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Chapter 22 : Miscellaneous Animal Pathogens
Category: Environmental Microbiology
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Vibrios are the scourge of marine and estuarine vertebrates and invertebrates. In some cases the evidence for involvement in disease processes is spurious, whereas other bacterial species are recognized as serious animal pathogens. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data, these vibrios were grouped into two new species, Vibrio wodanis and Vibrio viscosus, the latter of which was subsequently reclassified as Moritella viscosa. Pathogenicity has been confirmed in laboratory based challenges involving Chromis punctipinnis. Thus, four to six scales were removed from fish, the dermis was scarified, and the wound was swabbed with 107-108 viable cells of Photobacterium damselae. An immunostimulant, specifically, glucan, enhanced resistance of gilthead bream to experimental challenge with P. damselae subsp. Piscicida. This approach is worthy of further consideration to expand the current range of disease control strategies applicable to pasteurellosis. The authors, Selvin, Lipton and Lee et al, reported that the vibrio was more problematic in shrimp, which were infected with the white spot syndrome virus. A divalent vaccine containing formalized cells and extracellular proteins (ECP) of vibrio alginolyticus was developed. Also, the administration of sodium alginate in the diet improved the resistance of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) to infection by V. alginolyticus. The newly described species Vibrio coralliilyticus was regarded as pathogenic for coral, Pocillopora damicornis, in the Red Sea. A new bacterial species, Vibrio tapetis, was described to accommodate isolates considered to cause brown ring disease in Manila clams (Tapes philippinarum) and carpet shell clams (R. decussatus).
Key Concept Ranking
- White spot syndrome virus