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Color Plates

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Figures

Image of Color Plate 1 (Chapter 2)

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Color Plate 1 (Chapter 2)

Colonial morphology of vibrios in different media. (a) Estuarine water plated on marine agar. (b) Estuarine water plated on TCBS agar after 24 h of incubation. (c) Vibrios on TCBS agar; note non-vibrios forming very small colonies (arrows). (d) on marine agar. (e) on TSA agar; note spreading on this medium. (f) on TCBS agar, a sucrose-positive colony. (g) on TCBS agar, a sucrose-negative colony. (h) on CHROMagar chromogenic agar; note the violet color of the colonies. (i) Cryopreservation glass bead (arrow) streaked onto TSA.

Citation: Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J. 2006. Color Plates, In The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of Color Plate 2 (Chapter 5)

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Color Plate 2 (Chapter 5)

Comparison of relative positions of conserved genes among and species. Gene pairs were generated by BLASTp analysis of predicted genes from each genome. Lines connect conserved genes among the organisms. The chromosomes are depicted with the origins of replication at the left end. VC, (Heidelberg et al., 2000); VV, (Chen et al., 2003); VP, (Makino et al., 2003); PP, (GenBank accession nos. CR354531 and CR354532).

Citation: Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J. 2006. Color Plates, In The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of Color Plate 3 (Chapter 6)

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Color Plate 3 (Chapter 6)

The functional landscape of the paranome. Preferentially retained duplicated genes according to their functional classes are visualized for all genomes. The functional distribution of the paranome in terms of percentages is subtracted from the functional distribution of the single-copy genes in terms of percentages, revealing the functional classes that have relatively more (yellow to red) or less (gradient of blue) paralogs compared to single-copy genes. The functional classes have been ordered according to relative average contribution. The paranome was divided into the fraction that is not in duplicated segments (A) and the fraction that is in duplicated segments (B). The different functional classes are abbreviated as follows: [C] energy production and conversion, [D] cell cycle control, cell division, chromosome partitioning, [E] amino acid transport and metabolism, [F] nucleotide transport and metabolism, [G] carbohydrate transport and metabolism, [H] coenzyme transport and metabolism, [I] lipid transport and metabolism, [J] translation, ribosomal structure, and biogenesis, [K] transcription, [L] replication, recombination, and repair, [M] cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis, [N] cell motility, [O] posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones, [P] inorganic ion transport and metabolism, [Q] secondary metabolite biosynthesis, transport, and catabolism, [R] general function prediction only, [S] function unknown, [U] intracellular trafficking, secretion, and vesicular transport, [V] defense mechanisms, [X] none of the above. Note that all genes or open reading frames annotated as being transposon or phage related have been removed from this analysis.

Citation: Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J. 2006. Color Plates, In The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of Color Plate 4 (Chapter 6)

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Color Plate 4 (Chapter 6)

Visualization of segmental duplication and conservation among . (Top) Segmental duplication in a genomic fragment of the CMCP6 chromosome I (gene 900 to 1050). Each block is a segmental duplication where the width represents the number of genes in the segment, and the height is the number of homologous copies found in the genome. (Bottom) Colinearity between the CMCP6 genomic fragment and other . Conservation of gene content and order is represented by the colored lines. Conservation of content without order is represented by gray lines. When a colinear region is also duplicated in segments, a red line is drawn. The scale in the ruler is 10 genes between two lines. Blocks labeled with 1 and 3 are homologous segments unique in CMCP6, whereas blocks 2 and 4 are conserved in all .

Citation: Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J. 2006. Color Plates, In The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of Color Plate 5 (Chapter 8)

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Color Plate 5 (Chapter 8)

Comparison of relative positions of conserved ORFs between YJ016 and CMCP6 superintegron regions. ORF pairs were generated by BLASTn analysis of predicted genes from each genome. Pairs with a BLASTp score ≥600 are shown. Red lines connect both conserved genes between the two organisms. Cassette-encoded ORFs are symbolized by blue boxes, the gene is shown as a red box, and white boxes correspond to ORFs located outside the SI; the relative orientation of the ORFs is also shown.

Citation: Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J. 2006. Color Plates, In The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of Color Plate 6 (Chapter 14)

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Color Plate 6 (Chapter 14)

Light organs of juveniles. (A) A juvenile placed ventral side up and lit from above. Red box indicates location of light organ. Gold color within light organ is reflective tissue. (B) Backlit light organ. Translucent symbiotic tissue sits above the darker ink sac. (C) Similar to panel B, except epifluorescence microscopy reveals the location of green fluorescent protein-labeled (green) within the light organ. (D) Transmission electron microscopy of bacterial symbionts (green) colonizing microvillous surface (mv) of a crypt epithelial cell (ep). (E) Scanning electron microscopy of a light organ colored to show ciliated fields on the light organ surface (yellow) and other light organ tissues (blue). The white arrow indicates the approximate location of three 10- to 15-μm-diameter pores. (F) Cartoon depiction of a light organ, with yellow and blue coloration as in panel E. White regions indicate integral internal symbiotic tissues, described in the text, with numbers labeling crypts 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Solid bars in panels A, B, C, and E are ~250 μm.

Citation: Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J. 2006. Color Plates, In The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of Color Plate 7 (Chapter 16)

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Color Plate 7 (Chapter 16)

A colony of showing bleached and healthy tissues.

Citation: Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J. 2006. Color Plates, In The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of Color Plate 8 (Chapter 16)

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Color Plate 8 (Chapter 16)

Photograph of the fireworm feeding on a coral colony.

Citation: Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J. 2006. Color Plates, In The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of Color Plate 9 (Chapter 16)

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Color Plate 9 (Chapter 16)

Photographs of a bacterium-bleached coral (a) and a healthy one (b).

Citation: Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J. 2006. Color Plates, In The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of Color Plate 10 (Chapter 17)

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Color Plate 10 (Chapter 17)

The two historical entrance routes of cholera to South America (heavy arrows). Major dissemination route of cholera in Brazil in the 1991 pandemic (light arrows). Foci of distinct nonepidemic lineages in the South American pandemic (1991): purple, Tucumán strain; orange, Amazonia strain; and blue, sucrose late-fermenting strain.

Citation: Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J. 2006. Color Plates, In The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of Color Plate 11 (Chapter 17)

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Color Plate 11 (Chapter 17)

Comparison of the proteins present in supernatant-enriched fractions of the Amazonia strain 3509 and the El Tor strain N16961, in the pH range of 4 to 7 (left to right), and from 10 to 110 kDa. The 2D gels were stained with Coomassie blue. (A) 2D gels for each strain. The seven pairs of orange spots in this panel correspond to proteins with the same identification and position in both gels. They were used as reference spots for the alignment of the rest of the gels. (B) The same gels with superimposed orange spots for the identified proteins. The numbers correspond to those in Table 1. Spots were numbered from left to right and from top to bottom. Proteins with the same identification received the same number in both gels.

Citation: Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J. 2006. Color Plates, In The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of Color Plate 12 (Chapter 18)

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Color Plate 12 (Chapter 18)

Genetic organization of pJM1. The colored arrows identify predicted ORFs and their direction of transcription. Red, ORFs related to siderophore biosynthesis; blue, ORFs related to siderophore transport; green, ORFs related to insertion elements and composite transposon; cyan, ORFs related to replication and partitioning; yellow, conserved hypothetical ORFs and ORFs with no known functions; black, ORFs with functions that do not fall in any of the above categories. The black arrowheads represent genes encoding antisense RNAs: , antisense RNAα, and , antisense RNAβ.

Citation: Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J. 2006. Color Plates, In The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of Color Plate 13 (Chapter 19)

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Color Plate 13 (Chapter 19)

Bioluminescent ISO7 isolated from seawater by Phillip Burza. Photograph by Dr. Jane Oakey, James Cook University.

Citation: Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J. 2006. Color Plates, In The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of Color Plate 14 (Chapter 19)

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Color Plate 14 (Chapter 19)

Septic hepatopancreatic tubules from broodstock of naturally infected with from northern Australia. Photograph by Leigh Owens.

Citation: Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J. 2006. Color Plates, In The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of Color Plate 15 (Chapter 23)

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Color Plate 15 (Chapter 23)

(A) Micrograph of colonizing the suckling mouse intestine. First image shows villous architecture within the small intestine; inset is a magnification of crypts within the first image detailing cells in intimate contact with epithelial cells. Image courtesy of M. Neal Guentzel. (B) Biofilm structures of green fluorescent protein-expressing as imaged by confocal scanning laser microscopy. Large box is x-y scanned image; sidebars show x-z reconstruction. Image courtesy of F. Yildiz. Reprinted from Yildiz et al. (2004) with permission of Blackwell Publishing.

Citation: Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J. 2006. Color Plates, In The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of Color Plate 16 (Chapter 23)

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Color Plate 16 (Chapter 23)

Microarray analysis of whole-genome transcription profiling of In cluster analysis, green corresponds to downregulated expression, and red corresponds to upregulated expression. (A) Cluster analysis of smooth-rugose and rugose-rugose strains, detailing changes in transcription. Image courtesy of F. Yildiz. Reprinted from Yildiz et al. (2001) with permission of Blackwell Publishing. (B) Cluster analysis of , and strains, demonstrating class II, class III, and class IV patterns of flagellar transcription. Image courtesy of K. Klose and F. Yildiz. (C) Venn diagram representing , and -dependent genes, as determined by microarray analysis. Image courtesy of J. Bina and J. Mekalanos. Reprinted from Bina et al. (2003) with permission of .

Citation: Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J. 2006. Color Plates, In The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of Color Plate 17 (Chapter 24)

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Color Plate 17 (Chapter 24)

Type III secretion system (TTSS). The type III secretion system is a protein secretion apparatus of gram-negative bacteria. Through this machinery, bacteria can inject their own proteins (effectors) into the cytosol of target eukaryotic cells (Hueck, 1998). Bacterial pathogens that cause disease by intimate interactions with eukaryotic cells, such as , and plant pathogens, have this system.

Citation: Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J. 2006. Color Plates, In The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of Color Plate 18 (Chapter 27)

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Color Plate 18 (Chapter 27)

Countries/areas reporting cholera cases in 2003. This map was adapted from the map published in the , 30 July 2004: World Health Organization (2004). Cholera, 2003. . 281–288.

Citation: Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J. 2006. Color Plates, In The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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Image of Color Plate 19 (Chapter 27)

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Color Plate 19 (Chapter 27)

Schematic diagram showing involvement of environmental and host factors in the occurrence of seasonal epidemics in an area of endemic cholera. Following blooms of diverse vibrios due to environmental factors, enrichment of pathogenic strains occurs in humans with asymptomatic infection prior to a seasonal epidemic. Red circles represent strains with epidemic potential, whereas other circles represent diverse environmental populations.

Citation: Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J. 2006. Color Plates, In The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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