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Chapter 1 : A Global and Historical Perspective of the Genus

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Abstract:

Many species are bioluminescent, including and , the genes for bioluminescence having been characterized and detected in species by employing gene probes and genomic sequencing. The complete genome sequences of , , and have been determined, providing a rich set of data illuminating the metabolic versatility of these species. Vibrios are clearly very important inhabitants of the riverine, estuarine, and marine aquatic environments. For this reason, by taking the perspective of a global microbial ecology of the vibrios, a deeper understanding of microbial ecological systems can be gained. provides a useful example and is therefore discussed in the context of a general pattern of environmental pathogens and their close linkage with climate, weather systems, seasonality, and physical and chemical parameters. Fully dimensional understanding of an infectious disease, whether cholera, hantavirus, or malaria, reaches from countries to continents and beyond and connects medicine to many viewpoints across science and engineering, and even to daily life. The major cause of death for children 4 years old and under is infectious disease, which causes almost two-thirds, or 63%, of these deaths, and outbreaks of cholera substantially exceed those of any other disease. The current characterization of the ecology of cholera includes global weather patterns, aquatic reservoirs, phages, zooplankton, collective behavior of surface-attached cells, an adaptable genome, and the deep sea, together with the bacterium and its host, emerging from the perspective of biocomplexity.

Citation: Colwell R. 2006. A Global and Historical Perspective of the Genus , p 3-26. In Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J (ed), The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815714.ch1

Key Concept Ranking

Microbial Ecology
0.83122754
Infectious Diseases
0.68354785
Respiratory Diseases
0.672392
Zoonotic Diseases
0.672392
Cardiovascular Diseases
0.6415455
Vibrio cholerae
0.5890589
0.83122754
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Comparison of the genome (upper) and (lower) genome sequences with the genome sequence of a recently isolated sp. from a hydrothermal vent in the East Pacific Rise.

Citation: Colwell R. 2006. A Global and Historical Perspective of the Genus , p 3-26. In Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J (ed), The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815714.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Leading causes of death (57.02 million) worldwide in 2002. Reproduced from the World Health Organization, with permission.

Citation: Colwell R. 2006. A Global and Historical Perspective of the Genus , p 3-26. In Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J (ed), The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815714.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Leading infectious killers according to millions of deaths worldwide for all ages in 1999. Reproduced from the World Health Organization, with permission.

Citation: Colwell R. 2006. A Global and Historical Perspective of the Genus , p 3-26. In Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J (ed), The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815714.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Reported outbreaks of known infectious diseases, 1998 to 1999. Reproduced from the World Health Organization, with permission.

Citation: Colwell R. 2006. A Global and Historical Perspective of the Genus , p 3-26. In Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J (ed), The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815714.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Map of New World hantaviruses discovered since 1993. Reproduced from Yates et al. (2002), with permission of the publisher.

Citation: Colwell R. 2006. A Global and Historical Perspective of the Genus , p 3-26. In Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J (ed), The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815714.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Observed number of cholera cases versus number of cases predicted by the Poisson regression model and upper 95% prediction limit when using water temperature (lag, 6 weeks), gene probe count (lag, 0 weeks), conductivity (lag, 0 weeks), and rainfall (lag, 8 weeks) for Lake 2 in Bakerganj, Bangladesh. Reproduced from Huq et al., 2005, with permission of the publisher.

Citation: Colwell R. 2006. A Global and Historical Perspective of the Genus , p 3-26. In Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J (ed), The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815714.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

Cholera outbreaks and increases in sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface height (SSH). Reproduced from Lobitz et al., 2000, with permission of the publisher.

Citation: Colwell R. 2006. A Global and Historical Perspective of the Genus , p 3-26. In Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J (ed), The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815714.ch1
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