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Abstract:

This chapter discuss the taxonomy, infections, pathogenesis, genetic heterogeneity, distribution in estuarine environments and the environmental parameters that contribute to the ecology of this organism, and methods to eliminate this pathogen from foods. Of the several human pathogens now realized to occur naturally in seawater, the most significant, in regard to virulence, is . Three biotypes of are recognized. Whereas each is known to be a human pathogen, biotype 1 is almost exclusively associated with human disease, and this is the biotype of greatest public health concern. Since the first study on experimental pathogenesis in , a considerable amount has been learned regarding the virulence factors important for infection. The major symptoms associated with infections, including fever, tissue edema, hemorrhage, and especially hypotension, are classic symptoms associated with endotoxic shock. A study that examined 62 biotype 3 strains from Israel, as well as 82 biotype 1 and 15 biotype 2 strains, indicated that biotypes 1 and 2 are not entirely distinct but are present in two genetic subpopulations. While thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose agar (TCBS) is the most commonly employed medium for the isolation and initial differentiation of marine vibrios, most studies on the distribution of in marine environments now employ colistin-polymyxin B-cellobiose agar or one of its modifications.

Citation: Oliver J. 2006. , p 349-366. In Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J (ed), The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815714.ch25

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FIGURE 1

Seasonal distribution of infection (primary septicemia) following ingestion of raw or undercooked oysters in the United States between 2000 and 2004 (J. D. Oliver, unpublished data).

Citation: Oliver J. 2006. , p 349-366. In Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J (ed), The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815714.ch25
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR of 11 individual strains isolated from oysters (Y. Yano and J. D. Oliver, unpublished data).

Citation: Oliver J. 2006. , p 349-366. In Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J (ed), The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815714.ch25
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Variation in levels of in oysters Oysters ( = 155) were taken from a small, environmentally homogeneous site in North Carolina and were sampled for their resident load of Shown is the log of loads (CFU g wet weight) vs. the frequency (%) that each load was identified ( ).

Citation: Oliver J. 2006. , p 349-366. In Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J (ed), The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815714.ch25
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Correlation between water temperature (°C) and numbers (CFU/ml) of cells isolated from the water over a 12-month period. Sampling sites were estuarine sites in eastern North Carolina (K. Dyer-blackwell and J. Oliver, unpublished data).

Citation: Oliver J. 2006. , p 349-366. In Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J (ed), The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815714.ch25
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Symptoms and traits of persons contracting infections following ingestion of oysters

Citation: Oliver J. 2006. , p 349-366. In Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J (ed), The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815714.ch25

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