor of dementia, AIDS and death. J. Neurovirol. 2:404410.
141. Saha, R. N.,, and K. Pahan. 2003. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha at the crossroads of neuronal life and death during HIV-associated dementia. J. Neurochem. 86:10571071.
142. Sanchez Rodriguez, J. L.,, and M. Rodriguez Alvarez. 2003. Normal aging and AIDS. Arch. Gerontol. Geriatr. 36:5765.
143. Satz, P.,, H. Morgenstern,, E. N. Miller,, O. A. Selnes,, J. C. McArthur,, B. A. Cohen,, J. Wesch,, J. T. Becker,, L. Jacobson,, L. F. D’Elia, et al. 1993. Low education as a possible risk factor for cognitive abnormalities in HIV-1: findings from the multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 6:503511.
144. Saykin, A. J.,, R. S. Janssen, and, G. C. Sprehn. 1988. Neuropsychological dysfunction in HIV-infection: characterization in a lymphadenopathy cohort. Int. J. Clin. Neuropsychol. 10:8195.
145. Schifitto, G.,, K. Kieburtz,, M. P. McDermott,, J. McArthur,, K. Marder,, N. Sacktor,, D. Palumbo,, O. Selnes,, Y. Stern,, L. Epstein, and, S. Albert. 2001. Clinical trials in HIV-associated cognitive impairment: cognitive and functional outcomes. Neurology 56:415418.
146. Selnes, O. A. 2005. Memory loss in persons with HIV/AIDS: assessment and strategies for coping. AIDS Read. 15:289292, 294.
147. Selnes, O. A.,, N. Galai,, J. C. McArthur,, S. Cohn,, W. Royal III, et al. 1997. HIV infection and cognition in intravenous drug users: long-term follow-up. Neurology 48:223230.
148. Selnes, O. A.,, J. C. McArthur,, W. D. Royal,, M. L. Updike,, T. Nance-Sproson, et al. 1992. HIV-1 infection and intravenous drug use: longitudinal neuropsychological evaluation of asymptomatic subjects. Neurology 42:19241930.
149. Selnes, O. A.,, E. Miller,, J. McArthur,, B. Gordon,, A. Munoz,, K. Sheridan,, R. Fox,, A. J. Saah, et al. 1990. HIV-1 infection: no evidence of cognitive decline during the asymptomatic stages. Neurology 40:204208.
150. Sene-Diouf, F.,, M. Ndiaye,, A. Diop,, A. Thiam,, A. Ndao,, M. Diagne,, M. Ndiaye, and, I. Ndiyae. 2000. Epidemiological, clinical and progressive aspects of neurological manifestations associated with retroviral infections: eleven year retrospective study. Dakar Med. 45:162166.
151. Severe, P. 2005. HIV-associated neurological complications in Haiti, abstr. 7, p. 17. HIV Infect. Central Nervous Syst. Dev. Resource Limited Settings. Edizioni Internazionali srl, Rome, Italy.
152. Sevigny, J. J.,, S. M. Albert,, M. P. McDermott,, J. C. McArthur,, N. Sacktor,, K. Conant,, G. Schifitto,, O. A. Selnes,, Y. Stern,, D. R. McClernon,, D. Palumbo,, K. Kieburtz,, G. Riggs,, B. Cohen,, L. G. Epstein, and, K. Marder. 2004. Evaluation of HIV RNA and markers of immune activation as predictors of HIV-associated dementia. Neurology 63:20842090.
153. Sevigny, J. J.,, S. M. Albert,, M. P. McDermott,, G. Schifitto,, J. C. McArthur,, N. Sacktor,, K. Conant,, O. A. Selnes,, Y. Stern,, D. R. McClernon,, D. Palumbo,, K. Kieburtz,, G. Riggs,, B. Cohen,, K. Marder, and, L. G. Epstein. 2007. An evaluation of neurocognitive status and markers of immune activation as predictors of time to death in advanced HIV infection. Arch. Neurol. 64:97102.
154. Silberstein, C. H.,, F. P. McKegney,, M. A. O’Dowd,, P. A. Selwyn,, E. Schoenbaum,, E. Drucker,, C. Feiner,, C. P. Cox, and, G. Friedland. 1987. A prospective longitudinal study of neuropsychological and psychosocial factors in asymptomatic individuals at risk for HTLV-III/LAV infection in a methadone program: preliminary findings. Int. J. Neurosci. 32:669676.
155. Singh, K. K.,, R. J. Ellis,, J. Marquie-Beck,, S. Letendre,, R. K. Heaton,, I. Grant, and, S. A. Spector. 2004. CCR2 polymorphisms affect neuropsychological impairment in HIV-1-infected adults. J. Neuroimmunol. 157:185192.
156. Soontornniyomkij, V.,, G. Wang,, C. A. Pittman,, C. A. Wiley, and, C. L. Achim. 1998. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein in activated microglia of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 encephalitis. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. 24:453460.
157. Stein, D. S.,, R. H. Lyles,, N. M. Graham,, C. J. Tassoni,, J. B. Margolick,, J. P. Phair,, C. Rinaldo,, R. Detels,, A. Saah,, J. Bilello, et al. 1997. Predicting clinical progression or death in subjects with early-stage human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: a comparative analysis of quantification of HIV RNA, soluble tumor necrosis factor type II receptors, neopterin, and β2-microglobulin. J. Infect. Dis. 176:11611167.
158. Stern, Y.,, M. P. McDermott,, S. Albert,, D. Palumbo,, O. A. Selnes,, J. McArthur,, N. Sacktor,, G. Schifitto,, K. Kieburtz,, L. Epstein, and, K. S. Marder. 2001. Factors associated with incident human immunodeficiency virus-dementia. Arch. Neurol. 58:473479.
159. Tornatore, C.,, A. Nath,, K. Amemiya, and, E. O. Major. 1991. Persistent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in human fetal glial cells reactivated by T-cell factor(s) or by the cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1β. J. Virol. 65:60946100.
160. Toro, D. M.,, J. Perez Laspiur,, P. Ciborowski,, F. Duan,, V. Wojna,, H. E. Gendelman, and, L. M. Meléndez. Proteomic analysis of HIV-1 infected monocyte-derived macrophage following infection with primary viral strains isolated from Hispanic women with cognitive impairment. J. Neurovirol. in press.
161. Valcour, V.,, C. Shikuma,, B. Shiramizu,, M. Watters,, P. Poff,, O. Selnes,, P. Holck,, J. Grove, and, N. Sacktor. 2004a. Higher frequency of dementia in older HIV-1 individuals: the Hawaii Aging with HIV-1 Cohort. Neurology 63:822827.
162. Valcour, V.,, C. Shikuma,, B. Shiramizu,, M. Watters,, P. Poff,, O. A. Selnes,, J. Grove,, Y. Liu,, K. B. Abdul-Majid,, S. Gartner, and, N. Sacktor. 2004b. Age, apolipoprotein E4, and the risk of HIV dementia: the Hawaii Aging with HIV Cohort. J. Neuroimmunol. 157:197202.
163. Valcour, V.,, C. Shikuma,, B. Shiramizu,, A. E. Williams,, M. Watters,, O. Selnes, and, N. Sacktor. 2005. Cognitive decline noted in HIV patients with persistently undetetable plasma viremia—The Hawaii Aging with HIV-1 Cohort. 5th Annu. Conf. Spec. Neurosci. Res. Progr., Adelphi, MD.
164. Valdois, S.,, Y. Joanette,, A. Poissant,, B. Ska, and, F. Dehaut. 1990. Heterogeneity in the cognitive profile of normal elderly. J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol. 12:587596.
165. van Gorp, W. G.,, E. N. Miller,, T. D. Marcotte,, W. Dixon,, D. Paz,, O. Selnes,, J. Wesch,, J. T. Becker,, C. H. Hinkin,, M. Mitrushina, et al. 1994. The relationship between age and cognitive impairment in HIV-1 infection: findings from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study and a clinical cohort. Neurology 44:929935.
166. Vaughan, H. E.,, P. Cane,, D. Pillay, and, R. S. Tedder. 2003. Characterization of HIV type 1 clades in the Caribbean using pol gene sequences. AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir. 19:929932.
167. Vedhara, K.,, G. Schifitto, and, M. McDermott, et al. 1999. Disease progression in HIV-positive women with moderate to severe immunosuppression: the role of depression. Behav. Med. 25:4347.
168. Vehmas, A.,, J. Lieu,, C. A. Pardo,, J. C. McArthur, and, S. Gartner. 2004. Amyloid precursor protein expression in circulating monocytes and brain macrophages from patients with HIV-associated cognitive impairment. J. Neuroimmunol. 157:99110.
169. von Giesen, H. J.,, S. Jander,, H. Koller, and, G. Arendt. 2004. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid levels of interleukin-18 in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-associated central nervous system disease. J. Neurovirol. 10:383386.
170. Wiley, C. A.,, E. Masliah,, M. Morey,, C. Lemere,, R. DeTeresa,, M. Grafe,, L. Hansen, and, R. Terry. 1991. Neocortical damage during HIV infection. Ann. Neurol. 29:651657.
171. Wilkie, F. L.,, K. Goodkin,, A. Ardila,, M. Concha,, D. Lee,, R. Lecusay,, P. Suarez,, M. H. Van Zuilen,, R. Molina, and, S. O’Mellan. 2004. HUMANS: an English and Spanish neuropsychological test battery for assessing HIV-1-infected individuals—initial report. Appl. Neuropsychol. 11:121133.
172. Williams, K. C.,, S. Corey,, S. V. Westmoreland,, D. Pauley,, H. Knight,, C. deBakker,, X. Alvarez, and, A. A. Lackner. 2001. Perivascular macrophages are the primary cell type productively infected by simian immunodeficiency virus in the brains of macaques: implications for the neuropathogenesis of AIDS. J. Exp. Med. 193:905915.
173. Wohl, A. R.,, S. Lu,, J. Turner,, A. Kovacs,, M. Witt,, K. Squires,, W. Towner, and, V. Beer. 2003. Risk of opportunistic infection in the HAART era among HIV-infected Latinos born in the United States compared to Latinos born in Mexico and Central America. AIDS Patient Care STDS 17:267275.
174. Wojna, V.,, K. A. Carlson,, X. Luo,, R. Mayo,, L. M. Melendez,, E. Kraiselburd, and, H. E. Gendelman. 2004a. Proteomic fingerprinting of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-associated dementia from patient monocyte-derived macrophages: a case study. J. Neurovirol. 10(Suppl. 1):7481.
175. Wojna, V.,, R. L. Skolasky,, J. C. McArthur,, E. Maldonado,, R. Hechavarria,, R. Mayo,, O. Selnes,, T. Ginebra,, T. de la Torre,, H. Garcia,, E. Kraiselburd,, L. M. Melendez,, C. D. Zorrilla, and, A. Nath. 2007. Spanish Validation of the HIV dementia scale in women. AIDS Patient Care STDS 21:930941.
176. Wojna, V.,, E. Colon,, M. Melendez,, C. Anderson,, J. Turchan,, R. Skolasky,, A. Hidalgo,, R. Mayo,, T. Curry,, A. Algaze,, M. Fernandez,, L. Melendez,, J. McArthur, and, A. Nath. 2004b. American Academy of Neurology 62(Suppl 5):A408.
177. Wojna, V.,, R. Skolasly,, R. Hechavarría,, R. Mayo,, O. Selnes,, J. C. McArthur,, L. M. Meléndez,, E. Maldonado,, C. D. Zorrilla,, H. García,, E. Kraiselburd, and, A. Nath. 2006. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus-associated cognitive impairment in a group of Hispanic women at risk for neurological impairment. J. Neurovirol. 12:356364.
178. Wong, M.,, P. Hope,, K. Robertson,, N. Nakasujja,, M. Seggane,, E. Katabira,, J. McArthur,, T. Quinn,, A. Ronald, and, N. Sacktor. 2004. HIV-associated neurological complications among HIV seropositive individuals in Uganda. Neurology 62(Suppl.5):A444.
179. Wortley, P. M.,, and P. L. Fleming. 1997. AIDS in women in the United States. Recent trends. JAMA 278:911916.
180. Yi, Y.,, W. Chen,, I. Frank,, J. Cutilli,, A. Singh,, L. Starr-Spires,, J. Sulcove,, D. L. Kolson, and, R. G. Collman. 2003. An unusual syncytia-inducing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 primary isolate from the central nervous system that is restricted to CXCR4, replicates efficiently in macrophages, and induces neuronal apoptosis. J. Neurovirol. 9:432441.
181. Zanetti, C.,, G. Manzano, and, A. Gabbai. 2004. The frequency of peripheral neuropathy in a group of HIV positive patients from Brazil. Arq. Neuropsiquiatr. 62:253256.
182. Zhang, K.,, G. A. McQuibban,, C. Silva,, G. S. Butler,, J. B. Johnston,, J. Holden,, I. Clark-Lewis,, C. M. Overall, and, C. Power. 2003. HIV-induced metalloproteinase processing of the chemokine stromal cell derived factor-1 causes neurodegeneration. Nat. Neurosci. 6:10641071.
183. Zheng, J.,, M. R. Thylin,, A. Ghorpade,, H. Xiong,, Y. Persidsky,, R. Cotter,, D. Niemann,, M. Che,, Y. C. Zeng,, H. A. Gelbard,, R. B. Shepard,, J. M. Swartz, and, H. E. Gendelman. 1999. Intracellular CXCR4 signaling, neuronal apoptosis and neuropathogenic mechanisms of HIV-1-associated dementia. J. Neuroimmunol. 98:185200.
184. Zheng, J.,, A. Lopez,, Y. Huang,, A. Persidsky,, J. He,, H. Zhang,, J. Zhao, and, C. Wood. 2007. Comparison of different viral strains from clade B and C on macrophage mediated inflammatory factors and glutamate production and neurotoxicity: a preliminary report, abstr. 354. 14th Conf. Retrov. Opportun. Infect.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error