1887

Chapter 32 : Pediatric Neuro-AIDS

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Pediatric Neuro-AIDS, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815691/9781555813697_Chap32-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815691/9781555813697_Chap32-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter reviews the clinical, neuroimaging, and neuropathological features of pediatric neuro-AIDS (prior to the use of antiretroviral (ARV) agents) and the changing neuroepidemiology in the highly active ARV therapy (HAART) era. Salient features of pediatric HIV/AIDS and its epidemiology are briefly summarized, since there are major differences between adult and pediatric HIV/AIDS, and neurological aspects need to be viewed in the context of this complex and progressive illness for which the epidemiology is diverse and changing, as are treatment protocols and their availabilities. Among adolescents, intravenous drug use and sexual exposure are the most common risk factors for acquiring HIV-1 infection. Some children develop progressive and disabling motor deficits yet maintain relatively stable (albeit impaired) cognitive and adaptive social skills, whereas others have more impaired cognitive than motor function. Some children can also have relatively stable minor motor and cognitive findings. Host genetic factors are relevant as well (e.g., CCR5 and CXCR4 polymorphisms, virus-host interactions affecting genes and gene products, and as-yet-undefined virus-host interactions). Secondary central nervous system (CNS) complications should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the HIV-1-infected child who presents with new onset of mental status changes, headache, seizures, or focal neurological deficits. The most effective way to prevent pediatric HIV-1-associated neurological syndromes is to prevent vertically acquired HIV-1 infection. Clearly the most effective strategy to achieve this goal is to prevent HIV-1 infection in all women of childbearing age.

Citation: Belman A. 2009. Pediatric Neuro-AIDS, p 455-471. In Goodkin K, Shapshak P, Verma A (ed), The Spectrum of Neuro-AIDS Disorders. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815691.ch32

Key Concept Ranking

Nucleoside Analogues Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
0.42169482
0.42169482
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815691.ch32
1. Abrams, E. J.,, P. B. Matheson,, P. A. Thomas,, D. M. Thea,, K. Krasinski,, G. Lambert,, N. Shaffer,, M. Bamji,, D. Hutson, and, K. Grimm. 1995. Neonatal predictors of infection status and early death among 332 infants at risk of HIV-1 infection monitored prospectively from birth, New York City Perinatal HIV Transmission Collaborative Study Group. Pediatrics 96:451458.
2. Abrams, E. J.,, J. Weedon,, R. W. Steketee,, G. Lambert,, M. Bamji,, T. Brown,, M. L. Kalish,, E. E. Schoenbaum,, P. A. Thomas,, D. M. Thea, et al. 1998. Association of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) load early in life with disease progression among HIV-infected infants. J. Infect. Dis. 178:101108.
3. Abuzaitoun, O. R.,, and I. C. Hanson. 2000. Organ-specific manifestations of HIV disease in children. HIV/AIDS in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatr. Clin. N. Am. 47:109125.
4. Ammann, A. J.,, M. J. Cowan,, D. W. Wara,, P. Weintrub,, S. Dritz,, H. Goldman, and, H. A. Perkins. 1983. Acquired immunodeficiency in an infant: possible transmission by means of blood products. Lancet i:956958.
5. Anders, K. H.,, W. F. Guerra,, U Tomiyasu,, M. A. Verity, and, H. V. Vinters. 1986. The neuropathology of AIDS. UCLA experience and review. Am. J. Pathol. 124:537556.
6. Andiman, W. A.,, J. Mezger, and, E. Shapiro. 1994. Invasive bacterial infections in children born to women infected with human immunodeficiency virus type-1. J. Pediatr. 124:846852.
7. Andiman, W. A.,, R. Eastman,, K. Martin,, B. Z. Katz,, A. Rubinstein,, J. Pitt,, S. Pahwa, and, G. Miller. 1985. Opportunistic lymphoproliferation associated with Epstein-Barr viral DNA in infants and children with AIDS. Lancet ii:13901393.
8. Araujo, A. P.,, O. J. Nascimento, and, O. S. Garcia. 2000. Distal sensory polyneuropathy in a cohort of HIV-infected children over five years of age. Pediatrics 106:e35.
9. Auger, I.,, P. Thomas,, V. De Gruttola,, D. Morse,, D. Moore,, R. Williams,, B. Truman, and, C. E. Lawrence. 1988. Incubation periods for paediatric AIDS patients. Nature 336:575577.
10. Aylward, E. H.,, A. M. Butz,, N. Hutton,, M. L. Joyner, and, J. W. Vogelhut. 1992. Cognitive and motor development in infants at risk for human immunodeficiency virus. Am. J. Dis. Child. 146:218222.
11. Bakshi, S. S.,, P. Britto,, E. Capparelli,, L. Mofenson,, M. G. Fowler,, S. Rasheed,, D. Schoenfeld,, B. Zimmer,, Y. Frank,, R. Yogev,, E. Jimenez,, M. Salgo,, G. Boone,, S. G. Pahwa, et al. 1997. Evaluation of pharmacokinetics, safety, tolerance, and activity of combination of zalcitabine and zidovudine in stable, zidovudine-treated pediatric patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. J. Infect. Dis. 175:10391050.
12. Barnhart, H. X.,, R. Byers,, M. B. Caldwell,, H. W. Hsu,, Y. Maldonado,, L. Mascola,, I. Ortiz,, R. Parrott,, P. Thomas, and, J. Schulte. 1996. Natural history of human immunodeficiency virus disease in perinatally infected children: an analysis from the Pediatric Spectrum of Disease Project. Pediatrics 97:710716.
13. Barret, B.,, M. Tardieu,, P. Rustin,, D. Lacroix,, B. Chabrol,, I. Desguerre,, C. Dollfus,, M. J. Mayaux,and S. Blanche for the French Perinatal Cohort Study Group. 2003. Persistent mitochondrial dysfunction in HIV-1-exposed but uninfected infants: clinical screening in a large prospective cohort. AIDS 17:17691785.
14. Bell, J. E. 2004. An update on the neuropathology of HIV in the HAART era. Histopathology 45:549559.
15. Belman, A. L. 1992. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the child’s central nervous system. Pediatr. Clin. N. Am. 39:691714.
16. Belman, A. L. 1990. AIDS and pediatric neurology. Neurol. Clin. 8:571603.
17. Belman, A. L. 1994. HIV-1-associated CNS disease in infants and children. Res. Publ. Assoc. Res. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 72:289310.
18. Belman, A. L. 2002. HIV-1 infection and AIDS. Neurol. Clin. 20:9831011.
19. Belman, A. L.,, L. R. Muenz,, J. C. Marcus,, J. J. Goedert,, S. Landesman,, A. Rubinstein,, S. Goodwin,, S. Durako, and, A. Willoughby. 1996. Neurologic status of human immunodeficiency virus 1-infected infants and their controls: a prospective study from birth to 2 years. Mothers and Infants Cohorts Study. Pediatrics 98:11091118.
20. Belman, A. L.,, G. Diamond,, D. Dickson,, D. Horoupian,, J. Llena,, G. Lantos, and, A. Rubinstein. 1988. Pediatric AIDS: neurologic syndromes. Am. J. Dis. Child. 142:2935.
21. Belman, A. L.,, G. Lantos,, D. Horoupian,, B. E. Novick,, M. H. Ultmann,, D. W. Dickson, and, A. Rubinstein. 1986. AIDS: calcification of the basal ganglia in infants and children. Neurology 36:11921199.
22. Belman, A. L.,, M. H. Ultmann,, D. Horoupian,, D. Kurtzberg,, B. Novick,, B. Cone-Wesson,, A. J. Spiro, and, A. Rubinstein. 1985. Neurologic complications in infants and children with Acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Ann. Neurol. 18:560566.
23. Berger, J.,, J. Albrecht,, A. L. Belman,, G. Tornatore, and, E. O. Major. 1992. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in children with HIV infection. AIDS 6:837841.
24. Berger, J. R.,, L. Moskowitz,, M. Fischl, and, R. E. Kelley. 1987. Neurologic disease as the presenting manifestation of Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. S. Med. J. 80:683686.
25. Berger, J. R.,, J. O. Harris,, J. Gregorios, and, M. Norenberg. 1990. Cerebrovascular disease in AIDS: a case-control study. AIDS 4:239244.
26. Bernstein, L. J.,, H. D. Ochs,, R. J. Wedgwood, and, A. Rubinstein. 1985. Defective humoral immunity in pediatric Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J. Pediatr. 107:352357.
27. Bertolli, J.,, M. E. St. Louis,, R. J. Simonds,, P. Nieburg,, M. Kamenga,, C. Brown,, M. Tarande,, T. Quinn, and, C. Y. Ou. 1996. Estimating the timing of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in a breast feeding population in Kinshasa, Zaire. J. Infect. Dis. 174:722726.
28. Biggar, R. J.,, M. Frisch,, J. J. Goedert, et al. 2000. Risk of cancer in children with AIDS. JAMA 284:205209.
29. Biggemann, B.,, T. Voit,, E. Neuen,, W. Wechsler,, H. Kramer,, R. von Kries, and, V. Wahn. 1987. Neurological manifestations in three German children with AIDS. Hippokrates 18:99106.
30. Blanche, S.,, M. Tardieu,, A. M. Duliege,, C. Rouzioux,, F. Le Deist,, K. Fukunaga,, M. Caniglia,, C. Jacomet,, A. Messiah, and, C. Griscelli. 1990. Longitudinal study of 94 symptomatic infants with materno fetal HIV infection: evidence for a bimodal expression of clinical and biological symptoms. Am. J. Dis. Child. 144:12101215.
31. Blanche, S.,, M. J. Mayaux,, C. Rouzioux,, J. P. Teglas,, G. Firtion,, F. Monpoux,, N. Ciraru-Vigneron,, F. Meier,, J. Tricoire, and, C. Courpotin. 1994. Relation of the course of HIV infection in children to the severity of the disease in their mothers at delivery. N. Engl. J. Med. 330:308312.
32. Blanche, S.,, M. Tardieu,, P. Rustin,, A. Slama,, B. Barret,, G. Firtion,, N. Ciraru-Vigneron,, C. Lacroix,, C. Rouzioux,, L. Mandelbrot,, I. Desguerre,, A. Rotig,, M. J. Mayaux, and, J. F. Delfraissy. 1999. Persistent mitochondrial dysfunction and perinatal exposure to antiretroviral nucleoside analogues. Lancet 354:10841089.
33. Bonkowsky, J. L.,, J. C. Christenson,, G. W. Nixon, and, A. T. Pavia. 2002. Cerebral aneurysms in a child with acquired immune deficiency syndrome during rapid immune reconstitution. J. Child. Neurol. 17:457460.
34. Borkowsky, W.,, K. Krasinski,, Y. Cao,, D. Ho,, H. Pollack,, T. Moore,, S. H. Chen,, M. Allen, and, P. T. Tao. 1994. Correlation of perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with maternal viremia and lymphocyte phenotypes. J. Pediatr. 125:345351.
35. Boyer, P. J.,, M. Dillon,, M. Navaie,, A. Deveikis,, M. Keller,, S. O’Rourke, and, Y. J. Bryson. 1994. Factors predictive of maternal-fetal transmission of HIV-1: preliminary analysis of zidovudine given during pregnancy and/or delivery. JAMA 271:19251930.
36. Brivio, L.,, R. Tornaghi,, L. Musetti,, P. Marchisio, and, N. Principi. 1991. Improvement of auditory brainstem responses after treatment with zidovudine in a child with AIDS. Pediatr. Neurol. 7:5355.
37. Brouwers, P.,, H. Moss,, P. Wolters,, J. Eddy,, F. Balis,, D. G. Poplack, and, P. A. Pizzo. 1990. Effect of continuous-infusion zidovudine therapy on neuropsychologic functioning in children with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. J. Pediatr. 117:980985.
38. Brouwers, E.,, A. L. Belman, and, L. Epstein. 1994. Central nervous system involvement: manifestations and evaluation, p. 433–455. In P. A. Pizzo and, C. M. Wilfert (ed.), Pediatric AIDS: the Challenge of HIV Infection in Infants, Children and Adolescents, 2nd ed. Williams & Wilkins, New York, NY.
39. Brouwers, P.,, C. DeCarli,, A. L. Civitello,, H. Moss,, P. Wolters, and, P. Pizzo. 1995a. Correlation between CT Brain scan abnormalities and neuropsychological function in children with symptomatic HIV disease. Arch. Neurol. 52:3944.
40. Brouwers, P.,, G. Tudor-Williams,, C. DeCarli,, H. A. Moss,, P. L. Wolters,, L. A. Civitello, and, P. A. Pizzo. 1995b. Relationship between stage of disease and neurobehavioral measures in children with symptomatic disease. AIDS 9:713720.
41. Brouwers, P.,, L. Civitello,, C. DeCarli,, P. Wolters, and, S. Sei. 2000. Cerebrospinal fluid viral load is related to cortical atrophy and not to intracerebral calcifications in children with symptomatic HIV disease. J. Neurovirol. 6:390397.
42. Brustle, O.,, H. Spiegel,, S. L. Leib,, T. Finn,, H. Stein,, P. Kleihues, and, O. D. Wiestler. 1992. Distribution of HIV in the CNS of children with severe HIV encephalopathy. Acad. Neuropathol. 84:2431.
43. Bryson, Y. J.,, K. Luzuriaga,, J. L. Sullivan, and, D. W. Wara. 1992. Proposed definitions for in utero versus intrapartum transmission of HIV-1. N. Engl. J. Med. 327:12461247.
44. Bulterys, M.,, and J. J. Goedert. 1996. From biology to sexual behaviour—towards the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. AIDS 10:12871289.
45. Burgard, M.,, M. J. Mayaux,, S. Blanche,, A. Ferroni,, M. L. Guihard-Moscato,, M. C. Allemon,, N. Ciraru-Vigneron,, G. Firtion,, C. Floch, and, F. Guillot. 1992. The use of viral culture and p24 antigen testing to diagnose HIV infection in neonates. N. Engl. J. Med. 327:11921197.
46. Burger, H.,, A. L. Belman,, R. Grimson,, A. Kaell,, K. Flaherty,, J. Gulla,, R. A. Gibbs,, P. N. Nguyun, and, B. Weiser. 1990. Long HIV-1 incubation periods and dynamics of transmission within a family. Lancet 336:134136.
47. Burns, D. K. 1992. The neuropathology of pediatric Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J. Child. Neurol. 7:332346.
48. Centers for Disease Control. 1982. Unexplained immunodeficiency and opportunistic infections in infants-New York, New Jersey, California. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 31:665667.
49. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1994. Revised classification system for human immunodeficiency virus infection in children less than 13 years of age. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 43(RR-12):110.
50. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2005. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report. CDC, Atlanta, GA.
51. Chase, C.,, M. Vibbert,, S. I. Pelton,, D. Coulter, and, H. Cabral. 1995. Early developmental growth in children with vertically transmitted human immunodeficiency virus infection. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 149:850855.
52. Chin, J. 1990. Current and future dimensions of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in women and children. Lancet 336:221224.
53. Chiriboga, C. A.,, S. Fleishman,, S. Champion,, L. Gaye-Robinson, and, E. J. Abrams. 2005. Incidence and prevalence of HIV encephalopathy in children with HIV infection receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). J. Pediatr. 146:402407.
54. Cohen, S. E.,, T. Mundy,, B. Kaarassik,, L. Lieb,, D. D. Ludwig, and, J. Ward. 1991. Neuropsychological functioning in children with HIV-1 infection through neonatal blood transfusion. Pediatrics 88:5868.
55. Cole, J. W.,, A. N. Pinto,, J. R. Hebel,, D. W. Buchholz,, C. J. Earley,, C. J. Johnson,, R. F. Macko,, T. R. Price,, M. A. Sloan,, B. J. Stern,, R. J. Wityk,, M. A. Wozniak, and, S. J. Kittner. 2004. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the risk of stroke. Stroke 35:5156.
56. Comans-Bitter, W. M.,, R. de Groot,, R. van den Beemd,, H. J. Neijens,, W. C. Hop,, K. Groeneveld,, H. Hooijkaas, and, J. J. van Dongen. 1997. Immunophenotyping of blood lymphocytes in childhood. Reference values for lymphocyte subpopulations. J. Pediatr. 130:388393.
57. Condini, A.,, G. Axia,, C. Cattelan,, M. R. D’Urso,, A. M. Laverda,, F. Viero, and, F. Zacchello. 1991. Development of language in 18–30 month old HIV-1 infected but not ill children. AIDS 5:735739.
58. Connor, E. M.,, R. S. Sperling,, R. Gelber,, P. Kiselev,, G. Scott,, M. J. O’Sullivan,, R. VanDyke,, M. Bey,, W. Shearer, and, R. L. Jacobson. 1994. Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovudine treatment. N. Engl. J. Med. 331:11731180.
59. Connor, M. D.,, G. A. Lammie,, J. E. Bell,, C. P. Warlow,, P. Simmonds, and, R. D. Brettle. 2000. Cerebral infarction in adult AIDS patients. Stroke 31:21172126.
60. Cooper, E. R.,, C. Hanson,, C. Diaz,, H. Mendez,, R. Abboud,, R. Nugent,, J. Pitt,, K. Rich,, E. M. Rodriguez,, V. Smeriglio, et al. 1998. Encepalopathy and progression of HIV disease in a cohort of children with perinatally Acquired HIV infection. J. Pediatr. 132:808905.
61. Coutsoudis, A.,, F. Dabis,, W. Fawzi,, P. Gaillard,, G. Haverkamp,, D. R. Harris,, J. B. Jackson,, V. Leroy,, N. Meda,, P. Msellati,, M. L. Newell,, R. Nsuati,, J. S. Read,, S. Wiktor,and the Breastfeeding and HIV International Transmission Study Group. 2004. Late postnatal transmission of HIV-1 in breast-fed children: an individual patient data meta-analysis. Infect. Dis. 189:21542166.
62. Czarniecki, L. M.,, and J. M. Oleske. 1993. Pain in children with HIV disease. PAAC Notes 5:492495.
63. DeCarli, C.,, L. Fugate,, J. Falloon,, J. Eddy,, D. A. Katz,, R. P. Friedland,, S. I. Rapoport,, P. Brouwers, and, P. A. Pizzo. 1991. Brain growth and congnitive improvement in children with HIV induced encephalopathy after 6 months of continous infusion therapy. AIDS 4:585592.
64. Delfraissy, J. F.,, S. Blanche,, C. Rouzioux, and, M. J. Mayaux. 1992. Perinatal HIV transmission facts and controversies. Immunodef. Rev. 3:305327.
65. De Martino, M.,, P. A. Tovo,, M. Balducci,, L. Galli,, C. Gabiano,, G. Rezza, and, P. Pezzotti. 2000. Reduction in mortality with availability of antiretroviral therapy for children with perinatal HIV-1 infection. JAMA 284:190197.
66. De Rossi, A.,, S. Masiero,, C. GiaQuinto,, E. Ruga,, M. Comar,, M. Giacca, and, L. Chieco-Bianchi. 1996. Dynamics of viral replication in infants with vertically Acquired human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J. Clin. Investig. 97:323330.
67. Diamond, G. W.,, J. Kaufman,, A. L. Belman,, L. Cohen,, H. J. Cohen, and, A. Rubinstein. 1987. Characterization of cognitive functioning in a subgroup of children with congenital HIV infection. Arch. Clin. Neuropsych. 2:245256.
68. Diaz, C.,, C. Hanson,, E. R. Cooper,, J. S. Read,, J. Watson,, H. A. Mendez,, J. Pitt,, K. Rich,, V. Smeriglio, and, J. F. Lew. 1998. Disease progression in a cohort of infants with vertically Acquired HIV infection observed from birth: the women and infants transmission study (WITS). J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 18:221228.
69. Dickover, R. E.,, E. M. Garratty,, S. A. Herman,, M. S. Sim,, S. Plaeger,, P. J. Boyer,, M. Keller,, A. Deveikis,, E. R. Stiehm, and, Y. J. Bryson. 1996. Identification of levels of maternal HIV RNA associated with risk of perinatal transmission: effect of maternal zidovudine treatment on viral load. JAMA 275:599605.
70. Dickson, D. W.,, A. L. Belman,, T. S. Kim,, D. Horoupian, and, A. Rubinstein. 1989a. Spinal cord pathology in pediatric Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Neurology 39:227235.
71. Dickson, D. W.,, A. L. Belman,, Y. D. Park,, C. Wiley,, D. S. Horoupian,, J. Llena,, K. Kure,, W. D. Lyman,, R. Morecki, and, S. Mitsudo. 1989b. Central nervous system pathology in pediatric AIDS: an autopsy study. APMIS 8:4057.
72. Drotar, D.,, K. Olness,, M. Wiznitzer,, L. Guay,, L. Marum,, G. Svilar,, D. Hom,, J. F. Fagan,, C. Ndugwa, and, R. Kiziri-Mayengo. 1997. Neurodevelopmental outcome of Ugandan infants with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Pediatrics 100:e5.
73. Dubrovsky, T.,, R. Curless,, G. Scott,, M. Chaneles,, M. J. Post,, N. Altman,, C. K. Petito,, D. Start, and, C. Wood. 1998. Cerebral aneurismal arteriopathy in childhood AIDS. Neurology 51:560565.
74. Duliege, A. M.,, A. Messiah,, S. Blanche,, M. Tardieu,, C. Griscelli, and, A. Spira. 1992. Natural history of HIV-1 infection in children: prognostic value of the laboratory parameters on the bimodal progression of the disease. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 11:630635.
75. Ehrnst, A.,, S. Lindgren,, M. Dictor,, B. Johansson,, A. Sonnerborg,, J. Czajkowski,, G. Sundin, and, A. B. Bohlin. 1991. HIV in pregnant women and their offspring: evidence for late transmission. Lancet 338:203207.
76. Ehrnst, A.,, S. Lindgren,, E. Belfrage,, A. Sonnerborg,, M. Dictor,, B. Johansson, and, A. B. Bohlin. 1992. Intrauterine and intrapartum transmission of HIV. Lancet 339:245246.
77. El-Sadr, W.,, J. M. Oleske,, B. D. Agins, et al. 1994. Evaluation and Management of Early HIV Infection. AHCPR publication no. 94-0572. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MD.
78. Englund, J. A.,, C. J. Baker,, C. Raskino,, R. E. McKinney,, M. H. Lifschitz,, B. Petrie,, M. G. Fowler,, J. D. Connor,, H. Mendez,, K. O’Donnell, and, D. W. Wara. 1996. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of a large cohort of symptomatic, human immunodeficiency virus-infected infants and children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 15:10251036.
79. Epstein, L. G.,, L. R. Sharer,, V. V. Joshi,, M. M. Fojas,, M. R. Koenigsberger, and, J. M. Oleske. 1985. Progressive encephalopathy in children with Acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Ann. Neurol. 17:488496.
80. Epstein, L. G.,, L. R. Sharer,, J. M. Oleske,, E. M. Connor,, J. Goudsmit,, L. Bagdon,, M. Robert-Guroff, and, M. R. Koenigsberger. 1986. Neurologic manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus infection in children. Pediatrics 78:678687.
81. Epstein, L. G.,, L. R. Sharer, and, J. Goudsmit. 1988a. Neurological and neuropathological features of HIV in children. Ann. Neurol. 23(Suppl.):S19S23.
82. Epstein, L. G.,, F. J. Dicarlo, Jr.,, V. V. Joshi,, E. M. Connor,, J. M. Oleske,, D. Kay,, M. R. Koenigsberger, and, L. R. Sharer. 1988b. Primary lymphoma of the central nervous system in children with Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Pediatrics 82:355363.
83. Epstein, L. G.,, and H. E. Gendelman. 1993. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of the nervous system: pathogenetic mechanisms. Ann. Neurol. 33:429436.
84. Epstein, L. G.,, and H. A. Gelbard. 1999. HIV-1-induced injury in the developing brain. J. Leukoc. Biol. 65:453457.
85. European Collaborative Study. 1992. Risk factors for mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Lancet 339:10071012.
86. European Collaborative Study. 1994. Natural history of vertically Acquired human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection. Pediatrics 94:815819.
87. European Collaborative Study. 2005. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin. Infect. Dis. 40:458465.
88. European Mode of Delivery Collaboration. 1999. Elective cesarean-section versus vaginal delivery in prevention of vertical HIV-1 transmission: a randomised clinical trial. Lancet 353:10351039.
89. Evers, S.,, D. Nabavi,, A. Rahmann,, C. Heese,, D. Reichelt, and, I. Husstedt. 2003. Ischemic cerebrovascular events in HIV infection. Cerebrovasc. Dis. 15:199205.
90. Fang, G.,, H. Burger,, R. Grimson,, P. Tropper,, S. Nachman,, D. Mayers,, O. Weislow,, R. Moore,, C. Reyelt,, N. Hutcheon,, D. Baker, and, B. Weiser. 1995. Maternal plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA level: a determinant and projected threshold for mother-to-child transmission. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92:1210012104.
91. Faye, A.,, J. Le Chenadec,, C. Dollfus,, I. Thuret,, D. Douard,, G. Firtion,, E. Lachassinne,, M. Levine,, J. Nicolas,, F. Monpoux,, J. Tricoire,, C. Rouzioux,, M. Tardieu,, M. J. Mayaux,, S. Blanche,and the French Perinatal Study Group. 2004. Early versus deferred antiretroviral multidrug therapy in infants infected with HIV type 1. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39:16921698.
92. Floeter, M. K.,, L. A. Civitello,, C. R. Everett,, J. Dambrosia, and, C. A. Luciano. 1997. Peripheral neuropathy in children with HIV infection. Neurology 49:207212.
93. Foster, C.,, and E. G. Lyall. 2005. Children with HIV: improved mortality and morbidity with combination antiretroviral therapy. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 18:253259.
94. Fowler, M. G.,, R. J. Simonds, and, A. Roongpisuthipong. 2000. Update on perinatal HIV transmission. HIV/AIDS in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatr. Clin. N. Am. 47:2138.
95. Frank, Y.,, W. Lim,, E. Kahn,, P. Farmer,, M. Gorey, and, S. Pahwa. 1989. Multiple ischemic infarcts in a child with AIDS, varicella zoster infection and cerebral vasculitis. Pediatr. Neurol. 5:6467.
96. Frank, Y.,, D. Lu,, S. Pavlakis,, K. Black,, P. LaRussa, and, R. A. Hyman. 1997. Childhood AIDS, varicella zoster, and cerebral vasculopathy. J. Child. Neurol. 12:464466.
97. Frederick, T.,, L. Mascola,, A. Eller,, L. O’Neil, and, B. Byers. 1994. Progression of human immunodeficiency virus disease among infants and children infected with human immunodeficiency virus or through neonatal blood transfusion. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 13:10911097.
98. French Pediatric HIV Infection Study Group, European Collaborative Study. 1997. Morbidity and mortality in European children vertically infected by HIV-1. AIDS 14:442450.
99. Fulmer, B. B.,, S. C. Dillard,, E. M. Musulman,, C. A. Palmer, and, J. Oakes. 1998. Two cases of cerebral aneurysm in HIV+ children. Pediatr. Neurosurg. 28:3134.
100. Futterman, D.,, B. Chabon, and, N. D. Hoffman. 2000. HIV and AIDS in adolescents. HIV/AIDS in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatr. Clin. N. Am. 47:171188.
101. Garcia, P. M.,, L. A. Kalish,, J. Pitt,, H. Minkoff,, T. C. Quinn,, S. K. Burchett,, J. Kornegay,, B. Jackson,, J. Moye,, C. Hanson,, C. Zorrilla,, J. F. Lew, et al. 1999. Maternal levels of plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA and the risk of perinatal transmission. N. Engl. J. Med. 341:394402.
102. Gaughan, D. M.,, M. D. Hughes,, G. R. Seage III,, P. A. Selwyn,, V. J. Carey,, S. L. Gortmaker, and, J. M. Oleske. 2002. The prevalence of pain in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus/Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome as reported by participants in the Pediatric Late Outcomes Study (PACTG 219). Pediatrics 109:11441152.
103. Gaughan, D. M.,, M. D. Hughes,, J. M. Oleske,, K. Malee,, C. A. Gore,and the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 219C Team. 2004. Psychiatric hospitalizations among children and youths with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatrics 113:e544545.1
104. Gay, C. L.,, F. D. Armstrong,, D. Cohen,, S. Lai,, M. D. Hardy,, T. P. Swales,, C. J. Morrow, and, G. B. Scott. 1995. The effects of HIV on cognitive and motor development in children born to HIV-seropositive women with no reported drug use: birth to 24 months. Pediatrics 96:10781082.
105. Global AIDS Policy Coalition. 1996. AIDS in the World II. Global Dimensions, Social Roots, and Responses. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.
106. Goedert, J. J.,, A. M. Duliege,, C. I. Amos,, S. Felton, and, R. J. Biggar. 1991. High risk of HIV-1 infection for first-born twins: the International Registry of HIV-Exposed Twins. Lancet 338:14711475.
107. Goldstein, J.,, D. W. Dickson,, A. Rubenstein,, W. Woods,, F. Mincer,, A. L. Belman, and, L. Davis. 1990. Primary CNS lymphoma in a pediatric patient with Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome treatment with radiation. Cancer 66:25032508.
108. Gortmaker, S. L.,, M. Hughes,, J. Cervia,, M. Brady,, G. M. Johnson,, G. R. Seage III,, L. Y. Song,, W. M. Dankner,, J. M. Oleske,and the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 219 Team. 2001. Effect of combination therapy including protease inhibitors on mortality among children and adolescents infected with HIV-1. N. Engl. J. Med. 345:15221528.
109. Gray, L.,, M. L. Newell,, C. Peckham,, J. Levy,and European Collaborative Study. 2001. Fluctuations in symptoms in human deficiency virus-infected children: the first 10 years of life. Pediatrics 108:116122.
110. Grubman, S.,, E. Gross,, N. Learner-Weiss,, M. Hernandez,, G. D. McSherry,, L. G. Hoyt,, M. Boland, and, J. M. Oleske. 1995. Older children and adolescents living with perinatally Acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatrics 95:657663.
111. Havens, J. F.,, A. H. Whitaker,, J. F. Feldman, and, A. A. Ehrhardt. 1994. Psychiatric morbidity in school-aged children with congenital human immunodeficiency virus infection: a pilot study. J. Dev. Beh. Pediatr. 15(Suppl. 3):S18S25.
112. Hughes, M. D.,, V. A. Johnson,, M. S. Hirsch,, J. W. Bremer,, T. Elbeik,, A. Erice,, D. R. Kuritzkes,, W. A. Scott,, S. A. Spector,, N. Basgoz,, M. A. Fischl, and, R. T. D’Aquila. 1997. Monitoring plasma HIV-1 RNA levels in addition to CD4+ lymphocyte count improves assessment of antiretrovial therapeutic response. Ann. Intern. Med. 126:929938.
113. Husson, R. N.,, R. Saini,, L. L. Lewis,, K. M. Butler,, N. Patronas, and, P. A. Pizzo. 1992. Cerebral artery aneurysms in children affected with human immunodeficiency virus. J. Pediatr. 121:927930.
114. International Perinatal HIV Group. 1999. The mode of delivery and the risk of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency type-1. N. Engl. J. Med. 340:977987.
115. Ioannidis, J. P.,, A. Tatsioni,, E. J. Abrams,, M. Bulterys,, R. W. Coombs,, J. J. Goedert,, B. T. Korber,, M. J. Mayaux,, L. M. Mofenson,, J. Moye. Jr.,, M. L. Newell,, D. E. Shapiro,, J. P. Teglas,, B. Thompson, and, J. Wiener. 2004. Maternal viral load and rate of disease progression among vertically HIV-1-infected children: an international meta-analysis. AIDS 18:99108.
116. Jeremy, R. J.,, S. Kim,, M. Nozyce,, S. Nachman,, K. McIntosh,, S. I. Pelton,, R. Yogev,, A. Wiznia,, G. M. Johnson,, P. Krogstad,, K. Stanley,and the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Groups 338 and 377. 2005. Neuropsychological functioning and viral load in stable antiretroviral therapy-experienced HIV-infected children. Pediatrics 115:380387.
117. Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS/World Health Organization. 2005. AIDS Epidemic Update. December, 2005. UNAIDS/WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.
118. Jovaisas, E.,, M. A. Koch,, A. Schafer,, M. Stauber, and, D. Lowenthal. 1985. LAV/HTLV-III in 20-week fetus. Lancet ii:1129. (Letter.)
119. Just, J. J.,, E. Abrams,, L. G. Louie,, R. Urbano,, D. Wara,, S. W. Nicholas,, Z. Stein, and, M. C. King. 1995. Influence of host genotype on progression to Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among children infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J. Pediatr. 127:544549.
120. Kaur, R.,, D. Rawat,, M. Kakkar,, R. Monga, and, V. K. Sharma. 2003. Cryptococcal meningitis in pediatric AIDS. J. Trop. Pediatr. 49:124125.
121. Kourtis, A. P.,, C. Ibegbu,, A. J. Nahmias,, F. K. Lee,, W. S. Clark,, M. K. Sawyer, and, S. Nesheim. 1996. Early progression of disease in HIV-infected infants with thymus dysfunction. N. Engl. J. Med. 335:14311436.
122. Kozlowski, P. B.,, J. H. Sher,, C. Rao,, P. A. Anzil,, M. A. Wrzolek,, L. Sharer,, E. S. Cho,, D. W. Dickson,, K. M. Weidenheim, and, J. F. Llena. 1993. Central nervous system in pediatric AIDS registry. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 693:295296.
123. Kozlowski, P. B.,, J. Brudkowska,, M. Kraszpulski,, E. A. Sersen,, M. A. Wrzolek,, A. P. Anzil,, C. Roa, and, H. M. Wisniewski. 1997. Microencephalopathy in children congenitally infected with human immunodeficiency virus—a gross-anatomical morphometric study. Acta Neuoropathol. 93:136145.
124. Krivine, A.,, G. Firtion,, L. Cao,, C. Francoual,, R. Henrion, and, P. Lebon. 1992. HIV replication during the first few weeks of life. Lancet 339:11871189.
125. Kuhn, L.,, E. J. Abrams,, P. Palumbo,, M. Bulterys,, R. Aga,, L. Louie,, T. Hodge,and the Perinatal AIDS Collaborative Transmission Study. 2004. Maternal versus paternal inheritance of HLA class I alleles among HIV-infected children: consequences for clinical disease progression. AIDS 18:12811289.
126. Kure, K.,, Y. D. Park,, T. S. Kim,, W. D. Lyman,, G. Lantos,, S. Lee,, S. Cho,, A. L. Belman,, K. M. Weidenheim, and, D. W. Dickson. 1989. Immunohistochemical localization of an HIV epitope in cerebral aneurysmal arteriopathy in pediatric AIDS. Pediatr. Pathol. 9:655667.
127. Kure, K.,, K. M. Weidenheim,, W. D. Lyman, and, D. W. Dickson. 1990. Morphology and distribution of HIV-1 qp 41 positive microglia in subacute AIDS encephalitis. Acta Neuropathol. 80:393400.
128. Kure, K.,, J. F. Llena,, W. D. Lyman,, R. Soeiro,, K. M. Weidenheim,, A. Hirano, and, D. W. Dickson. 1991. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection of the nervous system: an autopsy study of 268 adult, pediatric and fetal brains. Hum. Pathol. 22:700710.
129. Lacroix, C.,, S. Blanche,, E. Dussaix, and, M. Tardieu. 1995. Acute necrotizing measles encephalitis in a child with AIDS. J. Neurol. 242:249251. (Letter.)
130. Lambert, G.,, D. M. Thea,, V. Pliner,, R. W. Steketee,, E. J. Abrams,, P. Matheson,, P. A. Thomas,, B. Greenberg,, T. M. Brown,, M. Bamji,, M. L. Kalish, et al. 1997. Effect of maternal CD4+ cell count, Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and viral load on disease progression in infants with perinatally Acquired human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J. Pediatr. 130:890897.
131. Landesman, S. H.,, L. A. Kalish,, D. N. Burns,, H. Minkoff,, H. E. Fox-Zorrilla,, C. P. Garcia,, M. G. Fowler,, L. Mofenson,, R. Tuomala, et al. 1996. Obstetrical factors and the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from mother to child. N. Engl. J. Med. 334:16171623.
132. Legido, A.,, H. W. Lischner,, J. P. de Chadarevian, and, C. D. Katsetos. 1999. Stroke in pediatric HIV infection. Pediatr. Neurol. 21:588
133. Levenson, R. L.,, C. A. Mellins,, R. Zawadzki,, R. Kairam, and, Z. Stein. 1992. Cognitive assessment of human immunodeficiency virus exposed children. Am. J. Dis. Child. 146:14791483.
134. Lindegren, M. L.,, S. Steinberg, and, R. H. Byers. 2000. Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in children. Pediatr. Clin. N. Am. 47:120.
135. Lobato, M. N.,, M. B. Caldwell,, P. Ng,, M. J. Oxtoby, et al. 1995. Encephalopathy in children with perinatally Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome virus infection. J. Pediatr. 126:170175.
136. Lolekha, R.,, P. Chanthavanich,, K. Limkittikul,, K. Luangxay,, T. Chotpitayasunodh, and, C. J. Newman. 2004. Pain: a common symptom in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Thai children. Acta Paediatr. 93:89198.
137. Luzuriaga, K.,, and J. L. Sullivan. 2000. Viral and immuno-pathogenesis of vertical HIV infection. HIV/AIDS in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatr. Clin. N. Am. 47:6578.
138. Lyman, W. D.,, Y. Kress,, K. Kure,, W. K. Rashbaum,, A. Rubinstein, and, R. Soeiro. 1990. Detection of HIV in fetal central nervous system tissue. AIDS 4:917920.
139. Mayaux, M. J.,, M. Burgard,, J. P. Teglas,, J. Cottalorda,, A. Krivine,, F. Simon,, J. Puel,, C. Tamalet,, D. Dormont,, B. Masquelier,, A. Doussin,, C. Rouzioux, and, S. Blanche. 1996. Neonatal characteristics in rapidly progressive perinatally Acquired HIV-1 disease. JAMA 275:606610.
140. Mayaux, M. J.,, S. Blanche,, C. Rouzioux,, J. Le Chenadec,, V. Chambrin,, G. Firtion,, M. C. Allemon,, E. Vilmer,, N. C. Vigneron,, J. Tricoire, et al. 1995. Maternal factors associated with perinatal HIV-1 transmission. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 8:188194.
141. Mazzoni, P.,, C. Chiriboga,, W. Millar, and, A. Rogers. 2000. Intracerebral aneurysms in human immunodeficiency virus infection: case report and literature review. Pediatr. Neurol. 23:252255.
142. McAbee, G. N.,, A. L. Belman,, M. Knapik,, G. Solitare,, P. Ciminera, and, D. Dickson. 1995. Rapid and fatal neurological deterioration due to CNS candida infection in an HIV-1 infected child. J. Child. Neurol. 10:405407.
143. Mintz, M.,, B. Tardieu,, L. Hoyt,, G. McSherry,, J. Mendelson, and, J. Oleske. 1996. Levodopa therapy improves motor function in HIV infected children with extrapyramidal syndromes. Neurology 47:15831585.
144. Misdrahi, D.,, G. Vila,, I. Furnk-Brenano,, M. Tardieu,, S. Blanche, and, M. C. Mouren-Simeoni. 2004. DSM-IV mental disorders and neurological complications in children and adolescents with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection (HIV-1). Eur. Psychiatry 19:182184.
145. Mitchell, C. D.,, S. S. Erlich,, M. T. Mastrucci,, S. C. Hutto,, W. P. Parks, and, G. B. Scott. 1990. Congenital toxoplasmosis ocurring in infants perinatally infected with HIV-1. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 9:512518.
146. Mizusawa, H.,, A. Hirano,, J. F. Llena, and, M. Shintaku. 1988. Cerebrovascular lesions in Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Acta Neuropathol. 76:451457.
147. Mofenson, L. M.,, J. S. Lambert,, E. R. Stiehm,, J. Bethel,, W. A. Meyer III,, J. Whitehouse,, J. Moye, Jr.,, P. Reichelderfer,, D. R. Harris,, M. G. Fowler,, B. J. Mathieson, and, G. J. Nemo. 1999. Risk factors for perinatal transmission of HIV-type 1 in women treated with zidovudine. N. Engl. J. Med. 341:385393.
148. Moriarty, D. M.,, J. O. Haller,, J. P. Loh, and, S. Fikrig. 1994. Cerebral infarction in pediatric Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Pediatr. Radiol. 24:611612.
149. Moss, H. A.,, P. Brouwers,, P. Wolters,, L. Wiener,, S. Hersh, and, P. A. Pizzo. 1994. The development of a Q sort behavioral rating procedure for pediatric HIV patients. J. Pediatr. Psychol. 19:2746.
150. Narayan, P.,, O. B. Samuels, and, D. L. Barrow. 2002. Stroke and pediatric human immunodeficiency virus infection. Case report and review of the literature. Pediatr. Neurosurg. 37:158163.
151. Nduati, R. W.,, G. C. John,, B. A. Richardson,, J. Overbaugh,, M. Welch,, J. Ndinya-Achola,, S. Moses,, K. Holmes,, F. Onyango, and, J. K. Kreiss. 1995. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected cells in breast milk: association with immunosuppression and vitamin A deficiency. J. Infect. Dis. 172:14611468.
152. Newell, M. L.,, H. Coovadia,, M. Cortina-Borja,, N. Rollins,, P. Gaillard,, F. Dabis,and the Ghent International AIDS Society Working Group on HIV Infection in Women and Children. 2004. Mortality of infected and uninfected infants born to HIV-infected mothers in Africa: a pooled analysis. Lancet 364:12361243.
153. New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute. 2007. HIV clinical resource. New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute, New York, NY. http://hivguidelines.org/Content.aspx.
154. Nozyce, M.,, J. Hittelman,, L. Muenz,, S. J. Durako,, M. L. Fischer, and, A. Willoughby. 1994a. Effect of perinatally Acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection on neurodevelopment in children during the first two years of life. Pediatrics 94:883891.
155. Nozyce, M.,, M. Hoberman,, S. Arpadi,, A. Wiznia,, G. Lambert,, J. Dobroszycki,, C. J. Chang, and, Y. St Louis. 1994b. A twelve month study of the effects of oral zidovidine on neuro developmental functioning in a cohort of vertically injected inner-city children. AIDS 8:635639.
156. Oleske, J.,, A. Minnefor,, R. Cooper,, K. Thomas,, A. dela Cruz,, H. Ahdieh,, I. Guerrero,, V. V. Joshi, and, F. Desposito. 1983. Immune deficiency syndrome in children. JAMA 249:23452349.
157. Owens, D. K.,, M. Holodniy,, T. W. McDonald,, J. Scott, and, S. Sonnad. 1996. A meta-analytic evaluation of the polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of HIV infection in infants. JAMA 275:13421348.
158. Palumbo, P. E. 2000. Antiretroviral therapy of HIV infection in children. Pediatr. Clin. N. Am. 1:155169.
159. Papaevangelou, V.,, H. Pollack,, M. Riguad,, N. Arlievsky,, M. L. Lu,, G. Rochford,, K. Krasinski, and, W. Borkowsky. 1996. The amount of early P24 antigenemia and not the time of first detection of virus predicts clinical outcome of infants vertically infected with human immunodeficiency virus. J. Infect. Dis. 173:574578.
160. Park, Y. D.,, A. L. Belman,, T. S. Kim,, K. Kure,, J. F. Llena,, G. Lantos,, L. Bernstein, and, D. W. Dickson. 1990. Stroke in pediatric Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann. Neurol. 28:303311.
161. Patsalides, A. D.,, L. V. Wood,, G. K. Atac,, E. Sandifer,, J. A. Butman, and, N. J. Patronas. 2002. Cerebrovascular disease in HIV-infected pediatric patients: neuroimaging findings. Am. J. Roentgenol. 179:9991003.
162. Persaud, D.,, S. Chandwani,, M. Rigaud,, E. Leibovitz,, A. Kaul,, R. Lawrence,, H. Pollack,, D. DiJohn,, K. Krasinski, and, W. Borkowsky. 1992. Delayed recognition of human immunodeficiency virus infection in preadolescent children. Pediatrics 90:688691.
163. Philippet, P.,, S. Blanche,, G. Sebag,, G. Rodesch,, C. Griscelli, and, M. Tardieu. 1994. Stroke and cerebral infarct in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 148:965970.
164. Picard, O.,, L. Brunereau,, B. Pelosse,, D. Kerob,, J. Cabane, and, J. C. Imbert. 1997. Cerebral infarction associated with vasculitis due to varicella zoster virus in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Biomed. Pharmacother. 51:449454.
165. Pitt, J.,, D. Brambilla,, P. Reichelderfer,, A. Landay,, K. McIntosh,, D. Burns,, G. V. Hillyer,, H. Mendez, and, M. G. Fowler. 1997. Maternal immunologic and virologic risk factors for infant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection: findings from The Women and Infants Transmission Study. J. Infect. Dis. 175:567575.
166. Pizzo, P. A.,, J. Eddy,, J. Falloon,, F. M. Balis,, R. F. Murphy,, H. Moss,, P. Wolters,, P. Brouwers,, P. Jarosinski, and, M. Rubin. 1988. Effect of continuous intravenous infusion of zidovudine (AZT) in children with symptomatic HIV infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 319:889896.
167. Pizzo, P. A.,, K. Butler,, F. Balis,, E. Brouwers,, M. Hawkins,, J. Eddy,, M. Einloth,, J. Falloon,, R. Husson, and, P. Jarosinski. 1990. Dideoxycytidine alone and in an alternating schedule with zidovudine in children with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. J. Pediatr. 117:799808.
168. Raphael, S. A.,, M. L. Price,, H. W. Lischner,, J. W. Griffin,, W. D. Grover, and, O. Bagasra. 1991. Inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in a child with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. J. Pediatr. 118:242245.
169. Raskino, C.,, D. A. Pearson,, C. J. Baker,, M. H. Lifschitz,, K. O’Donnell,, M. Mintz,, M. Nozyce,, P. Brouwers,, R. E. McKinney,, E. Jimenez,, J. A. Englund, et al. 1999. Neurologic, neurocognitve and brain outcomes in human deficiency virus-infected children receiving different nucleoside antiretroviral regimens. Pediatrics 104:e32.
170. Robinson, L. G.,, C. A. Chiriboga,, S. E. Champion,, I. Ainyette,, M. DiGrado, and, E. J. Abrams. 2004. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy successfully treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy and cidofovir in an adolescent infected with perinatal human immunodeficiency virus. J. Child. Neurol. 19:3538.
171. Rogers, M. F.,, G. Schochetman, and, R. Hoff. 1994. Advances in diagnosis of HIV infection, p. 219–240. In P. A. Pizzo and, C. M. Wilfert (ed.), Pediatric AIDS: the Challenge of HIV Infection in Infants, Children and Adolescents, 2nd ed. Williams & Wilkins, New York, NY.
172. Rouet, F.,, C. Sakarovitch,, P. Msellati,, N. Elenga,, C. Montcho,, I. Viho,, S. Blanche,, C. Rouzioux,, F. Dabis,, V. Leroy,and the Abidjan ANRS 049 Ditrame Study Group. 2003. Pediatric viral human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA level timing of infection and disease progression in African HIV-1-infected children. Pediatrics 112:e289.
173. Rouzioux, C.,, D. Costagliola,, M. Burgard,, S. Blanche,, M. J. Mayaux,, C. Griscelli,, A. J. Valleron, et al. 1995. Estimated timing of mother to child HIV transmission by use of a Markov model. Am. J. Epidemiol. 142:13301337.
174. Rubinstein, A.,, M. Sicklick,, A. Gupta,, L. Bernstein,, N. Klein,, E. Rubinstein,, I. Spigland,, L. Fruchter,, N. Litman,, H. Lee, and, M. Hollander. 1983. Acquired immunodeficiency with reversed T4/T8 ratios in infants born to promiscuous and drug addicted mothers. JAMA 249:23502356.
175. Ryder, R. W.,, W. Nsa,, S. E. Hassig,, F. Behets,, M. Rayfield,, B. Ekungola,, A. M. Nelson,, U. Mulenda,, H. Francis, and, K. Mwandagalirwa. 1989. Perinatal transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to infants of seropositive women in Zaire. N. Engl. J. Med. 320:16371642.
176. Sanchez-Ramon, S.,, S. Resino,, J. M. Bellon Cano,, J. T. Ramos,, D. Gurbindo, and, A. Munoz-Fernandez. 2003. Neuroprotective effects of early antiretrovirals in vertical HIV infection. Pediatr. Neurol. 29:218221.
177. Schechter, N. L.,, C. B. Berde, and, M. Yaster (ed). 1993. Pain in Infants, Children, and Adolescents. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.
178. Scott, G. B.,, C. Hutto,, R. W. Makuch,, M. T. Mastrucci,, T. O’Connor,, C. D. Mitchell,, E. J. Trapido, and, W. P. Parks. 1989. Survival in children with perinatally Acquired human immunodeficiency virus type infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 321:17911796.
179. Semba, R. D.,, P. G. Miotti,, J. D. Chiphangwi,, A. J. Saah,, J. K. Canner,, G. A. Dallabetta, and, D. R. Hoover. 1994. Maternal vitamin A deficiency and mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Lancet 343:15931597.
180. Shah, S. S.,, R. A. Zimmerman,, L. B. Rorke, and, L. G. Vezina. 1996. Cerebrovascular complications of HIV in children. Am. J. Neuroradiol. 17:19131917.
181. Shanks, G. D.,, R. R. Redfield, and, G. W. Fischer. 1987. Toxoplasma encephalitis in an infant with Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 6:7071.
182. Sharer, L. R.,, L. G. Epstein,, E. S. Cho,, V. V. Joshi,, M. F. Meyenhofer,, L. F. Rankin, and, C. K. Petito. 1986. Pathologic features of AIDS encephalopathy in children: evidence for LAV/HTLV-III infection of the brain. Hum. Pathol. 17:271284.
183. Sharer, L. R.,, P. C. Dowling,, J. Michaels,, S. D. Cook,, J. Menonna,, B. M. Blumberg, and, L. G. Epstein. 1990. Spinal cord disease in children with HIV-1 infection: a combined molecular and neuropathological study. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. 16:317331.
184. Sharer, L. R.,, B. Fischer,, B. M. Blumberg, and, L. G. Epstein. 1994. CNS measles virus infection in AIDS. J. Neuro-AIDS.
185. Silliman, C. C.,, D. Tedder,, J. W. Ogle,, J. Simon,, B. K. Kleinschmidt-DeMasters,, M. Manco-Johnson, and, M. J. Levin. 1993. Unsuspected varicella-zoster virus encephalitis in a child with Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J. Pediatr. 123:418422.
186. Soeiro, R.,, A. Rubinstein,, W. K. Rashbaum, and, W. D. Lyman. 1992. Maternofetal transmission of AIDS: frequency of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 nucleic acid sequences in human fetal DNA. J. Infect. Dis. 166:699703.
187. Sprecher, S.,, G. Soumenkoff,, F. Puissant, and, M. Degueldre. 1985. Vertical transmission of HIV in a 15 week fetus. Lancet ii:288289.
188. States, L. J.,, R. A. Zimmerman, and, R. M. Rutstein. 1997. Imaging of pediatric central nervous system HIV infection. Neuroimaging Clin. N. Am. 7:321338.
189. St Louis, M. E.,, M. Kamenga,, C. Brown,, A. M. Nelson,, T. Manzila,, V. Batter,, F. Behets,, U. Kabagabo,, R. W. Ryder, and, M. Oxtoby. 1993. Risk for perinatal HIV-1 transmission according to maternal immunologic, virologic, and placental factors. JAMA 269:28532859.
190. Taccone, A.,, M. P. Fondelli,, G. Ferra, and, A. Marzoli. 1992. An unusual CT presentation of congenital cerebral toxoplasmosis in an 8 month-old boy with AIDS. Pediatr. Radiol. 22:6869.
191. Taha, T. E.,, S. M. Graham,, N. I. Kumwenda,, R. L. Broadhead,, D. R. Hoover,, D. Markakis,, L. van Der Hoeven,, G. N. Liomba,, J. D. Chiphangwi, and, P. G. Miotti. 2000. Morbidity among HIV-1 infected and uninfected African children. Pediatrics 106:e77.
192. Tamula, M. A.,, P. L. Wolters,, C. Walsek,, S. Zeichner, and, L. Civitello. 2003. Cognitive decline with immunologic and virologic stability in four children with human immunodeficiency virus disease. Pediatrics 112:679684.
193. Tardieu, M.,, J. Le Chenadec,, A. Persoz,, L. Meyer,, S. Blanche,, M. J. Mayaux, et al. 2000. HIV-1 related encephalopathy in infants compared with children and adults. Neurology 54:10891095.
194. Tardieu, M.,, F. Brunelle,, C. Raybaud,, W. Ball,, B. Barret,, B. Pautard,, E. Lachassine,, M. J. Mayaux, and, S. Blanche. 2005. Cerebral MR imaging in uninfected children born to HIV-seropositive mothers and perinatally exposed to zidovudine. Am. J. Neuroradiol. 26:695701.
195. Tepper, V. J.,, J. J. Farley,, M. I. Rothman,, D. L. Houck,, K. F. Davis,, T. L. Collins-Jones, and, R. C. Wachtel. 1998. Neurodevelopmental/neuroradiologic recovery of a child infected with HIV after treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy using HIV-specific progease inhibitor ritonavir. Pediatrics 101:e7.
196. Thea, D. M.,, R. W. Steketee,, V. Pliner,, K. Bornschlegel,, T. Brown,, S. Orloff,, P. B. Matheson,, E. J. Abrams,, M. Bamji,, G. Lambert,, E. A. Schoenbaum,, P. A. Thomas,, M. Heagarty, and, M. L. Kalish. 1997. The effect of maternal viral load on the risk of perinatal transmission of HIV-1. AIDS 11:437444.
197. Tovo, P. A.,, M. de Martino,, C. Gabiano,, N. Cappello,, R. D’Elia,, A. Loy,, A. Plebani,, G. V. Zuccotti,, P. Dallacasa,, G. Ferraris, et al. 1992. Prognostic factors and survival in children with perinatal HIV-I infection. Lancet 339:12491253.
198. Ultmann, M. H.,, A. L. Belman,, H. A. Ruff,, B. E. Novick,, B. Cone-Wesson,, H. J. Cohen, and, A. Rubinstein. 1985. Developmental abnormalities in infants and children with Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex. Dev. Med. Child. Neurol. 27:563571.
199. Ultmann, M. H.,, G. Diamond,, H. A. Ruff,, A. L. Belman,, B. E. Novick,, A. Rubinstein, and, H. J. Cohen. 1987. Developmental abnormalities in infants and children with Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS): a follow up study. Int. J. Neurosci. 32:661667.
200. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2006. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in pediatric HIV infection. http://www.aidsinfo.nih.gov/guidelines/GuidelineDetail.aspx?MenuItem=Guidelines&Search=Off&GuidelineID=8&ClassID=1.
201. Vandersteenhoven, J. J.,, G. Dbaibo,, O. B. Boyko,, C. M. Hulette,, D. C. Anthony,, J. F. Kenny, and, C. M. Wilfert. 1992. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in pediatric Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 11:232237.
202. Vazeux, R.,, C. Lacroix-Ciaudo,, S. Blanche,, M. C. Cumont,, D. Henin,, F. Gray,, L. Boccon-Gibod, and, M. Tardieu. 1992. Low levels of human immunodeficiency virus replication in the brain tissue of children with severe Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome encephalopathy. Am. J. Pathol. 140:137144.
203. Vigano, A.,, N. Principi,, M. L. Villa,, C. Riva,, L. Crupi,, D. Trabattoni,, G. M. Shearer, and, M. Clerici. 1995. Immunologic characterization of children vertically infected with human immunodeficiency virus, with slow or rapid disease progression. J. Pediatr. 126:368374.
204. Visrutaratna, P.,, and K. Oranratanachai. 2002. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (75). HIV encephalopathy and cerebral aneurysmal arteriopathy. Singapore Med. J. 43:377380.
205. Visudtibhan, A.,, P. Visudhiphan, and, S. Chiemchanya. 1999. Stroke and seizures as the presenting signs of pediatric HIV infection. Pediatr. Neurol. 20:5356.
206. Volpe, J. J. 1995. Neurology of the Newborn, 3rd ed. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA.
207. Wachtel, R. C.,, V. J. Tepper,, D. L. Houck,, P. Nair, and, J. P. Thompson. 1993. Neurodevelopment in pediatric HIV-1 infection: a prospective study. Pediatric AIDS and HIV Infection: Fetus to Adolescent 4:198203.
208. Whitt, J. K.,, S. R. Hooper,, M. B. Tennison,, W. T. Robertson,, S. H. Gold,, M. Burchinal,, R. Wells,, C. McMillan,, R. A. Whaley, and, J. Combest. 1993. Neuropsychological functioning of human immunodeficiency virus-infected children with hemophilia. J. Pediatr. 122:5259.
209. Wiley, C. A.,, A. L. Belman,, D. Dickson,, A. Rubinstein, and, J. A. Nelson. 1990. Human immunodeficiency virus within the brains of children with AIDS. Clin. Neuropathol. 9:16.
210. Wiley, C. A.,, E. Masliah,, M. Morey,, C. Lemere,, R. DeTeresa,, M. Grafe,, L. Hansen, and, R. Terry. 1991. Neocortical damage during HIV infection. Ann. Neurol. 29:651657.
211. Wolters, P. L.,, P. Brouwers,, H. A. Moss, and, P. A. Pizzo. 1995. Differential receptive and expressive language functioning of children with symptomatic HIV disease: comparison with the language of sibling controls and CT scan brain abnormalities. Pediatrics 95:112119.
212. Wolters, P. L.,, P. Brouwers,, H. A. Moss, and, P. A. Pizzo. 1994. Adaptive behavior of children with symptomatic HIV infection before and after zidovudine therapy. J. Pediatr. Psych. 19:4761.
213. Working Group on Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV. 1995. Rates of mother to child transmission of HIV-1 in Africa, America and Europe: results from 13 perinatal studies. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 8:506510.