Chapter 31 : Women and Neuro-AIDS Conditions in the Era of HAART

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Women and Neuro-AIDS Conditions in the Era of HAART, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815691/9781555813697_Chap31-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815691/9781555813697_Chap31-2.gif


Generally, HIV-1-positive women start highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) more rarely and later than men. HIV can affect the central and peripheral nervous system directly, provoking neurological signs and symptoms, and indirectly by causing immunodeficiency and thus susceptibility to infections with opportunistic infectious bodies. The incidence of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD) has declined in the era of HAART, but in 2002, prevalence rates began to rise again due to the longer survival time of HIV-1-positive patients. On the whole, studies of neuro-AIDS conditions in women and how they possibly differ from men are scarce. There have been two studies analyzing the effect of HAART on neurocognitive performance in HIV-1-positive women. However, it is interesting that there are large cohort studies that analyze neurological disorders in homosexual and bisexual men, but even large studies like the Women's Interagency HIV Study do not automatically examine neuro-AIDS conditions but leave them to surprisingly small substudies. The HIV-1/AIDS-associated neurological manifestations increase with more intensive use of HAART and longer survival of affected people, including women. Thus, it is mandatory to gather more details on women developing neurological complications due to the virus itself or to HAART. The chapter talks about sex- and gender-specific data analysis in a German cohort of women living with HIV/AIDS.

Citation: Arendt G, Jaeger Y, Nolting T. 2009. Women and Neuro-AIDS Conditions in the Era of HAART, p 443-454. In Goodkin K, Shapshak P, Verma A (ed), The Spectrum of Neuro-AIDS Disorders. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815691.ch31

Key Concept Ranking

Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

Percentages of HIV-1-positive females (squares) and males (circles) with HAD 2 to 10 yrs after diagnosis of HIV-1 positivity.

Citation: Arendt G, Jaeger Y, Nolting T. 2009. Women and Neuro-AIDS Conditions in the Era of HAART, p 443-454. In Goodkin K, Shapshak P, Verma A (ed), The Spectrum of Neuro-AIDS Disorders. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815691.ch31
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Aday, L. 1994. Health status of vulnerable populations. Annu. Rev. Public Health 15:487509.
2. Anastos, K.,, S. J. Gange,, B. Lau,, B. Weiser,, R. Detels,, J. V. Giorgi,, J. B. Margolick,, M. Cohen,, J. Phair,, S. Melnick,, C. R. Rinaldo,, A. Kovacs,, A. Levine,, S. Landesman,, M. Young,, A. Munoz, and, R. M. Greenblatt. 2000. Association of race and gender with HIV-1 RNA levels and immunologic progression. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 24:21826.
3. Anderson, R. M.,, and G. P. Garnett. 2000. Mathematical models of the transmission and control of sexually transmitted diseases. Sex. Transm. Dis. 27:636643.
4. Antinori, A.,, F. Baldini,, E. Girardi,, A. Cingolani,, M. Zaccarelli,, S. Di Giambenedetto,, A. Barracchini,, P. De Longis,, R. Murri,, V. Tozzi,, A. Ammassari,, M. G. Rizzo,, G. Ippolito, and, A. De Luca. 2001. Female sex and the use of anti-allergic agents increase the risk of developing cutaneous rash associated with nevirapine therapy. AIDS 15:15791581.
5. Antinori, A.,, G. Arendt,, J. T. Becker,, B. J. Brew,, D. A. Byrd,, M. Cherner,, D. B. Clifford,, P. Cinque,, L. G. Epstein,, K. Goodkin,, M. Gisslen,, I. Grant,, R. K. Heaton,, J. Joseph,, K. Marder,, C. M. Marra,, J. C. McArthur,, M. Nunn,, R. W. Price,, L. Pulliam,, K. R. Robertson,, N. Sacktor,, V. Valcour, and, V. E. Wojna. 2007. Updated research nosology for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Neurology 69:17891799.
6. Arendt, G.,, TH. Nolting,, C. Frisch,, I. W. Husstedt,, N. Gregor,, E. Koutsilieri,, M. Maschke,, A. Angerer,, M. Obermann,, E. Neuen-Jacob,, O. Adams,, S. Loeffert,, P. Riederer,, V. ter Meulen,, S. Sopper,and the Competence-Network HIV/AIDS. 2007. Intrathecal viral replication and cerebral deficits in different stages of human immunodeficiency virus disease. J. Neurovirol. 13:225232.
7. Arendt, G.,, H. J. von Giesen,and the HIV-Women’s Forum Northrhine-Westphalia. 2003. HIV-1-positive female migrants in Northrhine-Westphalia—relevant, but unfocussed problem? Eur. J. Med. Res. 8:137141.
8. Arendt, G.,, A. M. Funke, and, B. Gantke. 2001. Women and AIDS. HIV-positive patients need special monitoring. MMW Fortschr. Med. 143(Suppl. 1):S68S71. (In German.)
9. Arendt, G.,, H. Hefter,, F. Hilperath,, H. J. von Giesen,, G. Strohmeyer, and, H. J. Freund. 1994. Motor analysis predicts progression in HIV-associated brain disease. J. Neurol. Sci. 123:180185.
10. Arendt, G.,, H. Hefter,, L. Buescher,, F. Hilperath,, C. Elsing, and, H. J. Freund. 1992. Improvement of motor performance of HIV-positive patients under AZT therapy. Neurology 42:891896.
11. Barohn, R. J.,, G. S. Gronseth,, B. R. LeForce,, A. L. McVey,, S. A. McGuire,, C. A. Butzin, and, R. B. King. 1993. Peripheral nervous system involvement in a large cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. Arch. Neurol. 50:167171.
12. Bazargan, M.,, E. M. Kelly,, J. A. Stein,, B. A. Husaini, and, S. H. Bazargan. 2000. Correlates of HIV risk-taking behaviors among African-American college students: the effect of HIV knowledge, motivation, and behavioral skills. J. Natl. Med. Assoc. 92:391404.
13. Biber, C. L.,, M. A. Jaker,, P. Kloser,, S. B. Auerbach, and, G. G. Rhoads. 1999. A study of sex differences in presentation for care of HIV. AIDS Patient Care STDS 13:103110.
14. Bouwman, F. H.,, R. L. Skolasky,, D. Hes,, O. A. Selnes,, J. D. Glass,, T. E. Nance-Sproson,, W. Royal,, G. J. Dal Pan, and, J. C. McArthur. 1998. Variable progression of HIV-associated dementia. Neurology 50:18141820.
15. Box, T. L.,, M. Olsen,, E. Z. Oddone, and, S. A. Keitz. 2003. Healthcare access and utilization by patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: does gender matter? J. Womens Health 12:391397.
16. Brown, A. E.,, J. D. Malone,, S. Y. Zhou,, J. R. Lane, and, C. A. Hawkes. 1997. Human immunodeficiency virus RNA levels in US adults: a comparison based upon race and ethnicity. J. Infect. Dis. 176:794797.
17. Carballo, M.,, M. Grocutt, and, A. Hadzihasanovic. 1996. Women and migration: a public health issue. World Health Stat. Q. 49:158164.
18. Chiesi, A.,, S. Vella,, L. G. Dally,, C. Pedersen,, S. Danner,, A. M. Johnson,, S. Schwander,, F. D. Goebel,, M. Glauser,, F. Antunes, et al. 1996. Epidemiology of AIDS dementia complex in Europe. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 11:3944.
19. Cohen, M. 1997. Natural history of HIV infection in women. Obstet. Gynecol. Clin. N. Am. 24:743758.
20. Cohen, R. A.,, R. Boland,, R. Paul,, K. T. Tashima,, E. E. Schoenbaum,, D. D. Celentano,, P. Schuman,, D. K. Smith, and, C. C. Carpenter. 2001. Neurocognitive performance enhanced by highly antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected women. AIDS 15:341345.
21. Coombs, R. W.,, P. S. Reichelderfer, and, A. L. Landay. 2003. Recent observations on HIV type-1 infection in the genital tract of men and women. AIDS 17:455480.
22. Cornelius, L. J.,, J. N. Okundaye, and, M. C. Manning. 2000. Human immunodeficiency virus-related risk behavior among African-American females. J. Natl. Med. Assoc. 92:183195.
23. Cunningham, W. E.,, D. M. Mosen,, L. S. Morales,, R. M. Andersen,, M. F. Shapiro, and, R. D. Hays. 2000. Ethnic and racial differences in long-term survival from hospitalization for HIV infection. J. Health Care Poor Underserved 11:163178.
24. Currier, J. S.,, C. Spino,, J. Grimes,, C. B. Wofsy,, D. A. Katzenstein,, M. D. Hughes,, S. M. Hammer,, D. J. Cotton, et al. 2000. Differences between women and men in adverse events and CD4+ responses to nucleoside analogue therapy for HIV infection. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 24:316324.
25. Davidson, A. J.,, S. L. Bertram,, D. C. Lezotte,, W. M. Marine,, C. A. Rietmeijer,, B. B. Hagglund, and, D. L. Cohn. 1998. Comparison of health status, socioeconomic characteristics, and knowledge and use of HIV-related resources between HIV-infected women and men. Med. Care 36:16761684.
26. Delmas, M. C.,, C. Jadand,, I. De Vincenzi,, C. Deveau,, A. Persoz,, A. Sobel,, M. Kazatchkine,, J. B. Brunet,, L. Meyer, et al. 1997. Gender differences in CD4+ cell counts persist after HIV-1 infection. AIDS 11:10711073.
27. de Maat, M. M.,, J. F. Nellen,, A. D. Huitema,, F. W. Wit,, J. W. Mulder,, J. M. Prins, and, J. H. Beijnen. 2004. Race is not associated with nevirapine pharmacokinetics. Ther. Drug Monit. 26:456458.
28. Dong, K. L.,, L. L. Bausserman,, M. M. Flynn,, B. P. Dickinson,, T. P. Flanigan,, M. D. Mileno,, K. T. Tashima, and, C. C. Carpenter. 1999. Changes in body habitus and serum lipid abnormalities in HIV-positive women on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 21:107113.
29. Dore, G. J.,, A. McDonald,, Y. Li,, J. M. Kaldor,, B. J. Brew,and the National HIV Surveillance Committee. 2003. Marked improvement in survival following AIDS dementia complex in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 17:15391545.
30. Dunkle, K. L.,, R. K. Jewkes,, H. C. Brown,, G. E. Gray,, J. A. McIntryre, and, S. D. Harlow. 2004. Gender-based violence, relationship power, and risk of HIV infection in women attending antenatal clinics in South Africa. Lancet 363:14151421.
31. Duval, X.,, V. Journot,, C. Leport,, G. Chene,, M. Dupon,, L. Cuzin,, T. May,, P. Morlat,, A. Waldner,, R. Salamon,, F. Raffi, and the Antiprotease Cohort (APROCO) Study Group. 2004. Incidence of and risk factors for adverse drug reactions in a prospective cohort of HIV-infected adults initiating protease inhibitor-containing therapy. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39:248255.
32. Farzadegan, H.,, D. R. Hoover,, J. Astemborski,, C. M. Lyles,, J. B. Margolick,, R. B. Markham,, T. C. Quinn, and, D. Vlahov. 1998. Sex differences in HIV-1 viral load and progression to AIDS. Lancet 352:15101514.
33. Fenton, K. A.,, M. Chinouya,, O. Davidson,, A. Copas,and the MAYISHA Study Team. 2002. HIV testing and high risk sexual behaviour among London’s migrant African communities: a participatory research study. Sex. Transm. Infect. 78:241245.
34. Finkel, D. G.,, G. John,, B. Holland,, J. Slim, and, S. M. Smith. 2003. Women have a greater immunological response to effective virological HIV-1 therapy. AIDS 17:20092011.
35. Fleischer, R.,, D. Boxwell, and, K. E. Sherman. 2004. Nucleoside analogues and mitochondrial toxicity. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38:7980.
36. Foulkes, M. A.,, and L. Deyton. 1999. Sex differences in HIV-1 viral load and progression to AIDS. Lancet 353:590591.
37. Frater, A. J.,, D. T. Dunn,, A. J. Beardall,, K. Ariyoshi,, J. R. Clarke,, M. O. McClure, and, J. N. Weber. 2002. Comparative response of African HIV-1-infected individuals to highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 16:11391146.
38. Gandhi, M.,, P. Bacchetti,, P. Miotti,, T. C. Quinn,, F. Veronese, and, R. M. Greenblatt. 2002. Does patient sex affect human immunodeficiency virus levels? Clin. Infect. Dis. 35:313322. (Erratum, 35:1455.)
39. Gantke, B.,, A. M. Funke, and, G. Arendt. 1999. Clinical outcome of a cohort of Caucasian HIV-1-seropositive women under ART/HAART, 7th Eur. Conf. Clin. Aspects Treat. HIV Infect., Lisbon, Portugal.
40. Gasiorowski, J.,, B. Knysz, and, A. Gladysz. 2003. Epidemiological, clinical, immunological and virological characteristics of HIV-1 infected patients at the moment of initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Przegl Epidemiol. 57:449458.
41. Gilad, J.,, A. Walfisch,, A. Borer, and, F. Schlaeffer. 2003. Gender differences and sex-specific manifestations associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection in women. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 109:199205.
42. Gollub, E. L.,, D. Rey,, Y. Obadia,, J. P. Moatti, et al. 2000. Gender differences in risk behaviors among HIV+ persons with an IDU history. The link between partner characteristics and women’s higher drug-sex risks. Sex. Transm. Dis. 25:483488.
43. Goodkin, K.,, P. Shapshak,, D. Asthana,, W. Zheng,, M. Concha,, F. L. Wilkie,, R. Molina,, D. Lee,, P. Suarez,, S. Symes, and, I. Khamis. 2004. Older age and plasma viral load in HIV-1 infection. AIDS 18(Suppl. 1):S87S98.
44. Goodkin, K.,, T. Heckman,, K. Siegel,, N. Linsk,, I. Khamis,, D. Lee,, R. Lecusay,, C. C. Poindexter,, S. J. Mason,, P. Suarez, and, C. Eisdorfer. 2003. “Putting a face” on HIV infection/AIDS in older adults: a psychosocial context. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 33(Suppl. 2):S171S184.
45. Gras, M. J.,, J. F. Weide,, M. W. Langendam,, R. A. Coutinho, and, A. van den Hoek. 1999. HIV prevalence, sexual risk behaviour and sexual mixing patterns among migrants in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. AIDS 13:19531962.
46. Greenblatt, R. M.,, P. Bacchetti,, S. Barkan,, M. Augenbraun,, S. Silver,, R. Delapenha,, P. Garcia,, U. Mathur,, P. Miotti, and, D. Burns. 1999. Lower genital tract infections among HIV-infected and high-risk uninfected women: findings of the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Sex. Transm. Dis. 26:143151.
47. Gupta, G. R.,, E. Weiss, and, D. Whelan. 1995. Male-female inequalities result in submission to high-risk sex in many societies. Special report: women and HIV. AIDS Anal. Afr. 5:89.
48. Hader, S. L.,, D. K. Smith,, J. S. Moore, and, S. D. Holmberg. 2001. HIV infection in women in the United States: status at the Millennium. JAMA 285:11861192.
49. Harlow, S. D.,, P. Schuman,, M. Cohen,, S. E. Ohmit,, S. Cu-Uvin,, X. Lin,, K. Anastos,, D. Burns,, R. Greenblatt,, H. Minkoff,, L. Muderspach,, A. Rompalo,, D. Warren,, M. A. Young, and, R. S. Klein. 2000. Effect of HIV infection on menstrual cycle length. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 24:6875.
50. Hewitt, R. G.,, N. Parsa, and, L. Gugino. 2001. Women’s health. The role of gender in HIV progression. AIDS Read. 11:2933.
51. Hughes, M. 2002. The Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS): research findings. Surviv. News 1:1.
52. Jaffe, H. 2000. Changing epidemiology of HIV. Int. J. Clin. Pract. Suppl. 115 :7277.
53. Janssen, R. S.,, D. R. Cornblath,, L. G. Epstein,, J. McArthur, and, R. W. Price. 1989. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the nervous system: report from the American Academy of Neurology AIDS Task Force. Neurology 39:119122.
54. Jensen-Fangel, S.,, L. Pedersen,, C. Pedersen,, C. S. Larsen,, P. Tauris,, A. Moller,, H. T. Sorensen, and, N. Obel. 2002. The effect of race/ethnicity on the outcome of highly active antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 35:15411548.
55. Junghans, C.,, B. Ledergerber,, P. Chan,, R. Weber,, M. Egger, et al. 1999a. Sex differences in HIV-1 viral load and progression to AIDS. Lancet 353:589.
56. Junghans, C.,, N. Low,, P. Chan,, A. Witschi,, P. Vernazza, and, M. Egger. 1999b. Uniform risk of clinical progression despite differences in utilization of highly active antiretroviral therapy: Swiss HIV Cohort Study. AIDS 13:25472554.
57. Kalish, L. A.,, A. C. Collier,, T. P. Flanigan, and, P. N. Kumar. 2000. Plasma human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 RNA load in men and women with advanced HIV-1 disease. J. Infect. Dis. 182 :603606.
58. Krantz, S. R.,, D. A. Lynch, and, J. M. Russell. 2002. Gender-specific profiles of self-reported adolescent HIV risk behaviors. J. Assoc. Nurses AIDS Care 13:2533.
59. Lemp, G. F.,, A. M. Hirozawa,, J. B. Cohen,, P. A. Derish,, K. C. McKinney, and, S. R. Hernandez. 1992. Survival for women and men with AIDS. J. Infect. Dis. 166:7479.
60. Levine, A. M. 2002. Evaluation and management of HIV-infected women. Ann. Intern. Med. 136:228242.
61. Lichtenstein, B.,, M. K. Laska, and, J. M. Clair. 2002. Chronic sorrow in the HIV-positive patient: issues of race, gender, and social support. AIDS Patient Care STDS 16:2738.
62. Lucas, G. M.,, R. E. Chaisson, and, R. D. Moore. 1999. Highly active antiretroviral therapy in a large urban clinic: risk factors for virologic failure and adverse drug reactions. Ann. Intern. Med. 131:8187.
63. Mahathir, M. 1997. Women at greater risk of HIV infection. Arrows Change 3 :12.
64. Maini, M. K.,, R. J. Gilson,, N. Chavda,, S. Gill,, A. Fakoya,, E. J. Ross,, A. N. Phillips, and, I. V. Weller. 1996. Reference ranges and sources of variability of CD4 counts in HIV-seronegative women and men. Genitourin. Med. 72:2731.
65. Marlink, R.,, H. Kao, and, E. Hsieh. 2001. “Giving Voice to a Silent Epidemic” Working Group. Clinical care issues for women living with HIV and AIDS in the United States. AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir. 17:133.
66. Mayer, K. H.,, J. W. Hogan,, D. Smith,, R. S. Klein,, P. Schuman,, J. B. Margolick,, C. Korkontzelou,, H. Farzedegan,, D. Vlahov,, C. C. Carpenter,and the HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS) Group. 2003. Clinical and immunologic progression in HIV-infected US women before and after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 33:614624.
67. McBride, D. C.,, N. L. Weatherby,, J. A. Inciardi, and, S. A. Gillespie. 1999. AIDS susceptibility in a migrant population: perception and behavior. Subst. Use Misuse 34:633652.
68. McDonald, A. 2000. HIV infection, AIDS, hepatitis C, and sexually transmissible infections in Australia: national surveillance results to December 1998. N. S. W. Public Health Bull. 11:5860.
69. McMunn, A. M.,, R. Mwanje,, K. Paine, and, A. L. Pozniak. 1998. Health service utilization in London’s African migrant communities: implications for HIV prevention. AIDS Care 10:453462.
70. Mellors, J. W.,, L. A. Kingsley,, C. R. Rinaldo,, J. A. Todd,, B. S. Hoo,, R. P. Kokka, and, P. Gupta. 1995. Quantitation of HIV-1 RNA in plasma predicts outcome after seroconversion. Ann. Intern. Med. 122:573579.
71. Melnick, S. L.,, R. Sherer,, T. A. Louis,, D. Hillman,, E. M. Rodriguez,, C. Lackman,, L. Capps,, L. S. Brown, Jr.,, M. Carlyn,, J. A. Korvick, et al. 1994. Survival and disease progression according to gender of patients with HIV infection. JAMA 272:19151921.
72. Miller, C. L.,, P. M. Spittal,, N. LaLiberte,, K. Li,, M. W. Tyndall,, M. V. O’Shaughnessy, and, M. T. Schechter. 2002. Females experiencing sexual and drug vulnerabilities are at elevated risk for HIV infection among youth who use injection drugs. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 30:335341.
73. Mize, S. J.,, B. E. Robinson,, W. O. Bockting, and, K. E. Scheltema. 2002. Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions for women. AIDS Care 14:163180.
74. Mocroft, A.,, M. J. Gill,, W. Davidson, and, A. N. Phillips. 2000. Are there gender differences in starting protease inhibitors, HAART, and disease progression despite equal access to care? J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 24:475482.
75. Montero, A.,, A. G. Giovannoni, and, L. Sen. 2000. Hyperprolactinemia is a frequent finding in HIV infection but does not correlate with viral burden. Medicina 60:427430. (In Spanish.)
76. Montessori, V.,, N. Press,, M. Harris,, L. Akagi, and, J. S. Montaner. 2004. Adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 170:229238.
77. Montoya, I. D. 1998. Social network ties, self-efficacy, and condom use among women who use crack cocaine: a pilot study. Subst. Use Misuse 33:20492073.
78. Montoya, I. D. 2004. Topography as a contextual variable in infectious disease transmission. Clin. Lab. Sci. 17:95101.
79. Moore, A. L.,, C. A. Sabin,, M. A. Johnson, and, A. N. Phillips. 2002. Gender and clinical outcomes after starting highly active antiretroviral treatment: a cohort study. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 29:197202.
80. Moore, A. L.,, A. Mocroft,, S. Madge,, H. Devereux,, D. Wilson,, A. N. Phillips, and, M. Johnson. 2001. Gender differences in virologic response to treatment in an HIV-positive population: a cohort study. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 26:159163.
81. Morlat, P.,, P. Parneix,, D. Douard,, D. Lacoste,, M. Dupon,, G. Chene,, J. L. Pellegrin,, J. M. Ragnaud,, F. Dabis, et al. 1992. Women and HIV infection: a cohort study of 483 HIV-infected women in Bordeaux, France, 1985–1991. AIDS 6:11871193.
82. Moroni, M. 1999. Sex differences in HIV-1 viral load and progression to AIDS. ICONA Study Group. Italian cohort of HIV-1 positive individuals. Lancet 353:589591.
83. Murphy, D. A.,, M. Sarr,, S. J. Durako,, A. B. Moscicki,, C. M. Wilson,, L. R. Muenz,and the Adolescent Medicine HIV/AIDS Research Network. 2003. Barriers to HAART adherence among human immunodeficiency virus-infected adolescents. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 157:249255.
84. Murphy, D. A.,, L. Greenwell, and, D. Hoffman. 2002. Factors associated with antiretroviral adherence among HIV-infected women with children. Women Health 36:97111.
85. Newman, P. A.,, and M. A. Zimmerman. 2000. Gender differences in HIV-related sexual risk behavior among urban African American youth: a multivariate approach. AIDS Educ. Prev. 12:308325.
86. Nicolosi, A.,, M. L. Correa Leite,, M. Musicco,, C. Arici,, G. Gavazzeni,, A. Lazzarin, et al. 1994. The efficiency of male-to-female and female-to-male sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus: a study of 730 stable couples. 5:570575.
87. Nitschke-Ozbay, H. 1999. HIV prevention for migrant prostitutes. Zentralbl. Gynakol. 121:3641. (In German.)
88. Nolan, D.,, and S. Mallal. 2001. Effects of sex and race on lipodystrophy pathogenesis. J. HIV Ther. 6:3236.
89. Ofotokun, I.,, and C. Pomeroy. 2003. Sex differences in adverse reactions to antiretroviral drugs. Top. HIV Med. 11:5559.
90. Osowiecki, D. M.,, R. A. Cohen,, K. M. Morrow,, R. H. Paul,, C. C. Carpenter,, T. Flanigan, and, R. J. Boland. 2000. Neurocognitive and psychological contributions to quality of life in HIV-1-infected women. AIDS 7:13271332.
91. Pernerstorfer-Schoen, H.,, B. Jilma,, A. Perschler,, S. Wichlas,, K. Schindler,, A. Schindl,, A. Rieger,, O. F. Wagner, and, P. Quehenberger. 2001. Sex differences in HAART-associated dyslipidaemia. AIDS 15:725734.
92. Petit, J. M.,, M. Duong,, L. Duvillard,, E. Florentin,, H. Portier,, G. Lizard,, J. M. Brun,, P. Gambert, and, B. Verges. 2002. LDL-receptors expression in HIV-infected patients: relations to antiretroviral therapy, hormonal status, and presence of lipodystrophy. Eur. J. Clin. Investig. 32:354359.
93. Powderly, W. G.,, M. S. Saag,, S. Chapman,, G. Yu,, B. Quart, and, N. J. Clendeninn. 1999. Predictors of optimal virological response to potent antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 13:18731880.
94. Prins, M.,, J. R. Robertson,, R. P. Brettle,, I. H. Aguado,, B. Broers,, F. Boufassa,, D. J. Goldberg,, R. Zangerle,, R. A. Coutinho, and, A. van den Hoek. 1999. Do gender differences in CD4 cell counts matter? AIDS 13:23612364.
95. Rezza, G.,, A. C. Lepri,, A. d’Arminio Monforte,, P. Pezzotti,, F. Castelli,, F. Dianzani,, A. Lazzarin,, A. De Luca,, M. Arlotti,, F. Leoncini,, P. E. Manconi,, G. Rizzardini,, L. Minoli,, A. Poggio,, G. Ippolito,, A. N. Phillips, and, M. Moroni, et al. 2000. Plasma viral load concentrations in women and men from different exposure categories and with known duration of HIV infection. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 25:5662.
96. Richardson, J. L.,, E. M. Martin,, N. Jimenez,, K. Danley,, M. Cohen,, V. L. Carson,, B. Sinclair,, J. M. Racenstein,, R. A. Reed, and, A. M. Levine. 2002. Neuropsychological functioning in a cohort of HIV infected women: importance of antiretroviral therapy. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc. 8:781793. (Erratum, 11:120, 2005.)
97. Robert-Koch-Institut. 2002. HIV-Infektionen und AIDS-Erkrankungen in Deutschland. Aktuelle epidemiologische Daten. Epidemiol. Bull. (In German.)
98. Robertson, K. R.,, C. Kapoor,, W. T. Robertson,, S. Fiscus,, S. Ford, and, C. D. Hall. 2004. No gender differences in the progression of nervous system disease in HIV infection. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 36:817822.
99. Roca, B.,, C. J. Gomez, and, A. Arnedo. 2000. Adherence, side effects and efficacy of stavudine plus lamivudine plus nelfinavir in treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients. J. Infect. 41:5054.
100. Sabo, C. E.,, and V. L. Carwein. 1994. Women and HIV/AIDS. J. Assoc. Nurses AIDS Care 5:1521.
101. Sacktor, N. 2002. The epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurological disease in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. J. Neurovirol. 8(Suppl. 2):S115S121.
102. Sacktor, N.,, M. P. McDermott,, K. Marder,, G. Schifitto,, O. A. Selnes,, J. C. McArthur,, Y. Stern,, S. Albert,, D. Palumbo,, K. Kieburtz,, J. A. De Marcaida,, B. Cohen, and, L. Epstein. 2002. HIV-associated cognitive impairment before and after the advent of combination therapy. J. Neurovirol. 8:136142.
103. Sanders-Phillips, K. 2002. Factors influencing HIV/AIDS in women of color. Public Health Rep. 117(Suppl. 1):S151S156.
104. Saul, J.,, J. Erwin,, C. A. Sabin,, R. Kulasegaram, and, B. S. Peters. 2001. The relationships between ethnicity, sex, risk group, and virus load in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antiretroviral-naive patients. J. Infect. Dis. 183:15181521.
105. Scarsi, K. K.,, and M. J. Postelnick. 2003. The impact of gender and pregnancy on antiretroviral therapy for HIV: pharmacokinetic and disease-related differences. J. Gend. Specif. Med. 6:716.
106. Schulte, E.,, C. Claes,, T. Korner,, J. M. Graf von der Schulenburg,, R. E. Schmidt, and, M. Stoll. 2000. Deficits in socioeconomic and psychosocial support of HIV-positive women. Gesundheitswesen 62:391399.
107. Seyler, C.,, X. Anglaret,, N. Dakoury-Dogbo,, E. Messou,, S. Toure,, C. Danel,, N. Diakite,, A. Daudie,, A. Inwoley,, C. Maurice,, B. Tonwe-Gold,, F. Rouet,, T. N’Dri-Yoman,, R. Salamon,and the ANRS 1203 Study Group. 2003. Medium-term survival, morbidity and immunovirological evolution in HIV-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy, Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire. Antivir. Ther. 8:385393.
108. Shuter, J.,, P. L. Alpert,, M. G. DeShaw,, B. Greenberg,, C. J. Chang, and, R. S. Klein. 1999. Gender differences in HIV risk behaviors in an adult emergency department in New York City. J. Urban Health 76:237246.
109. Smith, L. A. 2003. Partner influence on noncondom use: gender and ethnic differences. J. Sex. Res. 40:34650.
110. Sterling, T. R.,, D. Vlahov,, J. Astemborski,, D. R. Hoover,, J. B. Margolick, and, T. C. Quinn. 2001. Initial plasma HIV-1 RNA levels and progression to AIDS in women and men. N. Engl. J. Med. 344:720725.
111. Stern, R. A.,, J. E. Arruda,, J. A. Somerville,, R. A. Cohen,, R. J. Boland,, M. D. Stein, and, E. M. Martin. 1998. Neurobehavioral functioning in asymptomatic HIV-1 infected women. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc. 4:172178.
112. Stern, Y.,, M. P. McDermott,, S. Albert,, D. Palumbo,, O. A. Selnes,, J. C. McArthur,, N. Sacktor,, G. Schifitto,, K. Kieburtz,, L. Epstein, and, K. S. Marder,and Dana Consortium on the Therapy of HIV-Dementia and Related Cognitive Disorders. 2001. Factors associated with incident human immunodeficiency virus-dementia. Arch. Neurol. 58:473479.
113. Stoskopf, C. H.,, Y. K. Kim, and, S. H. Glover. 2001. Dual diagnosis: HIV and mental illness, a population-based study. Community Ment. Health J. 37:469479.
114. Tershakovec, A. M.,, I. Frank, and, D. Rader. 2004. HIV-related lipodystrophy and related factors. Atherosclerosis 174:110.
115. Towfighi, A.,, R. L. Skolasky,, C. StHillaire,, K. Conant, and, J. C. McArthur. 2004. CSF soluble Fas correlates with the severity of HIV-associated dementia. Neurology 62:654656.
116. Trzynka, S. L.,, and J. A. Erlen. 2004. HIV disease susceptibility in women and the barriers to adherence. Medsurg. Nurs. 13:97104.
117. van Haastrecht, H. J.,, J. S. Fennema,, R. A. Coutinho,, T. C. van der Helm,, J. A. Kint, and, J. A. van den Hoek. 1993. HIV prevalence and risk behaviour among prostitutes and clients in Amsterdam: migrants at increased risk for HIV infection. Genitourin. Med. 69:251256.
118. van Roon, E. N.,, J. M. Verzijl,, J. R. Juttmann,, A. W. Lenderink,, M. J. Blans, and, A. C. Egberts. 1999. Incidence of discontinuation of highly active antiretroviral combination therapy (HAART) and its determinants. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 20:290294.
119. von Giesen, H. J.,, H. J. Wittsack,, F. Wenserski,, H. Koller,, H. Hefter, and, G. Arendt. 2001. Basal ganglia metabolite abnormalities in minor motor disorders associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Arch. Neurol. 58:12811286.
120. Wilson, T. E. 2001. Sexual and reproductive behaviour of women with HIV infection. Clin. Obstet. Gynecol. 44:289299.
121. Wingood, G. M.,, and R. J. DiClemente. 2000. Application of the theory of gender and power to examine HIV-related exposures, risk factors, and effective interventions for women. Health Educ. Behav. 27:539565.
122. Zorrilla, C. D. 2000. Antiretroviral combination therapy in HIV-1 infected women and men: are their responses different? Int. J. Fertil. Womens Med. 45:195199.


Generic image for table

Mean age of HIV-1-positive cohort at diagnosis

Citation: Arendt G, Jaeger Y, Nolting T. 2009. Women and Neuro-AIDS Conditions in the Era of HAART, p 443-454. In Goodkin K, Shapshak P, Verma A (ed), The Spectrum of Neuro-AIDS Disorders. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815691.ch31
Generic image for table

Mean duration of HIV-1 positivity with respect to risk groups

Citation: Arendt G, Jaeger Y, Nolting T. 2009. Women and Neuro-AIDS Conditions in the Era of HAART, p 443-454. In Goodkin K, Shapshak P, Verma A (ed), The Spectrum of Neuro-AIDS Disorders. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815691.ch31
Generic image for table

Death rate over 14 years

Citation: Arendt G, Jaeger Y, Nolting T. 2009. Women and Neuro-AIDS Conditions in the Era of HAART, p 443-454. In Goodkin K, Shapshak P, Verma A (ed), The Spectrum of Neuro-AIDS Disorders. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815691.ch31
Generic image for table

Age at death

Citation: Arendt G, Jaeger Y, Nolting T. 2009. Women and Neuro-AIDS Conditions in the Era of HAART, p 443-454. In Goodkin K, Shapshak P, Verma A (ed), The Spectrum of Neuro-AIDS Disorders. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815691.ch31
Generic image for table

Rates of AIDS and neuro-AIDS in HIV-1-positive cohort

Citation: Arendt G, Jaeger Y, Nolting T. 2009. Women and Neuro-AIDS Conditions in the Era of HAART, p 443-454. In Goodkin K, Shapshak P, Verma A (ed), The Spectrum of Neuro-AIDS Disorders. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815691.ch31
Generic image for table

CDC stages at first examination

Citation: Arendt G, Jaeger Y, Nolting T. 2009. Women and Neuro-AIDS Conditions in the Era of HAART, p 443-454. In Goodkin K, Shapshak P, Verma A (ed), The Spectrum of Neuro-AIDS Disorders. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815691.ch31
Generic image for table

Mean CD4 values of migrant and the control groups

Citation: Arendt G, Jaeger Y, Nolting T. 2009. Women and Neuro-AIDS Conditions in the Era of HAART, p 443-454. In Goodkin K, Shapshak P, Verma A (ed), The Spectrum of Neuro-AIDS Disorders. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815691.ch31
Generic image for table

Numbers of patients with opportunistic infections in the immigrant and control groups

Citation: Arendt G, Jaeger Y, Nolting T. 2009. Women and Neuro-AIDS Conditions in the Era of HAART, p 443-454. In Goodkin K, Shapshak P, Verma A (ed), The Spectrum of Neuro-AIDS Disorders. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815691.ch31

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error