1887

Chapter 27 : Epidemiology

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Epidemiology, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815714/9781555813659_Chap27-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815714/9781555813659_Chap27-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter summarizes available information on the epidemiology of major clinically significant species, including , , and with an especial emphasis on cholera. Hallmarks of the epidemiology of cholera include a high degree of clustering of cases by location and season, with highest rates of infection in children 1 to 5 years of age in endemic areas, and protection against the disease being afforded by improved sanitation/hygiene and preexisting immunity. strains associated with epidemics also undergo frequent genetic and phenotypic changes. Surveillance of cholera in Bangladesh has provided important information regarding the epidemiology and seasonality of the disease. Developments in DNA analysis techniques led to the introduction of several new typing methods that have enabled the study of the epidemiology of on a global scale. Subsequently, it was proposed that, in addition to other possible seasonal factors causing a bloom of diverse in the environment, epidemics may be preceded by a gradual enrichment of pathogenic strains through passage in human beings who consume surface water. Diarrheal disease due to is toxin-mediated. At least two toxins have been identified as potential virulence factors, thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH). Preventive measures to interrupt transmission of pathogenic vibrios and thus reduce the disease burden are possibly the most effective disruption to the emergence or rapid evolution of species toward enhanced virulence.

Citation: Faruque S, Nair G. 2006. Epidemiology, p 385-398. In Thompson F, Austin B, Swings J (ed), The Biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815714.ch27

Key Concept Ranking

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
0.40530074
0.40530074
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815714.ch27
1. Abbot, S. L., and, J. M. Janda. 1994. Severe gastroenteritis associated with Vibrio hollisae infection: report of two cases and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 18:310312.
2. Ansaruzzaman, M.,, N. A. Bhuiyan,, G. B. Nair,, D. A. Sack,, M. Lucas,, J. L. Deen,, J. Ampuero, and, C. L. Chaignat. 2004. Cholera in Mozambique, variant of Vibrio cholerae. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:20572059.
3. Bagchi, K.,, P. Echeverria,, J. D. Arthur,, O. Sethabutr,, O. Serichanta-lergs, and, C. W. Hoge. 1993. Epidemic of diarrhea caused by Vibrio cholerae non-O1 that produced heat-stable toxin among Khmers in a camp in Thailand. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:13151317.
4. Baqui, A. H.,, M. D. Yunus,, K. Zaman,, A. K. Mitra, and, K. M. B. Hossain. 1991. Surveillance of patients attending a rural diarrhoea treatment centre in Bangladesh. Trop. Geog. Med. 43:1722.
5. Barbieri, E.,, L. Falzano,, C. Fiorentini,, A. Pianetti,, W. Baffone,, A. Fabbri,, P. Matarrese,, A. Casiere,, M. Katouli,, I. Kuhn,, R. Mollby,, F. Bruscolini, and, G. Donelli. 1999. Occurrence, diversity, and pathogenicity of halophilic Vibrio spp. and non-O1 Vibrio cholerae from estuarine waters along the Italian Adriatic coast. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:24482753.
6. Bik, E. M.,, A. E. Bunschoten,, R. D. Gouw, and, F. R. Mooi. 1995. Genesis of the novel epidemic Vibrio cholerae O139 strain: evidence for horizontal transfer of genes involved in polysaccharide synthesis. EMBO J. 14:209216.
7. Blake, P. A.,, D. T. Allegra,, J. D. Snyder,, T. J. Barrett,, L. McFar-land,, C. T. Caraway,, J. C. Feeley,, J. P. Craig,, J. V. Lee,, N. D. Puhr, and, R. A. Feldman. 1980. Cholera—a possible endemic focus in the United States. N. Engl. J. Med. 302:305309.
8. Blake, P. A.,, M. H. Merson,, R. E. Weaver,, D. G. Hollis, and, P. C. Heublein. 1979. Disease caused by a marine Vibrio. Clinical characteristics and epidemiology. N. Engl. J. Med. 300:15.
9. Campos, E.,, H. Bolanos,, M. T. Acuna,, G. Diaz,, M. C. Matamoros,, H. Raventos,, L. M. Sanchez,, O. Sanchez, and, C. Barquero. 1996. Vibrio mimicus diarrhea following ingestion of raw turtle eggs. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:11411144.
10. Cash, R. A.,, S. I. Music,, J. P. Libonati,, M. J. Snyder,, R. P. Wenzel, and, R. B. Hornick. 1974. Response of man to infection with Vibrio cholerae 1: Clinical, serologic, and bacteriologic responses to a known inoculum. J. Infect. Dis. 129:4552.
11. Centers for Disease Control. 1993. Imported cholera associated with a newly described toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O139 strain California, 1993. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 42:501503.
12. Chatterjee, B. D.,, A. Mukherjee, and, S. N. Sanyal. 1984. En-teroinvasive model of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Indian J. Med. Res. 79:151158.
13. Chatterjee, B. D.,, K. N. Neogy, and, S. L. Gorbach. 1970. Study of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from cases of diarrhoea in Calcutta. Indian J. Med. Res. 58:235239.
14. Chen, F.,, G. M. Evins,, W. L. Cook,, R. Almeida,, H. N. Bean, and, I. K. Wachsmuth. 1991. Genetic diversity among toxigenic and non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 isolated from the Western Hemisphere. Epidemiol. Infect. 107:225233.
15. Chiang, S. R., and, Y. C. Chuang. 2003. Vibrio vulnificus infection: clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, and antimicrobial therapy. J. Microbiol. Immunol. Infect. 36:8188.
16. Cholera Working Group, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh. 1993. Large epidemic of choleralike disease in Bangladesh caused by Vibrio cholerae O139 synonym Bengal. Lancet 342:387390.
17. Chongsanguan, M.,, W. Chaicumpa,, P. Moolasart,, P. Kandhas-ingha,, T. Shimada,, H. Kurazono, and, Y. Takeda. 1993. Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal in Bangkok. Lancet 342:430431.
18. Chowdhury, M. A.,, K. M. Aziz,, B. A. Kay, and, Z. Rahim. 1987. Toxin production by Vibrio mimicus strains isolated from human and environmental sources in Bangladesh. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25:22002203.
19. Chowdhury, N. R.,, S. Chakraborty, and, T. Ramamurthy. 2000. Molecular evidence of clonal Vibrio parahaemolyticus pandemic strains. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 6:631636.
20. Chuang, Y. C.,, C. Y. Yuan,, C. Y. Liu,, C. K. Lan, and, A. H. Huang. 1992. Vibrio vulnificus infection in Taiwan: report of 28 cases and review of clinical manifestations and treatment. Clin. Infect. Dis. 15:271276.
21. Clemens, J. D.,, D. A. Sack,, J. R. Harris,, M. R. Khan,, J. Chakraborty,, S. Chowdhury,, M. R. Rao,, F. P. L. Van Loon,, B. F. Stanton,, M. Yunus,, M. Ali,, M. Ansaruzzaman,, A. M. Svennerholm, and, J. Holmgren. 1990. Breast feeding and the risk of severe cholera in rural Bangladesh children. Am. J. Epidemiol. 131:400411.
22. Clemens, J. D.,, D. A. Sack,, J. R. Harris,, J. Chakraborty,, M. R. Khan,, S. Huda,, F. Ahmed,, J. Gomes,, M. R. Rao,, A. M. Svennerholm, and, J. Holmgren. 1989. ABO blood groups and cholera: new observations on specificity of risk and modification of vaccine efficacy. J. Infect. Dis. 159:770773.
23. Cohen, J.,, T. Schwartz,, R. Klasmer,, D. Pridan,, H. Ghalayini, and, A. M. Davies. 1971. Epidemiological aspects of cholera El Tor outbreak in a non-endemic area. Lancet 10:8689.
24. Colwell, R. R., and, A. Huq. 1994. Vibrios in the environment: viable but non-culturable Vibrio cholerae, p. 117133. In I. K. Wachsmuth,, P. A. Blake, and, O. Olsvik (ed.), Vibrio cholerae and Cholera: Molecular to Global Perspectives. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
25. Colwell, R. R., and, W. M. Spira. 1992. The ecology of Vibrio cholerae, p. 107127. In D. Barua and, W. B. Greenough III (ed.), Cholera. Plenum Press, New York, N.Y.
26. Dalsgaard, A.,, M. J. Albert,, D. N. Taylor,, T. Shimada,, R. Meza,, O. Serichantalergs, and, P. Echeverria. 1995. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 serogroup obtained from an outbreak of diarrhea in Lima, Peru. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:27152722.
27. Dalsgaard, A.,, O. Serichantalergs,, A. Forslund,, W. Lin,, J. Mekalanos,, E. Mintz,, T. Shimada, and, J. G. Wells. 2001. Clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio cholerae serogroup O141 carry the CTX phage and the genes encoding the toxin-coregulated pili. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:40864092.
28. Daniels, N. A.,, L. MacKinnon,, R. Bishop,, S. Altekruse,, B. Ray,, R. M. Hammond,, S. Thompson,, S. Wilson,, N. H. Bean,, P. M. Griffin, and, L. Slutsker. 2000. Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections in the United States, 1973–1998. J. Infect. Dis. 181:16611666.
29. Davis, B. R.,, G. R. Fanning,, J. M. Madden,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, H. B. Bradford, Jr.,, H. L. Smith, Jr., and, D. J. Brenner. 1981. Characterization of biochemically atypical Vibrio cholerae strains and designation of a new pathogenic species, Vibrio mimicus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 14:631639.
30. Duffy, J. 1971. The history of Asiatic cholera in the United States. Bull. N. Y. Acad. Med. 47:11521168.
31. Dziejman, M.,, E. Balon,, D. Boyd,, C. M. Fraser,, J. F. Heidelberg, and, J. J. Mekalanos. 2002. Comparative genomic analysis of Vibrio cholerae: genes that correlate with cholera endemic and pandemic disease. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:15561561.
32. Eko, F. O.,, S. M. Udo, and, O. E. Antia-Obang. 1994. Epidemiology and spectrum of vibrio diarrheas in the lower cross river basin of Nigeria. Cent. Eur. J. Public Health 2:3741.
33. Faruque, S. M.,, M. M. Rahman,, Asadulghani,, K. M. N. Islam, and, J. J. Mekalanos. 1999a. Lysogenic conversion of environmental Vibrio mimicus strains by CTXϕ. Infect. Immun. 67:57235729.
34. Faruque, S. M.,, A. K. Siddique,, M. N. Saha,, Asadulghani,, M. M. Rahman,, K. Zaman,, M. J. Albert,, D. A. Sack, and, R. B. Sack. 1999b. Molecular characterization of a new ribotype of Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal associated with an outbreak of cholera in Bangladesh. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:13131318.
35. Faruque, S. M.,, A. R. M. A. Alim,, M. M. Rahman,, A. K. Siddique,, R. B. Sack, and, M. J. Albert. 1993. Clonal relationships among classical Vibrio cholerae O1 strains isolated between 1961 and 1992 in Bangladesh. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:25132516.
36. Faruque, S. M.,, A. R. M. A. Alim,, S. K. Roy,, F. Khan,, G. B. Nair,, R. B. Sack, and, M. J. Albert. 1994. Molecular analysis of rRNA and cholera toxin genes carried by the new epidemic strain of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O139 synonym Bengal. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:10501053.
37. Faruque, S. M., and, J. J. Mekalanos. 2003. Pathogenicity islands and phages in Vibrio cholerae evolution. Trends Microbiol. 11:505510.
38. Faruque, S. M., and, M. J. Albert. 1992. Genetic relation between Vibrio cholerae O1 strains in Ecuador and Bangladesh. Lancet 339:740741.
39. Faruque, S. M.,, G. B. Nair, and, J. J. Mekalanos. 2004a. Genetics of stress-adaptation and virulence in toxigenic Vibrio cholerae. DNA Cell Biol. 23:723741.
40. Faruque, S. M.,, N. Chowdhury,, M. Kamruzzaman,, M. Dziejman,, M. H. Rahman,, D. A. Sack,, G. B. Nair, and, J. J. Mekalanos. 2004b. Genetic diversity and virulence potential of environmental Vibrio cholerae population in a cholera-endemic area. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:21232128.
41. Faruque, S. M.,, K. M. Ahmed,, A. R. M. A. Alim,, F. Qadri,, A. K. Siddique, and, M. J. Albert. 1997. Emergence of a new clone of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae biotype El Tor displacing V. cholerae O139 Bengal in Bangladesh. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:624630.
42. Faruque, S. M.,, M. J. Albert, and, J. J. Mekalanos. 1998. Epidemiology, genetics and ecology of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 62:13011314.
43. Faruque, S. M.,, M. N. Saha,, Asadulghani,, P. K. Bag,, R. K. Bhadra,, S. K. Bhattacharya,, R. B. Sack,, Y. Takeda, and, G. B. Nair. 2000. Genomic diversity among Vibrio cholerae O139 strains isolated in Bangladesh and India between 1992 and 1998. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 184:279284.
44. Faruque, S. M.,, N. Chowdhury,, M. Kamruzzaman,, Q. S. Ahmad,, A. S. G. Faruque,, M. A. Salam,, T. Ramamurthy,, G. B. Nair,, A. Weintraub, and, D. A. Sack. 2003. Reemergence of epidemic Vibrio cholerae O139, Bangladesh. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:11161122.
45. Faruque, S. M.,, S. K. Roy,, A. R. M. A. Alim,, A. K. Siddique, and, M. J. Albert. 1995. Molecular epidemiology of toxigenic V. cholerae in Bangladesh studied by numerical analysis of rRNA gene restriction patterns. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:28332838.
46. Faruque, S. M.,, I. B. Naser,, M. J. Islam,, A. S. G. Faruque,, A. N. Ghosh,, G. B. Nair,, D. A. Sack, and, J. J. Mekalanos. 2005. Seasonal epidemics of cholera inversely correlate with the prevalence of environmental cholera phages. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:17021707.
47. Fullner, K. J., and, J. J. Mekalanos. 1999. Genetic characterization of a new type IV-A pilus gene cluster found in both classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae. Infect. Immun. 67:13931404.
48. Glass, R. I., and, R. E. Black. 1992. The epidemiology of cholera. In D. Barua and, W. B. Greenough III (ed.), Cholera. Plenum Press, New York, N.Y.
49. Glass, R. I.,, J. Holmgren,, C. E. Haley,, M. R. Khan,, A. M. Svennerholm,, B. J. Stoll,, K. M. B. Hossain,, R. E. Black,, M. Yunus, and, D. Barua. 1985. Predisposition for cholera of individuals with O blood group. Possible evolutionary significance. Am. J. Epidemiol. 121:791796.
50. Glass, R. I.,, S. Becker,, M. I. Huq,, B. J. Stoll,, M. U. Khan,, M. H. Merson,, J. V. Lee, and, R. E. Black. 1982. Endemic cholera in rural Bangladesh, 1966–1980. Am. J. Epidemiol. 116:959970.
51. Goodgame, R. W., and, W. B. Greenough. 1975. Cholera in Africa: a message for the West. Ann. Intern. Med. 82:101106.
52. Gray, L. D., and, A. S. Kreger. 1985. Purification and characterization of an extracellular cytolysin produced by Vibrio vulnificus. Infect. Immun. 48:6272.
53. Hayat, U.,, G. P. Reddy, and, C. A. Bush. 1993. Capsular types of Vibrio vulnificus: an analysis of strains from clinical and environmental sources. J. Infect. Dis. 168:758762.
54. Heidelberg, J. F.,, J. A. Eisen,, W. C. Nelson,, R. A. Clayton,, M. L. Gwinn,, R. J. Dodson,, D. H. Haft,, E. K. Hickey,, J. D. Peterson,, L. Umayam,, S. R. Gill,, K. E. Nelson,, T. D. Read,, H. Tettelin,, D. Richardson,, M. D. Ermolaeva,, J. Vamathevan,, S. Bass,, H. Qin,, I. Dragoi,, P. Sellers,, L. McDonald,, T. Utterback,, R. D. Fleishman,, W. C. Nierman,, O. White,, S. L. Salzberg,, H. O. Smith,, R. R. Colwell,, J. J. Mekalanos,, J. C. Ventor, and, C. M. Frasier. 2000. DNA sequence of both chromosomes of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Nature 406:477483.
55. Hlady, W. G., and, K. C. Klontz. 1996. The epidemiology of Vibrio infections in Florida (1981–1993). J. Infect. Dis. 173:11761183.
56. Hlady, W. G.,, R. C. Mullen, and, R. S. Hopkin. 1993. Vibrio vulnificus from raw oysters. Leading cause of reported deaths from foodborne illness in Florida. J. Via. Med. Assoc. 80:536538.
57. Holmberg, S. D.,, J. R. Harris,, D. E. Kay,, N. T. Hargrett,, R. D. R. Parker,, N. Kansou,, N. U. Rao, and, P. A. Blake. 1984. Food-borne transmission of cholera in Micronesian households. Lancet ii: 325328.
58. Honda, T., and, T. Iida. 1993. The pathogenicity of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and the role of the thermostable direct haemolysin and related haemolysin. Rev. Med. Microbiol. 4:106113.
59. Honda, T.,, Y. Takeda,, T. Miwatani,, K. Kato, and, Y. Nimura. 1976. Clinical features of patients suffering from food poisoning due to Vibrio parahaemolyticus, especially on changes in electrocardiograms. J. Jpn. Assoc. Infect. Dis. 50:216223.
60. Howard, R.,, B. Brennman, and, S. Lieb. 1988. Soft tissue infections in Florida due to marine vibrio bacteria. J. Fla. Med. Assoc. 73:2934.
61. Hsueh, P. R.,, C. Y. Lin,, H. J. Tang,, H. C. Lee,, J. W. Liu,, Y. C. Liu, and, Y. C. Chuang. 2004. Vibrio vulnificus in Taiwan. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:13631368.
62. Islam, M. S.,, B. S. Drasar, and, R. B. Sack. 1994. The aquatic flora and fauna as reservoirs of Vibrio cholerae: a review. J. Diarrhoeal Dis. Res. 12:8796.
63. Janda, J. M.,, C. Powers,, R. G. Bryant, and, S. L. Abbott. 1988. Current perspective on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of clinically significant Vibrio spp. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 1:245267.
64. Jermyn, W. S., and, E. F. Boyd. 2002. Characterization of a novel Vibrio pathogenicity island (VPI-2) encoding neuraminidase (nanH) among toxigenic Vibrio cholerae isolates. Microbiology 148:36813693.
65. Johnston, J. M.,, S. F. Becker, and, L. M. McFarland. 1985. Vibrio vulnificus. Man and the sea. JAMA 253:28502853.
66. Joseph, S. W.,, R. R. Colwell, and, J. B. Kaper. 1982. Vibrio parahaemolyticus and related halophilic vibrios. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 10:77124.
67. Kamal, A. M. 1974. The seventh pandemic of cholera, p. 114. In D. Barua and, W. Burrows (ed.), Cholera. The W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
68. Kaneko, T., and, R. R. Colwell. 1978. The annual cycle of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Chesapeake Bay. Microb. Ecol. 4:135155.
69. Kaper, J. B.,, E. F. Remmers,, H. Lockman, and, R. R. Colwell. 1981. Distribution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Chesapeake Bay during the summer season. Estuaries 4:321327.
70. Kaper, J. B.,, H. B. Bradford,, N. C. Roberts, and, S. Falkow. 1982. Molecular epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae in the U.S. Gulf Coast. J. Clin. Microbiol. 16:129134.
71. Kaper, J. B.,, J. G. Morris, and, M. M. Levine. 1995. Cholera. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 8:4886.
72. Kimsey, H. H.,, G. B. Nair,, A. Ghosh, and, M. K. Waldor. 1998. Diverse CTXϕ and evolution of new pathogenic Vibrio cholerae. Lancet 352:457458.
73. Klontz, K. C., and, J. C. Desenclos. 1990. Clinical and epidemiological features of sporadic infections with Vibrio fluvialis in Florida, USA. J. Diarrhoeal Dis. Res. 8:2426.
74. Koch, R. 1894. An address on cholera and its bacillus. Br. Med. J. 2:453459.
75. Kothary, M. H., and, A. S. Kreger. 1987. Purification and characterization of an elastolytic protease of Vibrio vulnificus. J. Gen. Microbiol. 133:17831791.
76. Kovach, M. E.,, M. D. Shaffer, and, K. M. Peterson. 1996. A putative integrase gene defines the distal end of a large cluster of ToxR-regulated colonization genes in Vibrio cholerae. Microbiology 142:21652174.
77. Kreger, A., and, D. Lockwood. 1981. Detection of extracellular toxin(s) produced by Vibrio vulnificus. Infect. Immun. 33:583590.
78. Levine, M. M. 1991. South America: the return of cholera. Lancet 338:4546.
79. Levine, M. M.,, J. B. Kaper,, D. Herrington,, G. Losonsky,, J. G. Morris,, M. L. Clements,, R. E. Black,, B. Tell, and, R. Hall. 1988. Volunteer studies of deletion mutants of Vibrio cholerae O1 prepared by recombinant techniques. Infect. Immun. 56:161167.
80. Levine, M. M.,, R. E. Black,, M. L. Clements,, D. R. Nalin,, L. Cis-neros, and, R. A. Finkelstein. 1981. Volunteer studies in development of vaccines against cholera and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: a review, p. 443459. In T. Holme,, J. Holmgren,, M. H. Mer-son, and, R. Mollby (ed.), Acute Enteric Infections in Children: New Prospects for Treatment and Prevention. Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
81. Lin, W.,, K. J. Fullner,, R. Clayton,, J. A. Sexton,, M. B. Rogers,, K. E. Calia,, S. B. Calderwood,, C. Fraser, and, J. J. Mekalanos. 1999. Identification of a vibrio cholerae RTX toxin gene cluster that is tightly linked to the cholera toxin prophage. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:10711076.
82. Linkous, D. A., and, J. D. Oliver. 1999. Pathogenesis of Vibrio vulnificus. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 174:207214.
83. Liston, J. 1974. Influence of U.S. seafood handling procedures on Vibrio parahaemolyticus, p. 123128. In T. Fujino,, G. Sak-aguchi,, R. Sakazaki, and, Y. Takeda (ed.), International Symposium on Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Saikon Publishing Co., Tokyo, Japan.
84. Litwin, C. M.,, T. W. Rayback, and, J. Skinner. 1996. Role of catechol siderophore synthesis in Vibrio vulnificus virulence. Infect. Immun. 64:283288.
85. Lobitz, B.,, L. Beck,, A. Huq,, B. Wood,, G. Fuchs,, A. S. G. Faruque, and, R. Colwell. 2000. Climate and infectious disease: use of remote sensing for detection of Vibrio cholerae by indirect measurement. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:14381443.
86. Matsumoto, C.,, J. Okuda, and, M. Ishibashi. 2000. Pandemic spread of an O3:K6 clone of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and emergence of related strains evidenced by arbitrarily primed PCR and toxRS sequence analyses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:578585.
87. Mazel, D.,, B. Dychinco,, V. A. Webb, and, J. Davies. 1998. A distinctive class of integron in the Vibrio cholerae genome. Science 280:605608.
88. McCormack, W. M.,, M. S. Islam,, M. Fahimuddin, and, W. H. Mosley. 1969. A community study of inapparent cholera infections. Am. J. Epidemiol. 89:658664.
89. Mead, P. S.,, L. Slutsker,, V. Dietz,, L. F. McGaig,, J. S. Bresee,, C. Sharpiro,, P. M. Griffin, and, R. V. Tauxe. 1999. Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:607625.
90. Merrell, D. S.,, S. M. Butler,, F. Qadri,, N. A. Dolganov,, A. Alam,, M. B. Cohen,, S. B. Calderwood,, G. K. Schoolnik, and, A. Camilli. 2002. Host-induced epidemic spread of the cholera bacterium. Nature 417:642645.
91. Mitra, R.,, A. Basu,, D. Dutta,, G. B. Nair, and, Y. Takeda. 1996. Resurgence of Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal with altered antibiogram in Calcutta, India. Lancet 348: 181.
92. Miwatani, T., and, Y. Takeda. 1975. Vibrio parahaemolyticus epidemiology ecology and biology, p. 2224. In T. Miwatani and, Y. Takeda (ed.), Vibrio parahaemolyticus: a Causative Bacterium of Seafood Poisoning. Saiko, Tokyo, Japan.
93. Miyoshi, N.,, C. Shimizu,, I. Miyoshi, and, S. Shinoda. 1987. Purification and characterization of Vibrio vulnificus protease. Microbiol. Immunol. 31:1325.
94. Morris, J. G., Jr. 1988. Vibrio vulnificus: a new monster of the deep? Ann. Intern. Med. 109:261263.
95. Morris, J. G., Jr. 1990. Non-O group 1 Vibrio cholerae: a look at the epidemiology of an occasional pathogen. Epidemiol. Rev. 12:179191.
96. Motes, M. L.,, A. DePaola,, D. W. Cook,, J. E. Veazey,, J. C. Hun-sucher,, W. E. Garthright,, R. J. Blodgett, and, S. J. Chirtel. 1998. Influence of water temperature and salinity on Vibrio vulnificus in northern Gulf and Atlantic Coast oysters (Crassostrea virginica). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:14591465.
97. Nair, G. B.,, S. M. Faruque,, N. A. Bhuiyan,, M. Kamruzzaman,, A. K. Siddique, and, D. A. Sack. 2002. New variants of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor with attributes of the classical biotype from hospitalized patients with acute diarrhea in Bangladesh. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:32963299.
98. Novitsky, J. A., and, R. Y. Morita. 1976. Morphological characterization of small cells resulting from nutrient starvation of a psychrophilic marine vibrio. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 32:617622.
99. Novitsky, J. A., and, R. Y. Morita. 1977. Survival of a psychrophilic marine vibrio under long-term nutrient starvation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 33:635641.
100. Novitsky, J. A., and, R. Y. Morita. 1978. Possible strategy for the survival of marine bacteria under starvation conditions. Mar. Biol. 48:289295.
101. Okuda, J.,, M. Ishibashi,, S. L. Abbott,, J. M. Janda, and, M. Nishibuchi. 1997a. Analysis of the thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) gene and the tdh-related hemolysin (trh) genes in urease-positive strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated on the West Coast of the United States. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:19651971.
102. Okuda, J.,, M. Ishibashi, and, E. Hayakawa. 1997b. Emergence of a unique O3:K6 clone of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Calcutta, India, and isolation of strains from the same clonal group from southeast Asian travellers arriving in Japan. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:31503155.
103. Okujo, N., and, S. Yamamoto. 1994. Identification of the siderophores from Vibrio hollisae and Vibrio mimicus as aerobactin. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 118:187192.
104. Pal, S. C.,, B. K. Sircar,, G. B. Nair, and, B. C. Deb. 1984. Epidemiology of bacterial diarrhoeal diseases in India with special reference to Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections, p. 6573. In Y. Takeda and, T. Miwatani (ed.), Bacterial Diarrhoeal Disease. KTK Scientific Publishers, Tokyo, Japan.
105. Pan American Health Organization. 1991. Cholera situation in the Americas. Epidemiol. Bull. 12:14.
106. Park, S. D.,, H. S. Shon, and, N. J. Joh. 1991. Vibrio vulnificus sep-ticemia in Korea: clinical and epidemiologic findings in seventy patients. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 24:397403.
107. Perez-Tirse, J.,, J. F. Levine, and, M. Mecca. 1993. Vibrio damsela. A cause of fulminant septicemia. Arch. Intern. Med. 153:18381840.
108. Pollitzer, R. 1959. History of the disease, p. 1150. In R. Pollitzer (ed.), Cholera. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
109. Ramamurthy, T.,, P. K. Bag,, A. Pal,, S. K. Bhattacharya,, M. K. Bhat-tacharya,, T. Shimada,, T. Takeda,, T. Karasawa,, H. Kurazono, and, Y. Takeda. 1993a. Virulence patterns of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 strains isolated from hospitalized patients with acute diarrhea in Calcutta, India. J. Med. Microbiol. 39:310317.
110. Ramamurthy, T.,, S. Garg,, R. Sharma,, S. K. Bhattacharya,, G. B. Nair,, T. Shimada,, T. Takeda,, T. Karasawa,, H. Kurazano,, A. Pal, and, Y. Takeda. 1993b. Emergence of a novel strain of Vibrio cholerae with epidemic potential in Southern and Eastern India. Lancet 341:703704.
111. Ries, A. A.,, D. J. Vugia,, L. Beingolea,, A. M. Palacios,, E. Vasquez,, J. G. Wells,, N. G. Baca,, D. L. Swerdlow,, M. Pollack,, N. H. Bean,, L. Seminario, and, R. V. Tauxe. 1992. Cholera in Piura, Peru: a modern urban epidemic. J. Infect. Dis. 166:14291433.
112. Rudra, S.,, R. Mahajan,, M. Mathur,, K. Kathuria, and, V. Talwar. 1996. Cluster of cases of clinical cholera due to Vibrio cholerae O10 in East Delhi. Indian J. Med. Res. 103:7173.
113. Sharma, C.,, M. Thungapathra,, A. Ghosh,, A. K. Mukhopadhyay,, A. Basu,, R. Mitra,, I. Basu,, S. K. Bhattacharya,, T. Shimada,, T. Ramamurthy,, T. Takeda,, S. Yamasaki,, Y. Takeda, and, G. B. Nair. 1998. Molecular analysis of non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae associated with an unusual upsurge in the incidence of cholera-like disease in Calcutta, India. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:756763
114. Shinoda, S.,, M. Kobayashi,, H. Yamada,, S. Yoshida,, M. Ogawa, and, Y. Mizuguchi. 1987. Inhibitory effect of capsular antigen of Vibrio vulnificus on bactericidal activity of human serum. Microbiol. Immunol. 31:393401.
115. Shirai H.,, H. Ito,, T. Hirayama,, Y. Nakamoto,, N. Nakabayashi,, K. Kumagai,, Y. Takeda, and, M. Nishibuchi. 1990. Molecular epidemiologic evidence for association of thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin of Vibrio parahaemolyticus with gastroenteritis. Infect. Immun. 58:35683573.
116. Siddique, A. K.,, A. Salam,, M. S. Islam,, K. Akram,, R. N. Majumdar,, K. Zaman,, N. Fronczak, and, S. Laston. 1995. Why treatment centres failed to prevent cholera deaths among Rwandan refugees in Goma, Zaire. Lancet 345:359361.
117. Siddique, A. K.,, K. Zaman,, A. H. Baqui,, K. Akram,, P. Mutsuddy,, A. Eusof,, K. Haider,, S. Islam, and, R. B. Sack. 1992. Cholera epidemics in Bangladesh: 1985–1991. J. Diarrhoeal Dis. Res. 10:7986.
118. Siddique, A. K.,, K. Akram,, K. Zaman,, P. Mutsuddy,, A. Eusof, and, R. B. Sack. 1996. Vibrio cholerae O139: how great is the threat of a pandemic? Trop. Med. Int. Health 1:393398.
119. Snow, J. 1855. On the Mode of Communication of Cholera, 2nd ed. J. Churchill, London, England.
120. Swerdlow, D. L., and, A. A. Ries. 1993. Vibrio cholerae non-O1—the eighth pandemic? Lancet 342:382383.
121. Swerdlow, D. L.,, E. D. Mintz,, M. Rodriguez,, E. Tejada,, C. Ocampo,, L. Espejo,, K. D. Greene,, W. Saldana,, L. Seminario,, R. V. Tauxe,, J. G. Wells,, N. H. Bean,, A. A. Ries,, M. Pollack,, B. Vertiz, and, P. A. Blake. 1992. Waterborne transmission of epidemic cholera in Trujillo, Peru: lessons for a continent at risk. Lancet 340:2832.
122. Tacket, C. O.,, F. Brenner, and, P. A. Blake. 1984. Clinical features and an epidemiological study of Vibrio vulnificus infections. J. Infect. Dis. 149:558561.
123. Tamplin, M. L.,, S. Specter,, G. E. Rodrick, and, H. Friedman. 1985. Vibrio vulnificus resists phagocytosis in the absence of serumopsonins. Infect. Immun. 49:715718.
124. Testa, J.,, L. W. Daniel, and, A. S. Kreger. 1984. Extracellular phos-pholipase A2 and lysophospholipase produced by Vibrio vulnificus. Infect. Immun. 45:458463.
125. Trucksis, M.,, J. Michalski,, Y. K. Deng, and, J. B. Kaper. 1998. The Vibrio cholerae genome contains two unique circular chromosomes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:1446414469.
126. Tuyet, D. T.,, V. D. Thiem,, L. V. Seidlein,, C. Ashrafuzzaman,, E. Park,, D. G. Canh,, B. T. Chien,, T. V. Gung,, A. Naficy,, M. R. Rao,, M. Ali,, Y. Lee,, T. S. Hung,, M. Nichibuchi,, J. Clemens, and, D. D. Trach. 2002. Clinical epidemiological and socioeconomic analysis of an outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam. J. Infect. Dis. 186:16151620.
127. U.K. Public Health Laboratory Service Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre. 1993. Vibrio cholerae O139 and epidemic cholera. Commun. Dis. Rep. CDR Wkly. 3:173. [Online.] http://www.hpa.org.uk/cdr/.
128. Vasconcelos, F. J.,, W. J. Stang, and, R. H. Laidlaw. 1975. Isolation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus from estuarine areas of Southeastern Alaska. Appl. Microbiol. 29:557559.
129. Wachsmuth, I. K.,, C. A. Bopp,, P. I. Fields, and, C. Carrillo. 1991. Difference between toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 from South America and US gulf coast. Lancet 337:10971098.
130. Wachsmuth, I. K.,, G. M. Evins,, P. I. Fields,, O. Olsvik,, T. Popovic,, C. A. Bopp,, J. G. Wells,, C. Carrillo, and, P. A. Blake. 1993. The molecular epidemiology of cholera in Latin America. J. Infect. Dis. 167:621626.
131. Wachsmuth, I. K.,, O. Olsvik,, G. M. Evins, and, T. Popovic. 1994. Molecular epidemiology of cholera, p. 357370. In K. Wachsmuth,, P. A. Blake, and, O. Olsvik (ed.), Vibrio cholerae and Cholera: Molecular to Global Perspectives. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
132. Waldor, M. K., and, J. J. Mekalanos. 1996. Lysogenic conversion by a filamentous bacteriophage encoding cholera toxin. Science 272:19101914.
133. World Health Organization. 1999. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Japan, 1996–1998. Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 74:357364.
134. Wright, A. C.,, L. M. Simpson,, J. D. Oliver, and, J. G. Morris, Jr. 1990. Phenotypic evaluation of acapsular transposon mutants of Vibrio vulnificus. Infect. Immun. 58:17691773.
135. Wright, A. C.,, J. G. Morris, Jr.,, D. R. Maneval, Jr.,, K. Richardson, and, J. B. Kaper. 1985. Cloning of the cytotoxin-hemolysin gene of Vibrio vulnificus. Infect. Immun. 50:922924.
136. Yoshida, S.,, M. Ogawa, and, Y. Mizuguchi. 1985. Relation of capsular materials and colony opacity to virulence of Vibrio vulnificus. Infect. Immun. 47:446451.
137. Zen-Yoji, H.,, S. Sakai,, T. Terayama,, Y. Kudo,, T. Ito,, M. Benoki, and, M. Nagasaki. 1965. Epidemiology, enteropathogenicity, and classification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. J. Infect. Dis. 115:436444.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error