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COLOR PLATES

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Figures

Image of COLOR PLATE 1 (chapter 9)

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COLOR PLATE 1 (chapter 9)

Segments of human HOMOLOGS (shaded bars) match different regions of HIV-1 proteins (open bars). The corresponding matching regions are mapped onto the known HIV-1 protein structures in red. aa, amino acids.

Citation: Goodkin K, Shapshak P, Verma A. 2009. COLOR PLATES, In The Spectrum of Neuro-AIDS Disorders. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of COLOR PLATE 2 (chapter 9)

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COLOR PLATE 2 (chapter 9)

The electrostatic distribution maps were calculated for each HLA allele structure (http://www.rcsb.org/pdb) using Coulomb’s law as implemented in Deep View (Swiss PDB Viewer version 3.7). The electrostatic differences in the peptide binding groove between HLA alleles (A*0201, A*6801, B*0801, B*3501, B*5301, B*2705, B*2709, B*5101, C*w3, and C*w4) are shown. Red, electronegative; blue, electropositive; white, neutral.

Citation: Goodkin K, Shapshak P, Verma A. 2009. COLOR PLATES, In The Spectrum of Neuro-AIDS Disorders. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of COLOR PLATE 3 (chapter 14)

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COLOR PLATE 3 (chapter 14)

HIV encephalopathy is characterized by abundant perivascular monocytes/macrophages (CD68) and tissue macrophages (CD68) in the brain. Multinucleated HIV giant cells can also be present. HIV-infected (p24) and uninfected monocytes/macrophages are found alongside blood vessels in the brain. H&E, hematoxylin and eosin.

Citation: Goodkin K, Shapshak P, Verma A. 2009. COLOR PLATES, In The Spectrum of Neuro-AIDS Disorders. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of COLOR PLATE 4 (chapter 14)

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COLOR PLATE 4 (chapter 14)

Phase-contrast microscopy of brain sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin shows perivascular monocytes/macrophages. Note the cross section of a blood vessel showing monocytes/macrophages surrounding the lumen.

Citation: Goodkin K, Shapshak P, Verma A. 2009. COLOR PLATES, In The Spectrum of Neuro-AIDS Disorders. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of COLOR PLATE 5 (chapter 17)

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COLOR PLATE 5 (chapter 17)

Trophic factors and chemokines induce increased cytoplasmic staining of E2F1 in neurons. Primary murine cortical cultures were grown for 7 days after plating and treated with 50 ng of BDNF/ml, or 50 ng of NGF/ml, or 100 ng of RANTES/ml, or 15 ng of MCP1/ml or left untreated (UT) for 24 h. Representative images from UT (row 1), BDNF-treated (row 2), and RANTES-treated (row 3) cultures are shown. (A) Immunostaining for E2F1-KH95 is shown in red (column 1). Neurons are labeled with anti-MAP2 antibody and are shown in green (column 2). Nuclear DNA is shown in blue (column 3). Merging of all three fluors is shown in column 4 (Merge). (B) Immunostaining for E2F1-KH20 is shown in red (column 1). Neurons are labeled with anti-MAP2 antibody and are shown in green (column 2). Nuclear DNA is shown in blue (column 3). Merging of all three fluors is shown in column 4 (Merge). Colocalization between red and green appears yellow. All images were captured by sequential, triple-label immunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy using the same laser settings on the same day. These images are representative of more than 12 replicates of this experiment. Reprinted from (Strachan et al., 2005) with permission from the publisher.

Citation: Goodkin K, Shapshak P, Verma A. 2009. COLOR PLATES, In The Spectrum of Neuro-AIDS Disorders. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of COLOR PLATE 6 (chapter 17)

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COLOR PLATE 6 (chapter 17)

Trophic factors and chemokines induce increased ppRb in the nuclei of murine cortical neurons. Primary murine cortical cultures were grown for 7 days after plating and treated with 50 ng of BDNF/ml, or 50 ng of NGF/ml, or 100 ng of RANTES/ml, or 15 ng of MCP1/ml or left untreated (UT) for 24 h. Representative images from UT (row 1), BDNF-treated (row 2), and RANTES-treated (row 3) cultures are shown. Immunostaining for ppRb is shown in green (column 1). Neurons are labeled with anti-MAP2 antibody and are shown in red (column 2). Nuclear DNA is shown in blue (column 3). Merging of all three fluors is shown in column 4 (Merge). All images were captured by sequential triple-label immunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy using the same laser settings on the same day. These images are representative of more than 12 replicates of this experiment. Reprinted from (Strachan et al., 2005; Jordan-Sciutto et al., 2002b) with permission from the publisher.

Citation: Goodkin K, Shapshak P, Verma A. 2009. COLOR PLATES, In The Spectrum of Neuro-AIDS Disorders. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of COLOR PLATE 7 (chapter 17)

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COLOR PLATE 7 (chapter 17)

Immunostaining for ppRb and E2F1 in HIVE. (A) Using triple-label immunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, immunostaining for the phosphor serine795 isoform of pRb [ppRb(green)] is nuclear (red) in hippocampal neurons stained for MAP2 (blue) as shown in patients with HIVE (top right panel). Cells from nonencephalitic, HIV-infected patients (HIV) do not exhibit abundant ppRb staining (top left panel). Similarly, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, bottom panels) staining astrocytes (blue) also exhibit increased ppRb staining (green) in nuclei (red) in HIVE, while minimal ppRb staining is seen in cells of HIV patients without encephalitis. Colocalization of red and green appears yellow. (B) Using triple-label immunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, immunostaining for E2F1 (green) is predominantly cytoplasmic in hippocampal neurons stained for MAP2 (blue) as shown in patients with HIVE (top right panel). Cells from nonencephalitic, HIV-infected patients (HIV) do not exhibit appreciable E2F1 staining (top left panel). In a subset of neurons, E2F1 is both cytoplasmic and nuclear (red; top panels). GFAP (bottom panels) staining astrocytes (blue) do not exhibit abundant E2F1 staining (green) in the cytoplasm for HIV or HIVE patients. When staining is present, E2F1 colocalizes weakly with nuclei (red). Colocalization of red and green appears yellow, and colocalization of green and blue appears aquamarine. Reprinted from with permission from the publisher.

Citation: Goodkin K, Shapshak P, Verma A. 2009. COLOR PLATES, In The Spectrum of Neuro-AIDS Disorders. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of COLOR PLATE 8 (chapter 18)

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COLOR PLATE 8 (chapter 18)

Cerebral toxoplasmosis in a 30-year-old female patient with AIDS. Low-signal-intensity lesions with high-signal-intensity edema located in the right and left frontal lobes are shown. On pMRI maps, both lesions have reduced CBF (left) and rCBV (right).

Citation: Goodkin K, Shapshak P, Verma A. 2009. COLOR PLATES, In The Spectrum of Neuro-AIDS Disorders. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of COLOR PLATE 9 (chapter 19)

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COLOR PLATE 9 (chapter 19)

Example of signal-versus-time courses during a pMRI scan after bolus injection of a gadolinium-based contrast agent at time zero. The signal change in the gray-matter region (blue rectangles) is larger than that in the white-matter region (red rectangles) as a result of higher cerebral blood flow and volume in the gray matter. By analyzing the signal-versus-time course for each voxel of the pMRI scan, a map that reflects cerebral blood volume or blood flow can be calculated (right).

Citation: Goodkin K, Shapshak P, Verma A. 2009. COLOR PLATES, In The Spectrum of Neuro-AIDS Disorders. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of COLOR PLATE 10 (chapter 19)

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COLOR PLATE 10 (chapter 19)

Example of a BOLD activation map and an fMRI time course in a healthy subject who was performing a one-back working-memory task. The subject was attending to a random sequence of alphabets on a computer display and was instructed to push a button whenever the current alphabet was the same as the previous one (one-back; activation periods). The activation periods and resting periods were alternated every 30 seconds. The BOLD signal in activated brain regions was increased during stimulus presentation (indicated by blue horizontal bars) and is represented as yellow overlays on a structural MRI. Of note, the signal change during brain activation was only a few percent, although the experiments were performed at high magnetic-field strength (4 T).

Citation: Goodkin K, Shapshak P, Verma A. 2009. COLOR PLATES, In The Spectrum of Neuro-AIDS Disorders. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of COLOR PLATE 11 (chapter 19)

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COLOR PLATE 11 (chapter 19)

BOLD fMRI activation maps of healthy control subjects (middle row) and HIV patients (top row) who were performing the zero-back task. Activated brain regions are superimposed on several cortical representations. The bottom row shows brain areas that demonstrated significantly more activation in the HIV patients than in the control subjects.

Citation: Goodkin K, Shapshak P, Verma A. 2009. COLOR PLATES, In The Spectrum of Neuro-AIDS Disorders. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of COLOR PLATE 12 (chapter 19)

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COLOR PLATE 12 (chapter 19)

Neuroadaptation of the attention network in HIV patients. Surface-rendered maps show significantly reorganized brain activation pattern in HIV patients ( = 18) compared to seronegative (SN) control subjects ( = 18). The subjects were performing ball-tracking tasks that required visual attention (cluster level; corrected > 0.05, cluster size > 100 voxels; voxel level T scores > 3.21; uncorrected < 0.001 within the significant clusters). Note that regions where HIV was greater than SN (green) were typically adjacent or contralateral (yellow arrows) to regions where SN was greater than HIV (red). SFG, superior frontal gyrus; MFG, middle frontal gyrus; IFG, inferior frontal gyrus; PSG, parietal subgyral; FSG, frontal subgyral; SPL, superior parietal lobule; IPL, inferior parietal lobule; PPC, posterior parietal cortex; MTG, middle temporal gyrus.

Citation: Goodkin K, Shapshak P, Verma A. 2009. COLOR PLATES, In The Spectrum of Neuro-AIDS Disorders. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of COLOR PLATE 13 (chapter 21)

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COLOR PLATE 13 (chapter 21)

Staining of cerebellum autopsy tissue with monoclonal antibodies against HCV NS3 and visualized with diaminobenzidine (Vectastain ABC kit, Vector Laboratories) is seen in the left panel. The same cells are positive when stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated anti-CD68 monoclonal antibodies (right panel), implying that the cells harboring HCV belong to the macrophage/microglia lineage. This sample came from a 34-year-old HCV/HIV-coinfected IDU, who died of drug overdose (magnification, ×630).

Citation: Goodkin K, Shapshak P, Verma A. 2009. COLOR PLATES, In The Spectrum of Neuro-AIDS Disorders. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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