1887

Chapter 4 : Molecular and Immunological Responses to Food

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Molecular and Immunological Responses to Food, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815721/9781555813758_Chap04-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815721/9781555813758_Chap04-2.gif

Abstract:

Excessive immune responses to commensals or to food antigens will result in autoimmunity or food allergy. Despite the progress in knowledge regarding the interactions between food antigens and the gut, unanswered questions remain. The chapter addresses these questions by bringing together recent findings on the ways in which different components of the gut tract respond to foods, commensals, and pathogens in a systematic overview. It is structured as follows. First, a descriptive section presents a brief outline of the spatially distinct immune decision-making units and their integrative interactions, including discussion of the cellular and molecular structures involved in gastrointestinal responses to foods, commensal bacteria, and pathogens, as grouped in the proposed autonomous structures. This is followed by an overview of the role of development in determining the outcome of gut responses to foods, since such responses are also influenced by the history of previous exposures to food antigens in utero and after birth. The evolution of the mother-child integrated immunological unit from fetal life to the end of the breast-feeding period is discussed, as well as characterization of the pathological immune responses to foods that occur in the gut and intestinal autoimmune diseases and food allergies. Finally, the chapter describes the preventive and therapeutic proposed uses of oral tolerance and the perspectives and the questions that still remain unanswered.

Citation: Turcanu V, Lack G. 2006. Molecular and Immunological Responses to Food, p 83-121. In Maleki S, Burks A, Helm R (ed), Food Allergy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815721.ch4
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Gastrointestinal immunity decision-making systems. The spatial separation between these units allows cell-to-cell interactions and short-distance messengers to generate a microenvironment that allows independent immune decisions to be taken regarding inflammatory responses against one antigen or another. The integration of these autonomous units is ensured by long-distance messengers (cytokines and chemokines), migrating cells, cell-secreted exosomes, and cell fragments.

Citation: Turcanu V, Lack G. 2006. Molecular and Immunological Responses to Food, p 83-121. In Maleki S, Burks A, Helm R (ed), Food Allergy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815721.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

The intestinal mucosa comprises the cells and interstitial structures above the muscularis mucosa layer of smooth muscle cells. The intestinal epithelium comprises mainly EC, goblet cells (GC), M cells, enteroendocrine cells (EEC), Paneth cells (PC), IEL, and other immune cells. The LP is located between the basal membrane and the muscularis mucosae and normally contains Mf, LPL, DC, plasma cells (Pl), mast cells (Ma), eosinophils (PE), neutrophils (PN), etc.

Citation: Turcanu V, Lack G. 2006. Molecular and Immunological Responses to Food, p 83-121. In Maleki S, Burks A, Helm R (ed), Food Allergy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815721.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

PP are secondary lymphoid organs formed by at least several primary and secondary lymphoid follicles. Food antigens and bacteria reach the PP either directly, through the follicle-associated M cells, or indirectly, carried by dendritic cells. Naïve T and B cells enter PP at the level of the high-endothelium venules and recognize specific antigens presented by the local APCs. Subsequent interaction between T and B cells leads to the formation of a secondary follicle with a germinal center. Memory T and B cells leave PP through the lymphatics.

Citation: Turcanu V, Lack G. 2006. Molecular and Immunological Responses to Food, p 83-121. In Maleki S, Burks A, Helm R (ed), Food Allergy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815721.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4.
Figure 4.

Multiple levels of food antigen handling in the gut and associated tissues. Food antigen (non-self) decision steps for the induction of inflammation or a noninflammatory immune response are shown.

Citation: Turcanu V, Lack G. 2006. Molecular and Immunological Responses to Food, p 83-121. In Maleki S, Burks A, Helm R (ed), Food Allergy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815721.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815721.ch04
1. Agersborg, S. S.,, K. M. Garza, and, K. S. Tung. 2001. Intestinal parasitism terminates self tolerance and enhances neonatal induction of autoimmune disease and memory. Eur. J. Immunol. 31:851859.
2. Akdis, C. A., and, K. Blaser. 2000. Mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy. Allergy 55:522530.
3. Andre, C.,, F. Andre,, L. Colin, and, S. Cavagna. 1987. Measurement of intestinal permeability to mannitol and lactulose as a means of diagnosing food allergy and evaluating therapeutic effectiveness of disodium cromoglycate. Ann. Allergy 59:127130.
4. Ardavin, C. 2003. Origin, precursors and differentiation of mouse dendritic cells. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 3:582590.
5. Arshad, S. H.,, S. M. Tariq,, S. Matthews, and, E. Hakim. 2001. Sensitization to common allergens and its association with allergic disorders at age 4 years: a whole population birth cohort study. Pediatrics 108:E33.
6. Artik, S.,, K. Haarhuis,, X. Wu,, J. Begerow, and, E. Gleichmann. 2001. Tolerance to nickel: oral nickel administration induces a high frequency of anergic T cells with persistent suppressor activity. J. Immunol. 167:67946803.
7. Arvola, T.,, K. Laiho,, S. Torkkeli,, H. Mykkanen,, S. Salminen,, L. Maunula, and, E. Isolauri. 1999. Prophylactic Lactobacillus GG reduces antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children with respiratory infections: a randomized study. Pediatrics 104:e64.
8. Bach, J. F. 2002. The effect of infections on susceptibility to autoimmune and allergic diseases. N. Engl. J. Med. 347:911920.
9. Bae, S. J.,, Y. Tanaka,, J. Hakugawa, and, I. Katayama. 1999. Interleukin-5 involvement in ovalbumin-induced eosinophil infiltration in mouse food-allergy model. J. Dermatol. Sci. 21:17.
10. Bambou, J. C.,, A. Giraud,, S. Menard,, B. Begue,, S. Rakotobe,, M. Heyman,, F. Taddei,, N. Cerf-Bensussan, and, V. Gaboriau-Routhiau. 2004. In vitro and ex vivo activation of the TLR5 signaling pathway in intestinal epithelial cells by a commensal Escherichia coli strain. J. Biol. Chem. 279: 42984–42992.
11. Bannon, G. A.,, D. Shin,, S. Maleki,, R. Kopper, and, A. W. Burks. 1999. Tertiary structure and biophysical properties of a major peanut allergen, implications for the production of a hypoallergenic protein. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 118:315316.
12. Barnett, M. L.,, J. M. Kremer,, E. W. St. Clair,, D. O. Clegg,, D. Furst,, M. Weisman,, M. J. Fletcher,, S. Chasan-Taber,, E. Finger,, A. Morales,, C. H. Le, and, D. E. Trentham. 1998. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with oral type II collagen. Results of a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheumatol. 41:290297.
13. Bevins, C. L. 2004. The Paneth cell and the innate immune response. Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol. 20:572580.
14. Bielekova, B.,, B. Goodwin,, N. Richert,, I. Cortese,, T. Kondo,, G. Afshar,, B. Gran,, J. Eaton,, J. Antel,, J. A. H. F. Frank,, McFarland, and, R. Martin. 2000. Encephalitogenic potential of the myelin basic protein peptide (amino acids 83–99) in multiple sclerosis: results of a phase II clinical trial with an altered peptide ligand. Nat. Med. 6:11671175.
15. Bilsborough, J.,, T. C. George,, A. Norment, and, J. L. Viney. 2003. Mucosal CD8α+ DC, with a plasmacytoid phenotype, induce differentiation and support function of T cells with regulatory properties. Immunology 108:481492.
16. Bimczok, D.,, E. N. Sowa,, H. Faber-Zuschratter,, R. Pabst, and, H. J. Rothkotter. 2005. Site-specific expression of CD11b and SIRPα (CD172a) on dendritic cells: implications for their migration patterns in the gut immune system. Eur. J. Immunol. 35:14181427.
17. Blanas, E.,, F. R. Carbone,, J. Allison,, J. F. Miller, and, W. R. Heath. 1996. Induction of autoimmune diabetes by oral administration of autoantigen. Science 274:17071709.
18. Bland, P. W. 1998. Gut epithelium: food processor for the mucosal immune system? Gut 42:455456.
19. Bland, P. W., and, L. G. Warren. 1986a. Antigen presentation by epithelial cells of the rat small intestine. I. Kinetics, antigen specificity and blocking by anti-Ia antisera. Immunology 58:17.
20. Bland, P. W., and, L. G. Warren. 1986b. Antigen presentation by epithelial cells of the rat small intestine. II. Selective induction of suppressor T cells. Immunology 58:914.
21. Blaschke, V.,, B. Micheel,, R. Pabst, and, J. Westermann. 1995. Lymphocyte traffic through lymph nodes and Peyer’s patches of the rat: B- and T-cell-specific migration patterns within the tissue, and their dependence on splenic tissue. Cell Tissue Res. 282:377386.
22. Bluestone, J. A., and, A. K. Abbas. 2003. Natural versus adaptive regulatory T cells. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 3:253257.
23. Boehme, S. A.,, F. M. Lio,, L. Sikora,, T. S. Pandit,, K. Lavrador,, S. P. Rao, and, P. Sriramarao. 2004. Cutting edge: serotonin is a chemotactic factor for eosinophils and functions additively with eotaxin. J. Immunol. 173:35993603.
24. Braat, H.,, J. van den Brande,, E. van Tol,, D. Hommes,, M. Peppelenbosch, and, S. van Deventer. 2004a. Lactobacillus rhamnosus induces peripheral hyporesponsiveness in stimulated CD4+ T cells via modulation of dendritic cell function. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 80:16181625.
25. Braat, H.,, E. C. de Jong,, J. M. van den Brande,, M. L. Kapsenberg,, M. P. Peppelenbosch,, E. A. van Tol, and, S. J. van Deventer. 2004b. Dichotomy between Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Klebsiella pneumoniae on dendritic cell phenotype and function. J. Mol. Med. 82:197205.
26. Braley-Mullen,, H., and, G. C. Sharp. 1997. A thyroxine-containing thyroglobulin peptide induces both lymphocytic and granulomatous forms of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis. J. Autoimmunol. 10:531540.
27. Brandtzaeg, P. E. 2002. Current understanding of gastrointestinal immunoregulation and its relation to food allergy. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 964:1345.
28. Brandtzaeg, P.,, I. N. Farstad, and, L. Helgeland. 1998. Phenotypes of T cells in the gut. Chem. Immunol. 71:126.
29. Brandtzaeg, P.,, E. S. Baekkevold,, I. N. Farstad,, F. L. Jahnsen,, F. E. Johansen,, E. M. Nilsen, and, T. Yamanaka. 1999. Regional specialization in the mucosal immune system: what happens in the microcompartments? Immunol. Today 20:141151.
30. Brunner, T.,, D. Arnold,, C. Wasem,, S. Herren, and, C. Frutschi. 2001. Regulation of cell death and survival in intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes. Cell Death Differ. 8:706714.
31. Caby, M. P.,, D. Lankar,, C. Vincendeau-Scherrer,, G. Raposo, and, C. Bonnerot. 2005. Exosomal-like vesicles are present in human blood plasma. Int. Immunol. 17:879887.
32. Campbell, N.,, X. Y. Yio,, So,, L. P., Li,, Y., and, Mayer, L. 1999. The intestinal epithelial cell: processing and presentation of antigen to the mucosal immune system. Immunol. Rev. 172:315324.
33. Chang, C. C.,, R. Ciubotariu,, J. S. Manavalan,, J. Yuan,, A. I. Colovai,, F. Piazza,, S. Lederman,, M. Colonna,, R. Cortesini,, R. Dalla-Favera, and, N. Suciu-Foca. 2002. Tolerization of dendritic cells by T(S) cells: the crucial role of inhibitory receptors ILT3 and ILT4. Nat. Immunol. 3:237243.
34. Chen, Y.,, C. R. Ong,, G. J. McKenna,, A. L. Mui,, R. M. Smith, and, S. W. Chung. 2001. Induction of immune hyporesponsiveness after portal vein immunization with ovalbumin. Surgery 129:6675.
35. Clark, A. T., and, P. W. Ewan. 2003. Interpretation of tests for nut allergy in one thousand patients, in relation to allergy or tolerance. Clin. Exp. Allergy 33:10411045.
36. Colgan, S. P.,, R. M. Hershberg,, G. T. Furuta, and, R. S. Blumberg. 1999. Ligation of intestinal epithelial CD1d induces bioactive IL-10: critical role of the cytoplasmic tail in autocrine signaling. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:1393813943.
37. Colgan, S. P.,, R. S. Pitman,, T. Nagaishi,, A. Mizoguchi,, E. Mizoguchi,, L. F. Mayer,, L. Shao,, R. B. Sartor,, J. R. Subjeck, and, R. S. Blumberg. 2003. Intestinal heat shock protein 110 regulates expression of CD1d on intestinal epithelial cells. J. Clin. Investig. 112:745754.
38. Colman, R. W.,, R. B. Sartor,, A. A. Adam,, R. A. DeLa Cadena, and, A. Stadnicki. 1998. The plasma kallikreinkinin system in sepsis, inflammatory arthritis, and enterocolitis. Clin. Rev. Allergy Immunol. 16:365384.
39. Cong, Y.,, C. T. Weaver,, A. Lazenby, and, C. O. Elson. 2002. Bacterial-reactive T regulatory cells inhibit pathogenic immune responses to the enteric flora. J. Immunol. 169:61126119.
40. Cortesini, N. S.,, A. I. Colovai,, J. S. Manavalan,, S. Galluzzo,, A. J. Naiyer,, J. Liu,, G. Vlad,, S. Kim-Schulze,, L. Scotto,, J. Fan, and, R. Cortesini. 2004. Role of regulatory and suppressor T-cells in the induction of ILT3+ ILT4+ tolerogenic endothelial cells in organ allografts. Transpl. Immunol. 13:7382.
41. Dahl, M. E.,, K. Dabbagh,, D. Liggitt,, S. Kim, and, D. B. Lewis. 2004. Viral-induced T helper type 1 responses enhance allergic disease by effects on lung dendritic cells. Nat. Immunol. 5:337343.
42. Das, K. M.,, A. Dasgupta,, A. Mandal, and, X. Geng. 1993. Autoimmunity to cytoskeletal protein tropomyosin. A clue to the pathogenetic mechanism for ulcerative colitis. J. Immunol. 150:24872493.
43. DeMeo, M. T.,, E. A. Mutlu,, A. Keshavarzian, and, M. C. Tobin. 2002. Intestinal permeation and gastrointestinal disease. J. Clin. Gastroenterol. 34:385396.
44. DePaolo, R. W.,, B. J. Rollins,, W. Kuziel, and, W. J. Karpus. 2003. CC chemokine ligand 2 and its receptor regulate mucosal production of IL-12 and TGF-beta in high dose oral tolerance. J. Immunol. 171:35603567.
45. Devereux, G.,, A. Seaton, and, R. N. Barker. 2001. In utero priming of allergen-specific helper T cells. Clin. Exp. Allergy 31:16861695.
46. Dewhirst, F. E.,, C. C. Chien,, B. J. Paster,, R. L. Ericson,, R. P. Orcutt,, D. B. Schauer, and, J. G. Fox. 1999. Phylogeny of the defined murine microbiota: altered Schaedler flora. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:32873292.
47. Dhodapkar, M. V., and, R. M. Steinman. 2002. Antigen-bearing immature dendritic cells induce peptide-specific CD8+ regulatory T cells in vivo in humans. Blood 100:174177.
48. Dhodapkar, M. V.,, R. M. Steinman,, J. Krasovsky,, C. Munz, and, N. Bhardwaj. 2001. Antigen-specific inhibition of effector T cell function in humans after injection of immature dendritic cells. J. Exp. Med. 193:233238.
49. Du, G. C. Mont,, R. C. Beach, and, I. S. Menzies. 1984. Gastrointestinal permeability in food-allergic eczematous children. Clin. Allergy 14:5559.
50. Duchmann, R.,, E. Schmitt,, P. Knolle,, K. H. Meyer zum Buschenfelde, and, M. Neurath. 1996. Tolerance towards resident intestinal flora in mice is abrogated in experimental colitis and restored by treatment with interleukin-10 or antibodies to interleukin-12. Eur. J. Immunol. 26:934938.
51. Dupont, C.,, E. Barau,, P. Molkhou,, F. Raynaud,, J. P. Barbet, and, L. Dehennin. 1989. Food-induced alterations of intestinal permeability in children with cow’s milk-sensitive enteropathy and atopic dermatitis. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 8:459465.
52. Dwinell, M. B.,, P. A. Johanesen, and, J. M. Smith. 2003. Immunobiology of epithelial chemokines in the intestinal mucosa. Surgery 133:601607.
53. Eastham, E. J.,, T. Lichauco,, M. I. Grady, and, W. A. Walker. 1978. Antigenicity of infant formulas: role of immature intestine on protein permeability. J. Pediatr. 93:561564.
54. Eck, M.,, B. Schmausser,, K. Scheller,, A. Toksoy,, M. Kraus,, T. Menzel,, H. K. Muller-Hermelink, and, R. Gillitzer. 2000. CXC chemokines Groα/IL-8 and IP-10/MIG in Helicobacter pylori gastritis. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 122:192199.
55. Eggesbo, M.,, R. Halvorsen,, K. Tambs, and, G. Botten. 1999. Prevalence of parentally perceived adverse reactions to food in young children. Pediatr. Allergy Immunol. 10:122132.
56. Eggesbo, M.,, G. Botten,, R. Halvorsen, and, P. Magnus. 2001a. The prevalence of CMA/CMPI in young children: the validity of parentally perceived reactions in a population-based study. Allergy 56:393402.
57. Eggesbo, M.,, G. Botten,, R. Halvorsen, and, P. Magnus. 2001b. The prevalence of allergy to egg: a population-based study in young children. Allergy 56:403411.
58. Elliott, D. E.,, R. W. Summers, and, J. V. Weinstock. 2005. Helminths and the modulation of mucosal inflammation. Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol. 21:5158.
59. Erbach, G. T.,, J. P. Semple,, R. Osathanondh, and, J. T. Kurnick. 1993. Phenotypic characteristics of lymphoid populations of middle gestation human fetal liver, spleen and thymus. J. Reprod. Immunol. 25:8188.
60. Eugen-Olsen,, J.,, P. Afzelius,, L. Andresen,, J. Iversen,, G. Kronborg,, P. Aabech,, J. O. Nielsen, and, B. Hofmann. 1997. Serotonin modulates immune function in T cells from HIV-seropositive subjects. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 84:115121.
61. Fagarasan, S., and, T. Honjo. 2003. Intestinal IgA synthesis: regulation of front-line body defences. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 3:6372.
62. Fanta, C.,, B. Bohle,, W. Hirt,, U. Siemann,, F. Horak,, D. Kraft,, H. Ebner, and, C. Ebner. 1999. Systemic immunological changes induced by administration of grass pollen allergens via the oral mucosa during sublingual immunotherapy. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 120:218224.
63. Faria, A. M., and, H. L. Weiner. 1999. Oral tolerance: mechanisms and therapeutic applications. Adv. Immunol. 73:153264.
64. Farkas, S.,, M. Hornung,, C. Sattler,, K. Edtinger,, M. Steinbauer,, M. Anthuber,, H. J. Schlitt,, H. Herfarth, and, E. K. Geissler. 2006. Blocking MAdCAM-1 in vivo reduces leukocyte extravasation and reverses chronic inflammation in experimental colitis. Int. J. Colorectal Dis. 21:7178.
65. Fawcett, D. W. 1994. A Textbook of Histology, 12th ed. Chapman and Hall, New York, N.Y.
66. Feger, F.,, S. Varadaradjalou,, Z. Gao,, S. N. Abraham, and, M. Arock. 2002. The role of mast cells in host defense and their subversion by bacterial pathogens. Trends Immunol. 23:151158.
67. Friedman, A., and, H. L. Weiner. 1994. Induction of anergy or active suppression following oral tolerance is determined by antigen dosage. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:66886692.
68. Furusu, H.,, K. Murase,, Y. Nishida,, H. Isomoto,, F. Takeshima,, Y. Mizuta,, B. R. Hewlett,, R. H. Riddell, and, S. Kohno. 2002. Accumulation of mast cells and macrophages in focal active gastritis of patients with Crohn’s disease. Hepatogastroenterology 49:639643.
69. Fusaro, A. E.,, M. Maciel,, J. R. Victor,, C. R. Oliveira,, A. J. Duarte, and, M. N. Sato. 2002. Influence of maternal murine immunization with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus extract on the type I hypersensitivity response in offspring. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 127:208216.
70. Fusunyan, R. D.,, N. N. Nanthakumar,, M. E. Baldeon, and, W. A. Walker. 2001. Evidence for an innate immune response in the immature human intestine: toll-like receptors on fetal enterocytes. Pediatr. Res. 49:589593.
71. Garofalo, R. P., and, A. S. Goldman. 1998. Cytokines, chemokines, and colony-stimulating factors in human milk: the 1997 update. Biol. Neonate 74:134142.
72. Garofalo, R. P., and, A. S. Goldman. 1999. Expression of functional immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory factors in human milk. Clin. Perinatol. 26:361377.
73. Garside, P.,, E. Ingulli,, R. R. Merica,, J. G. Johnson,, R. J. Noelle, and, M. K. Jenkins. 1998. Visualization of specific B and T lymphocyte interactions in the lymph node. Science 281:9699.
74. Glaeser, H.,, S. Drescher,, H. van der Kuip,, C. Behrens,, A. Geick,, O. Burk,, J. Dent,, A. Somogyi,, O. Von Richter,, E. U. Griese,, M. Eichelbaum, and, M. F. Fromm. 2002. Shed human enterocytes as a tool for the study of expression and function of intestinal drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 71:131140.
75. Goldman, A. S.,, S. Chheda,, R. Garofalo, and, F. C. Schmalstieg. 1996. Cytokines in human milk: properties and potential effects upon the mammary gland and the neonate. J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 1:251258.
76. Gonnella, P. A.,, Y. Chen,, J. Inobe,, Y. Komagata,, M. Quartulli, and, H. L. Weiner. 1998. In situ immune response in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) following oral antigen in TCR-transgenic mice. J. Immunol. 160:47084718.
77. Groh, V.,, S. Bahram,, S. Bauer,, A. Herman,, M. Beauchamp, and, T. Spies. 1996. Cell stress-regulated human major histocompatibility complex class I gene expressed in gastrointestinal epithelium. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:1244512450.
78. Gronlund, M. M.,, O. P. Lehtonen,, E. Eerola, and, P. Kero. 1999. Fecal microflora in healthy infants born by different methods of delivery: permanent changes in intestinal flora after cesarean delivery. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 28:1925.
79. Grundy, J.,, S. Matthews,, B. Bateman,, T. Dean, and, S. H. Arshad. 2002. Rising prevalence of allergy to peanut in children: data from 2 sequential cohorts. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 110:784789.
80. Hackam, D. J.,, J. S. Upperman,, A. Grishin, and, H. R. Ford. 2005. Disordered enterocyte signaling and intestinal barrier dysfunction in the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis. Semin. Pediatr. Surg. 14:4957.
81. Hagen, M.,, B. Morrison,, D. Robbinson, and, G. H. Strejan. 1992. Effect of anti-DNP IgG1- and IgG2asecreting hybridomas in vivo on the development of an anti-DNP IgE antibody response in mice. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 97:146153.
82. Hanson, L.,, S. A. Silfverdal,, L. Stromback,, V. Erling,, S. Zaman,, P. Olcen, and, E. Telemo. 2001. The immunological role of breast feeding. Pediatr. Allergy Immunol. 12 (Suppl. 14): 1519.
83. Hanson, L. A.,, L. Ceafalau,, I. Mattsby-Baltzer,, M. Lagerberg,, A. Hjalmarsson,, R. Ashraf,, S. Zaman, and, F. Jalil. 2000. The mammary gland-infant intestine immunologic dyad. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 478:6576.
84. Hayday, A.,, E. Theodoridis,, E. Ramsburg, and, J. Shires. 2001. Intraepithelial lymphocytes: exploring the third way in immunology. Nat. Immunol. 2:9971003.
85. Herz, U.,, R. Joachim,, B. Ahrens,, A. Scheffold,, A. Radbruch, and, H. Renz. 2001. Allergic sensitization and allergen exposure during pregnancy favor the development of atopy in the neonate. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 124:193196.
86. Heystek, H. C.,, C. Moulon,, A. M. Woltman,, P. Garonne, and, C. van Kooten. 2002. Human immature dendritic cells efficiently bind and take up secretory IgA without the induction of maturation. J. Immunol. 168:102107.
87. Hilton, J.,, R. J. Dearman,, N. Sattar,, D. A. Basketter, and, I. Kimber. 1997. Characteristics of antibody responses induced in mice by protein allergens. Food Chem. Toxicol. 35:12091218.
88. Hocker, M., and, B. Wiedenmann. 1998. Molecular mechanisms of enteroendocrine differentiation. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 859:160174.
89. Hogan, S. P.,, A. Mishra,, E. B. Brandt,, M. P. Royalty,, S. M. Pope,, N. Zimmermann,, P. S. Foster, and, M. E. Rothenberg. 2001. A pathological function for eotaxin and eosinophils in eosinophilic gastrointestinal inflammation. Nat. Immunol. 2:353360.
90. Hourihane, J. O.,, S. A. Roberts, and, J. O. Warner. 1998. Resolution of peanut allergy: case-control study. BMJ 316:12711275.
91. Hoyne, G. F.,, M. J. Dallman, and, J. R. Lamb. 2000. T-cell regulation of peripheral tolerance and immunity: the potential role for Notch signalling. Immunology 100:281288.
92. Huang, F. P.,, N. Platt,, M. Wykes,, J. R. Major,, T. J. Powell,, C. D. Jenkins, and, G. G. MacPherson. 2000. A discrete subpopulation of dendritic cells transports apoptotic intestinal epithelial cells to T cell areas of mesenteric lymph nodes. J. Exp. Med. 191:435444.
93. Huby, R. D.,, R. J. Dearman, and, I. Kimber. 2000. Why are some proteins allergens? Toxicol. Sci. 55:235246.
94. Husby, S.,, J. C. Jensenius, and, S. E. Svehag. 1985. Passage of undegraded dietary antigen into the blood of healthy adults. Quantification, estimation of size distribution, and relation of uptake to levels of specific antibodies. Scand. J. Immunol. 22:8392.
95. Hwang, I.,, X. Shen, and, J. Sprent. 2003. Direct stimulation of naive T cells by membrane vesicles from antigen-presenting cells: distinct roles for CD54 and B7 molecules. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:66706675.
96. Iqbal, N.,, J. R. Oliver,, F. H. Wagner,, A. S. Lazenby,, C. O. Elson, and, C. T. Weaver. 2002. T helper 1 and T helper 2 cells are pathogenic in an antigen-specific model of colitis. J. Exp. Med. 195:7184.
97. Isolauri, E. 2001. Probiotics in human disease. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 73:1142S1146S.
98. Jackson,, M. H. Lessof,, R. W. Baker,, J. Ferrett, and, D. M. MacDonald. 1981. Intestinal permeability in patients with eczema and food allergy. Lancet i:12851286.
99. Jarrett, E., and, E. Hall. 1979. Selective suppression of IgE antibody responsiveness by maternal influence. Nature 280:145147.
100. Jenmalm, M. C., and, B. Bjorksten. 1999. Development of immunoglobulin G subclass antibodies to ovalbumin, birch and cat during the first eight years of life in atopic and non-atopic children. Pediatr. Allergy Immunol. 10:112121.
101. Jones, A. C.,, E. A. Miles,, J. O. Warner,, B. M. Colwell,, T. N. Bryant, and, J. A. Warner. 1996. Fetal peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferative responses to mitogenic and allergenic stimuli during gestation. Pediatr. Allergy Immunol. 7:109116.
102. Jones, C. A.,, J. A. Holloway, and, J. O. Warner. 2002. Fetal immune responsiveness and routes of allergic sensitization. Pediatr. Allergy Immunol. 13 (Suppl. 15): 1922.
103. Julia, V.,, M. Rassoulzadegan, and, N. Glaichenhaus. 1996. Resistance to Leishmania major induced by tolerance to a single antigen. Science 274, 421423.
104. Kagnoff, M. F. 2005. Overview and pathogenesis of celiac disease. Gastroenterology 128:S10S18.
105. Kalliomaki, M.,, S. Salminen,, T. Poussa,, H. Arvilommi, and, E. Isolauri. 2003. Probiotics and prevention of atopic disease: 4-year follow-up of a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 361:18691871.
106. Kalliomaki, M.,, S. Salminen,, H. Arvilommi,, P. Kero,, P. Koskinen, and, E. Isolauri. 2001. Probiotics in primary prevention of atopic disease: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 357:10761079.
107. Kantele, A.,, J. M. Kantele,, E. Savilahti,, M. Westerholm,, H. Arvilommi,, A. Lazarovits,, E. C. Butcher, and, P. H. Makela. 1997. Homing potentials of circulating lymphocytes in humans depend on the site of activation: oral, but not parenteral, typhoid vaccination induces circulating antibody-secreting cells that all bear homing receptors directing them to the gut. J. Immunol. 158:574579.
108. Kappos, L.,, G. Comi,, H. Panitch,, J. Oger,, J. Antel,, P. Conlon,, L. Steinman, , et al 2000. Induction of a nonencephalitogenic type 2 T helper-cell autoimmune response in multiple sclerosis after administration of an altered peptide ligand in a placebo-controlled, randomized phase II trial. Nat. Med. 6:11761182.
109. Karlsson, M. R.,, J. Rugtveit, and, P. Brandtzaeg. 2004. Allergen-responsive CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in children who have outgrown cow’s milk allergy. J. Exp. Med. 199:16791688.
110. Kelly, D.,, J. I. Campbell,, T. P. King,, G. Grant,, E. A. Jansson,, A. G. Coutts,, S. Pettersson, and, S. Conway. 2004. Commensal anaerobic gut bacteria attenuate inflammation by regulating nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of PPAR-gamma and RelA. Nat. Immunol. 5:104112.
111. Kemeny, D. M.,, J. F. Price,, V. Richardson,, D. Richards, and, M. H. Lessof. 1991. The IgE and IgG subclass antibody response to foods in babies during the first year of life and their relationship to feeding regimen and the development of food allergy. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 87:920929.
112. Kerneis, S.,, A. Bogdanova,, J. P. Kraehenbuhl, and, E. Pringault. 1997. Conversion by Peyer’s patch lymphocytes of human enterocytes into M cells that transport bacteria. Science 277:949952.
113. Kerr, M. M.,, J. H. Hutchison,, J. MacVicar,, J. Givan, and, T. A. McAllister. 1976. The natural history of bacterial colonization of the newborn in a maternity hospital (part II). Scott Med. J. 21:111117.
114. Khinchi, M. S.,, L. K. Poulsen,, F. Carat,, C. Andre,, A. B. Hansen, and, H. J. Malling. 2004. Clinical efficacy of sublingual and subcutaneous birch pollen allergen-specific immunotherapy: a randomized, placebocontrolled, double-blind, double-dummy study. Allergy 59:4553.
115. Kimber, I.,, N. I. Kerkvliet,, S. L. Taylor,, J. D. Astwood,, K. Sarlo, and, R. J. Dearman. 1999. Toxicology of protein allergenicity: prediction and characterization. Toxicol. Sci. 48:157162.
116. Knolle, P.,, J. Schlaak,, A. Uhrig,, P. Kempf,, K. H. Meyer zum Buschenfelde, and, G. Gerken. 1995. Human Kupffer cells secrete IL-10 in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. J. Hepatol. 22:226229.
117. Knolle, P. A., and, A. Limmer. 2001. Neighborhood politics: the immunoregulatory function of organ-resident liver endothelial cells. Trends Immunol. 22:432437.
118. Knolle, P. A.,, T. Germann,, U. Treichel,, A. Uhrig,, E. Schmitt,, S. Hegenbarth,, A. W. Lohse, and, G. Gerken. 1999a. Endotoxin down-regulates T cell activation by antigen-presenting liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. J. Immunol. 162:14011407.
119. Knolle, P. A.,, E. Schmitt,, S. Jin,, T. Germann,, R. Duchmann,, S. Hegenbarth,, G. Gerken, and, A. W. Lohse. 1999b. Induction of cytokine production in naive CD4(+) T cells by antigen-presenting murine liver sinusoidal endothelial cells but failure to induce differentiation toward Th1 cells. Gastroenterology 116:14281440.
120. Kohler, H.,, B. A. McCormick, and, W. A. Walker. 2003. Bacterial-enterocyte crosstalk: cellular mechanisms in health and disease. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 36:175185.
121. Kraus, T. A.,, L. Toy,, L. Chan,, J. Childs, and, L. Mayer. 2004. Failure to induce oral tolerance to a soluble protein in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 126:17711778.
122. Kuitunen, M.,, E. Savilahti, and, A. Sarnesto. 1994. Human alpha-lactalbumin and bovine beta-lactoglobulin absorption in infants. Allergy 49:354360.
123. Lack, G.,, D. Fox,, K. Northstone, and, J. Golding. 2003. Factors associated with the development of peanut allergy in childhood. N. Engl. J. Med. 348:977985.
124. La Rosa,, M.,, C. Ranno,, C. Andre,, F. Carat,, M. A. Tosca, and, G. W. Canonica. 1999. Double-blind placebocontrolled evaluation of sublingual-swallow immunotherapy with standardized Parietaria judaica extract in children with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 104:425432.
125. Lee, J. B.,, T. Matsumoto,, Y. O. Shin,, H. M. Yang,, Y. K. Min,, O. Timothy,, S. J. Bae, and, F. S. Quan. 2004. The role of RANTES in a murine model of food allergy. Immunol. Investig. 33:2738.
126. Lee, J. S., and, R. A. Polin. 2003. Treatment and prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis. Semin. Neonatol. 8:449459.
127. Legendre, C.,, S. Caillat-Zucman,, D. Samuel,, S. Morelon,, H. Bismuth,, J. F. Bach, and, H. Kreis. 1997. Transfer of symptomatic peanut allergy to the recipient of a combined liver-and-kidney transplant. N. Engl. J. Med. 337:822824.
128. Leishman, A. J.,, P. Garside, and, A. M. Mowat. 1998. Immunological consequences of intervention in established immune responses by feeding protein antigens. Cell. Immunol. 183:137148.
129. Leishman, A. J.,, P. Garside, and, A. M. Mowat. 2000. Induction of oral tolerance in the primed immune system: influence of antigen persistence and adjuvant form. Cell. Immunol. 202:7178.
130. Lemke, H.,, A. Coutinho, and, H. Lange. 2004. Lamarckian inheritance by somatically acquired maternal IgG phenotypes. Trends Immunol. 25:180186.
131. Li, W.,, S. T. Chou,, C. Wang,, C. S. Kuhr, and, J. D. Perkins. 2004. Role of the liver in peripheral tolerance: induction through oral antigen feeding. Am. J. Transplant. 4:15741582.
132. Limmer, A.,, J. Ohl,, C. Kurts,, H. G. Ljunggren,, Y. Reiss,, M. Groettrup,, F. Momburg,, B. Arnold, and, P. A. Knolle. 2000. Efficient presentation of exogenous antigen by liver endothelial cells to CD8+ T cells results in antigen-specific T-cell tolerance. Nat. Med. 6:13481354.
133. Ling, E. M.,, T. Smith,, X. D. Nguyen,, C. Pridgeon,, M. Dallman,, J. Arbery,, V. A. Carr, and, D. S. Robinson. 2004. Relation of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T-cell suppression of allergen-driven T-cell activation to atopic status and expression of allergic disease. Lancet 363:608615.
134. Link, H.,, Y. M. Huang, and, B. Xiao. 2003. Suppression of EAMG in Lewis rats by IL-10-exposed dendritic cells. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 998:537538.
135. Liu, H.,, B. Hu,, D. Xu, and, F. Y. Liew. 2003. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells cure murine colitis: the role of IL-10, TGF-beta, and CTLA4. J. Immunol. 171:50125017.
136. Lumsden, J. M.,, J. A. Williams, and, R. J. Hodes. 2003. Differential requirements for expression of CD80/86 and CD40 on B cells for T-dependent antibody responses in vivo. J. Immunol. 170:781787.
137. Lundin, B. S.,, M. R. Karlsson,, L. A. Svensson,, L. A. Hanson,, U. I. Dahlgren, and, E. Telemo. 1999a. Active suppression in orally tolerized rats coincides with in situ transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) expression in the draining lymph nodes. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 116:181187.
138. Lundin, B. S.,, A. Dahlman-Hoglund,, I. Pettersson,, U. I. Dahlgren,, L. A. Hanson, and, E. Telemo. 1999b. Antibodies given orally in the neonatal period can affect the immune response for two generations: evidence for active maternal influence on the newborn’s immune system. Scand. J. Immunol. 50:651656.
139. MacDonald, T. T. 2003. The mucosal immune system. Parasite Immunol. 25:235246.
140. Mackie, R. I.,, A. Sghir, and, H. R. Gaskins. 1999. Developmental microbial ecology of the neonatal gastrointestinal tract. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 69:1035S1045S.
141. Macpherson, A. J., and, N. L. Harris. 2004. Interactions between commensal intestinal bacteria and the immune system. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 4:478485.
142. Macpherson, A. J., and, T. Uhr. 2004. Induction of protective IgA by intestinal dendritic cells carrying commensal bacteria. Science 303:16621665.
143. Macpherson, A. J.,, M. M. Martinic, and, N. Harris. 2002. The functions of mucosal T cells in containing the indigenous commensal flora of the intestine. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 59:20882096.
144. Maizels, R. M., and, M. Yazdanbakhsh. 2003. Immune regulation by helminth parasites: cellular and molecular mechanisms. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 3:733744.
145. Maleki, S. J., and, B. K. Hurlburt. 2004. Structural and functional alterations in major peanut allergens caused by thermal processing. J. AOAC Int. 87:14751479.
146. Maleki, S. J.,, S. Y. Chung,, E. T. Champagne, and, J. P. Raufman. 2000. The effects of roasting on the allergenic properties of peanut proteins. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 106:763768.
147. Mallegol, J.,, G. van Niel, and, M. Heyman. 2005. Phenotypic and functional characterization of intestinal epithelial exosomes. Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 35:1116.
148. Maloy, K. J., and, F. Powrie. 2001. Regulatory T cells in the control of immune pathology. Nat. Immunol. 2:816822.
149. Mantis, N. J.,, M. C. Cheung,, K. R. Chintalacharuvu,, J. Rey,, B. Corthesy, and, M. R. Neutra. 2002. Selective adherence of IgA to murine Peyer’s patch M cells: evidence for a novel IgA receptor. J. Immunol. 169:18441851.
150. Mantovani, A.,, S. Sozzani,, M. Locati,, P. Allavena, and, A. Sica. 2002. Macrophage polarization: tumor-associated macrophages as a paradigm for polarized M2 mononuclear phagocytes. Trends Immunol. 23:549555.
151. Mantovani, A.,, A. Sica,, S. Sozzani,, P. Allavena,, A. Vecchi, and, M. Locati. 2004. The chemokine system in diverse forms of macrophage activation and polarization. Trends Immunol. 25:677686.
152. Margenthaler, J. A.,, K. Landeros,, M. Kataoka, and, M. W. Flye. 2002. CD1-dependent natural killer (NK1.1+) T cells are required for oral and portal venous tolerance induction. J. Surg. Res. 104:2935.
153. Marinaro, M.,, H. F. Staats,, T. Hiroi,, R. J. Jackson,, M. Coste,, P. N. Boyaka,, N. Okahashi,, M. Yamamoto,, H. Kiyono,, H. Bluethmann,, K. Fujihashi, and, J. R. McGhee. 1995. Mucosal adjuvant effect of cholera toxin in mice results from induction of T helper 2 (Th2) cells and IL-4. J. Immunol. 155:46214629.
154. Marshall, J. S.,, C. A. King, and, J. D. McCurdy. 2003. Mast cell cytokine and chemokine responses to bacterial and viral infection. Curr. Pharm. Des. 9:1124.
155. Massey-Harroche,, D. 2000. Epithelial cell polarity as reflected in enterocytes. Microsc. Res. Tech. 49:353362.
156. Matricardi, P. M., and, R. Ronchetti. 2001. Are infections protecting from atopy? Curr. Opin. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 1:413419.
157. McGuirk, P., and, K. H. Mills. 2002. Pathogen-specific regulatory T cells provoke a shift in the Th1/Th2 paradigm in immunity to infectious diseases. Trends Immunol. 23:450455.
158. McSorley, S. J., and, P. Garside. 1999. Vaccination by inducing oral tolerance? Immunol. Today 20:555560.
159. Menzies-Gow,, A.,, S. Ying,, S. Phipps, and, A. B. Kay. 2004. Interactions between eotaxin, histamine and mast cells in early microvascular events associated with eosinophil recruitment to the site of allergic skin reactions in humans. Clin. Exp. Allergy 34:12761282.
160. Mishra, A.,, S. P. Hogan,, E. B. Brandt, and, M. E. Rothenberg. 2000. Peyer’s patch eosinophils: identification, characterization, and regulation by mucosal allergen exposure, interleukin-5, and eotaxin. Blood 96:15381544.
161. Monteleone, I.,, P. Vavassori,, L. Biancone,, G. Monteleone, and, F. Pallone. 2002. Immunoregulation in the gut: success and failures in human disease. Gut 50(Suppl. 3): III60III64.
162. Mor, T. S.,, M. A. Gomez-Lim, and, K. E. Palmer. 1998. Perspective: edible vaccines—a concept coming of age. Trends Microbiol. 6:449453.
163. Mottet, C.,, H. H. Uhlig, and, F. Powrie. 2003. Cutting edge: cure of colitis by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. J. Immunol. 170:39393943.
164. Nagata, S.,, C. McKenzie,, S. L. Pender,, M. Bajaj-Elliott,, P. D. Fairclough,, J. A. Walker-Smith,, G. Monteleone, and, T. T. MacDonald. 2000. Human Peyer’s patch T cells are sensitized to dietary antigen and display a Th cell type 1 cytokine profile. J. Immunol. 165:53155321.
165. Nakamura, M.,, M. Iwahashi,, M. Nakamori,, K. Ueda,, T. Ojima,, T. Naka,, K. Ishida, and, H. Yamaue. 2005. Dendritic cells transduced with tumor-associated antigen gene elicit potent therapeutic antitumor immunity: comparison with immunodominant peptide-pulsed DCs. Oncology 68:163170.
166. Nanda, A.,, M. O’Connor,, M. Anand,, S. C. Dreskin,, L. Zhang,, B. Hines,, D. Lane,, W. Wheat,, J. M. Routes,, R. Sawyer,, L. J. Rosenwasser, and, H. S. Nelson. 2004. Dose dependence and time course of the immunologic response to administration of standardized cat allergen extract. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 114:13391344.
167. Neish, A. S.,, A. T. Gewirtz,, H. Zeng,, A. N. Young,, M. E. Hobert,, V. Karmali,, A. S. Rao, and, J. L. Madara. 2000. Prokaryotic regulation of epithelial responses by inhibition of IκB-α ubiquitination. Science 289:15601563.
168. Niederberger, V.,, B. Niggemann,, D. Kraft,, S. Spitzauer, and, R. Valenta. 2002. Evolution of IgM, IgE and IgG(1-4) antibody responses in early childhood monitored with recombinant allergen components: implications for class switch mechanisms. Eur. J. Immunol. 32:576584.
169. Niedergang, F.,, A. Didierlaurent,, J. P. Kraehenbuhl, and, J. C. Sirard. 2004. Dendritic cells: the host Achille’s heel for mucosal pathogens? Trends Microbiol. 12:7988.
170. Nouri-Aria,, K. T.,, P. A. Wachholz,, J. N. Francis,, M. R. Jacobson,, S. M. Walker,, L. K. Wilcock,, S. Q. Staple,, R. C. Aalberse,, S. J. Till, and, S. R. Durham. 2004. Grass pollen immunotherapy induces mucosal and peripheral IL-10 responses and blocking IgG activity. J. Immunol. 172:32523259.
171. O’Garra,, A.,, P. L. Vieira,, P. Vieira, and, A. E. Goldfeld. 2004. IL-10-producing and naturally occurring CD4+ Tregs: limiting collateral damage. J. Clin. Investig. 114:13721378.
172. Ogawa, H.,, D. G. Binion,, J. Heidemann,, M. Theriot,, P. J. Fisher,, N. A. Johnson,, M. F. Otterson, and, P. Rafiee. 2005. Mechanisms of MAdCAM-1 gene expression in human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells. Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 288:C272C281.
173. Pabst, O.,, L. Ohl,, M. Wendland,, M. A. Wurbel,, E. Kremmer,, B. Malissen, and, R. Forster. 2004. Chemokine receptor CCR9 contributes to the localization of plasma cells to the small intestine. J. Exp. Med. 199:411416.
174. Park, C. S., and, Y. S. Choi. 2005. How do follicular dendritic cells interact intimately with B cells in the germinal centre? Immunology 114:210.
175. Park, C. S.,, S. O. Yoon,, R. J. Armitage, and, Y. S. Choi. 2004. Follicular dendritic cells produce IL-15 that enhances germinal center B cell proliferation in membrane-bound form. J. Immunol. 173:66766683.
176. Perez-Machado,, M. A.,, P. Ashwood,, F. Torrente,, C. Salvestrini,, R. Sim,, M. A. Thomson,, J. A. Walker-Smith, and, S. H. Murch. 2004. Spontaneous T(H)1 cytokine production by intraepithelial but not circulating T cells in infants with or without food allergies. Allergy 59:346353.
177. Platts-Mills,, T. A., and, J. A. Woodfolk. 2000. Cord blood proliferative responses to inhaled allergens: is there a phenomenon? J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 106:441443.
178. Qin, S.,, S. P. Cobbold,, H. Pope,, J. Elliott,, D. Kioussis,, J. Davies, and, H. Waldmann. 1993. “Infectious” transplantation tolerance. Science 259:974977.
179. Rai, R. M.,, S. Loffreda,, C. L. Karp,, S. Q. Yang,, H. Z. Lin, and, A. M. Diehl. 1997. Kupffer cell depletion abolishes induction of interleukin-10 and permits sustained overexpression of tumor necrosis factor alpha messenger RNA in the regenerating rat liver. Hepatology 25:889895.
180. Raposo, G.,, H. W. Nijman,, W. Stoorvogel,, R. Liejendekker,, C. V. Harding,, C. J. Melief, and, H. J. Geuze. 1996. B lymphocytes secrete antigen-presenting vesicles. J. Exp. Med. 183:11611172.
181. Rask, C.,, J. Holmgren,, M. Fredriksson,, M. Lindblad,, I. Nordstrom,, J. B. Sun, and, C. Czerkinsky. 2000. Prolonged oral treatment with low doses of allergen conjugated to cholera toxin B subunit suppresses immunoglobulin E antibody responses in sensitized mice. Clin. Exp. Allergy 30:10241032.
182. Rifai, A., and, M. Mannik. 1984. Clearance of circulating IgA immune complexes is mediated by a specific receptor on Kupffer cells in mice. J. Exp. Med. 160:125137.
183. Roberton, D. M.,, R. Paganelli,, R. Dinwiddie, and, R. J. Levinsky. 1982. Milk antigen absorption in the preterm and term neonate. Arch. Dis. Child 57:369372.
184. Roberts, G., and, G. Lack. 2005. Diagnosing peanut allergy with skin prick and specific IgE testing. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 115:12911296.
185. Robinson, D. S.,, M. Larche, and, S. R. Durham. 2004. Tregs and allergic disease. J. Clin. Investig. 114:13891397.
186. Roelofs-Haarhuis,, K., Wu,, X.,, M. Nowak,, M. Fang,, S. Artik, and, E. Gleichmann. 2003. Infectious nickel tolerance: a reciprocal interplay of tolerogenic APCs and T suppressor cells that is driven by immunization. J. Immunol. 171:28632872.
187. Rook, G. A., and, L. R. Brunet. 2005. Microbes, immunoregulation, and the gut. Gut 54:317320.
188. Rook, G. A.,, V. Adams,, J. Hunt,, R. Palmer,, R. Martinelli, and, L. R. Brunet. 2004. Mycobacteria and other environmental organisms as immunomodulators for immunoregulatory disorders. Springer Semin. Immunopathol. 25:237255.
189. Rothenberg, M. E.,, A. Mishra,, E. B. Brandt, and, S. P. Hogan. 2001. Gastrointestinal eosinophils. Immunol. Rev. 179:139155.
190. Rudin, A.,, C. Macaubas,, C. Wee,, B. J. Holt,, P. D. Slya, and, P. G. Holt. 2001. “Bystander” amplification of PBMC cytokine responses to seasonal allergen in polysensitized atopic children. Allergy 56:10421048.
191. Rustemeyer, T.,, B. M. von Blomberg,, I. M. van Hoogstraten,, D. P. Bruynzeel, and, R. J. Scheper. 2004. Analysis of effector and regulatory immune reactivity to nickel. Clin. Exp. Allergy 34:14581466.
192. Saavedra, J. M. 2001. Clinical applications of probiotic agents. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 73:1147S1151S.
193. Sakaguchi, S. 2005. Naturally arising Foxp3-expressing CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells in immunological tolerance to self and non-self. Nat. Immunol. 6:345352.
194. Sakaguchi, S.,, N. Sakaguchi,, M. Asano,, M. Itoh, and, M. Toda. 1995. Immunologic self-tolerance maintained by activated T cells expressing IL-2 receptor alpha-chains (CD25). Breakdown of a single mechanism of selftolerance causes various autoimmune diseases. J. Immunol. 155:11511164.
195. Sampson, H. A. 2004. Update on food allergy. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 113:805819.
196. Sampson, H. A., and, D. G. Ho. 1997. Relationship between food-specific IgE concentrations and the risk of positive food challenges in children and adolescents. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 100:444451.
197. Sansonetti, P. J. 2004. War and peace at mucosal surfaces. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 4:953964.
198. Schaedler, R. W.,, R. Dubs, and, R. Costello. 1965. Association of germfree mice with bacteria isolated from normal mice. J. Exp. Med. 122:7782.
199. Schartz, N. E.,, N. Chaput,, F. Andre, and, L. Zitvogel. 2002. From the antigen-presenting cell to the antigen-presenting vesicle: the exosomes. Curr. Opin. Mol. Ther. 4:372381.
200. Schmausser, B.,, C. Josenhans,, S. Endrich,, S. Suerbaum,, C. Sitaru,, M. Andrulis,, S. Brandlein,, P., Rieckmann,, H. K. Muller-Hermelink, and, M. Eck. 2004. Downregulation of CXCR1 and CXCR2 expression on human neutrophils by Helicobacter pylori: a new pathomechanism in H. pylori infection? Infect. Immun. 72:67736779.
201. Schwarze, J., and, E. W. Gelfand. 2002. Respiratory viral infections as promoters of allergic sensitization and asthma in animal models. Eur. Respir. J. 19:341349.
202. Schwarze, J.,, E. Hamelmann,, K. L. Bradley,, K. Takeda, and, E. W. Gelfand. 1997. Respiratory syncytial virus infection results in airway hyperresponsiveness and enhanced airway sensitization to allergen. J. Clin. Investig. 100:226233.
203. Scrivener, S.,, H. Yemaneberhan,, M. Zebenigus,, D. Tilahun,, S. Girma,, S. Ali,, P. McElroy,, A. Custovic,, A. Woodcock,, D. Pritchard,, A. Venn, and, J. Britton. 2001. Independent effects of intestinal parasite infection and domestic allergen exposure on risk of wheeze in Ethiopia: a nested case-control study. Lancet 358:14931499.
204. Seeger, M.,, H. J. Thierse,, H. Lange,, L. Shaw,, H. Hansen, and, H. Lemke. 1998. Antigen-independent suppression of the IgE immune response to bee venom phospholipase A2 by maternally derived monoclonal IgG antibodies. Eur. J. Immunol. 28:21242130.
205. Seelig, L. L., Jr., and, J. R. Head. 1987. Uptake of lymphocytes fed to suckling rats. An autoradiographic study of the transit of labeled cells through the neonatal gastric mucosa. J. Reprod. Immunol. 10:285297.
206. Settmacher, U.,, H. D. Volk,, R., von Baehr,, H. Wolff, and, S. Jahn. 1993. In vitro stimulation of human fetal lymphocytes by mitogens and interleukins. Immunol. Lett. 35:147152.
207. Settmacher, U.,, H. D. Volk,, S. Jahn,, K. Neuhaus,, F. Kuhn, and, R. von Baehr. 1991. Characterization of human lymphocytes separated from fetal liver and spleen at different stages of ontogeny. Immunobiology 182:256265.
208. Sharma, R.,, J. J. Tepas III,, M. L. Hudak,, P. S. Wludyka,, D. L. Mollitt,, R. D. Garrison,, J. A. Bradshaw, and, M. Sharma. 2005. Portal venous gas and surgical outcome of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis. J. Pediatr. Surg 40:371376.
209. Shi, H. N.,, H. Y. Liu, and, C. Nagler-Anderson. 2000. Enteric infection acts as an adjuvant for the response to a model food antigen. J. Immunol. 165:61746182.
210. Shreffler, W. G.,, K. Beyer,, T. H. Chu,, A. W. Burks, and, H. A. Sampson. 2004. Microarray immunoassay: association of clinical history, in vitro IgE function, and heterogeneity of allergenic peanut epitopes. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 113:776782.
211. Siebers, A., and, B. B. Finlay. 1996. M cells and the pathogenesis of mucosal and systemic infections. Trends Microbiol. 4:2229.
212. Singh, B.,, S. Read,, C. Asseman,, V. Malmstrom,, C. Mottet,, L. A. Stephens,, R. Stepankova,, H. Tlaskalova, and, F. Powrie. 2001. Control of intestinal inflammation by regulatory T cells. Immunol. Rev. 182:190200.
213. Skolnick, H. S.,, M. K. Conover-Walker,, C. B. Koerner,, H. A. Sampson,, W. Burks, and, R. A. Wood. 2001. The natural history of peanut allergy. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 107:367374.
214. Smith, K. M.,, F. McAskill, and, P. Garside. 2002. Orally tolerized T cells are only able to enter B cell follicles following challenge with antigen in adjuvant, but they remain unable to provide B cell help. J. Immunol. 168:43184325.
215. Smits, H. H.,, A. Engering,, D., van der Kleij,, E. C. de Jong,, K. Schipper,, T. M. van Capel,, B. A. Zaat,, M. Yazdanbakhsh,, E. A. Wierenga,, Y. van Kooyk, and, M. L. Kapsenberg. 2005. Selective probiotic bacteria induce IL-10-producing regulatory T cells in vitro by modulating dendritic cell function through dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 115:12601267.
216. Snider, D. P.,, J. S. Marshall,, M. H. Perdue, and, H. Liang. 1994. Production of IgE antibody and allergic sensitization of intestinal and peripheral tissues after oral immunization with protein Ag and cholera toxin. J. Immunol. 153:647657.
217. Stadnicki, A.,, R. B. Sartor,, R. Janardham,, A. Majluf-Cruz,, C. A. Kettner,, A. A. Adam, and, R. W. Colman. 1998. Specific inhibition of plasma kallikrein modulates chronic granulomatous intestinal and systemic inflammation in genetically susceptible rats. FASEB J. 12:325333.
218. Stadnyk, A. W. 2002. Intestinal epithelial cells as a source of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Can. J. Gastroenterol. 16:241246.
219. Strachan, D. P. 1989. Hay fever, hygiene, and household size. BMJ 299:12591260.
220. Strober, W.,, B. Kelsall,, I. Fuss,, T. Marth,, B. Ludviksson,, R. Ehrhardt, and, M. Neurath. 1997. Reciprocal IFN-gamma and TGF-beta responses regulate the occurrence of mucosal inflammation. Immunol. Today 18:6164.
221. Szepfalusi, Z.,, J. Pichler,, S. Elsasser,, van K. Duren,, C. Ebner,, G. Bernaschek, and, R. Urbanek. 2000. Transplacental priming of the human immune system with environmental allergens can occur early in gestation. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 106:530536.
222. Szepfalusi, Z.,, I. Nentwich,, M. Gerstmayr,, E. Jost,, L. Todoran,, R. Gratzl,, K. Herkner, and, R. Urbanek. 1997. Prenatal allergen contact with milk proteins. Clin. Exp. Allergy 27:2835.
223. Taams, L. S.,, J. M. van Amelsfort,, M. M. Tiemessen,, K. M. Jacobs,, E. C. de Jong,, A. N. Akbar,, J. W. Bijlsma, and, F. P. Lafeber. 2005. Modulation of monocyte/macrophage function by human CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. Hum. Immunol. 66:222230.
224. Taams, L. S.,, E. P. Boot,, W. van Eden, and, M. H. Wauben. 2000. ‘Anergic’ T cells modulate the T-cell activating capacity of antigen-presenting cells. J. Autoimmunol. 14:335341.
225. Taams, L. S.,, A. J. van Rensen,, M. C. Poelen,, C. A. van Els,, A. C. Besseling,, J. P. Wagenaar,, W. van Eden, and, M. H. Wauben. 1998. Anergic T cells actively suppress T cell responses via the antigen-presenting cell. Eur. J. Immunol. 28:29022912.
226. Tariq, S. M.,, M. Stevens,, S. Matthews,, S. Ridout,, R. Twiselton, and, D. W. Hide. 1996. Cohort study of peanut and tree nut sensitisation by age of 4 years. BMJ 313:514517.
227. Telemo, E.,, M. Korotkova, and, L. A. Hanson. 2003. Antigen presentation and processing in the intestinal mucosa and lymphocyte homing. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 90:2833.
228. Telemo, E.,, B. Westrom,, G. Dahl, and, B. Karlsson. 1986. Transfer of orally or intravenously administered proteins to the milk of the lactating rat. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 5:305309.
229. Thery, C.,, L. Zitvogel, and, S. Amigorena. 2002. Exosomes: composition, biogenesis and function. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2:569579.
230. Tiemessen, M. M.,, E. Van Hoffen,, A. C. Knulst,, J. A. Van Der Zee,, E. F. Knol, and, L. S. Taams. 2002. CD4 CD25 regulatory T cells are not functionally impaired in adult patients with IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 110:934936.
231. Tkaczyk, C.,, I. Villa,, R. Peronet,, B. David, and, S. Mecheri. 1999. FcεRI-mediated antigen endocytosis turns interferon-gamma-treated mouse mast cells from inefficient into potent antigen-presenting cells. Immunology 97:333340.
232. Tregoning, J. S.,, S. Clare,, F. Bowe,, L. Edwards,, N. Fairweather,, O. Qazi,, P. J. Nixon,, P. Maliga,, G. Dougan, and, T. Hussell. 2005. Protection against tetanus toxin using a plant-based vaccine. Eur. J. Immunol. 35:13201326.
233. Trzonkowski, P.,, E. Szmit,, J. Mysliwska,, A. Dobyszuk, and, A. Mysliwski. 2004. CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells inhibit cytotoxic activity of T CD8+ and NK lymphocytes in the direct cell-to-cell interaction. Clin. Immunol. 112:258267.
234. Tuboly, S.,, S. Bernath,, R. Glavits,, A. Kovacs, and, Z. Megyeri. 1995. Intestinal absorption of colostral lymphocytes in newborn lambs and their role in the development of immune status. Acta Vet. Hung. 43:105115.
235. Turcanu, V.,, S. J. Maleki, and, G. Lack. 2003. Characterization of lymphocyte responses to peanuts in normal children, peanut-allergic children, and allergic children who acquired tolerance to peanuts. J. Clin. Investig. 111:10651072.
236. Untersmayr, E.,, N. Bakos,, I. Scholl,, M. Kundi,, F. Roth-Walter,, K. Szalai,, A. B. Riemer,, H. J. Ankersmit,, O. Scheiner,, G. Boltz-Nitulescu, and, E. Jensen-Jarolim. 2005. Anti-ulcer drugs promote IgE formation toward dietary antigens in adult patients. FASEB J. 19:656658.
237. Untersmayr, E.,, I. Scholl,, I. Swoboda,, W. J. Beil,, E. Forster-Waldl,, F. Walter,, A. Riemer,, G. Kraml,, T. Kinaciyan,, S. Spitzauer,, G. Boltz-Nitulescu,, O. Scheiner, and, E. Jensen-Jarolim. 2003. Antacid medication inhibits digestion of dietary proteins and causes food allergy: a fish allergy model in BALB/c mice. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 112:616623.
238. Vance, G. H.,, K. E. Grimshaw,, R. Briggs,, S. A. Lewis,, M. A. Mullee,, C. A. Thornton, and, J. O. Warner. 2004. Serum ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin G responses during pregnancy reflect maternal intake of dietary egg and relate to the development of allergy in early infancy. Clin. Exp. Allergy 34:18551861.
239. van den Biggelaar, A. H.,, L. C. Rodrigues,, R., van Ree,, J. S. van der Zee,, Y. C. Hoeksma-Kruize,, J. H. Souverijn,, M. A. Missinou,, S. Borrmann,, P. G. Kremsner, and, M. Yazdanbakhsh. 2004. Long-term treatment of intestinal helminths increases mite skin-test reactivity in Gabonese schoolchildren. J. Infect. Dis. 189:892900.
240. van den Biggelaar, A. H.,, R. van Ree,, L. C. Rodrigues,, B. Lell,, A. M. Deelder,, P. G. Kremsner, and, M. Yazdanbakhsh. 2000. Decreased atopy in children infected with Schistosoma haematobium: a role for parasite-induced interleukin-10. Lancet 356:17231727.
241. van der Wouden, J. M.,, O. van Maier,, I. S. van Ijzendoorn, and, D. Hoekstra. 2003. Membrane dynamics and the regulation of epithelial cell polarity. Int. Rev. Cytol. 226:127164.
242. van Niel, G.,, G. Raposo,, C. Candalh,, M. Boussac,, R. Hershberg,, N. Cerf-Bensussan, and, M. Heyman. 2001. Intestinal epithelial cells secrete exosome-like vesicles. Gastroenterology 121:337349.
243. Verginis, P.,, H. S. Li, and, G. Carayanniotis. 2005. Tolerogenic semimature dendritic cells suppress experimental autoimmune thyroiditis by activation of thyroglobulin-specific CD4+CD25+ T cells. J. Immunol. 174:74337439.