1887

Chapter 8 : Approaches to the Detection of Food Allergens, from a Food Science Perspective

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Approaches to the Detection of Food Allergens, from a Food Science Perspective, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815721/9781555813758_Chap08-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815721/9781555813758_Chap08-2.gif

Abstract:

Food allergies have become an increasingly important food safety issue in recent years. The current approaches for the prevention of future reactions are focused on the evaluation of the inadvertent presence of allergenic material in food and the identification of the allergen on labels by the consumer governed by the implementation of new regulations in several countries. Depending on the type of target molecule, protein, or DNA, the current detection methods for food allergens can be classified as immunoassay or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Immunoassay is a very versatile technique because it uses antibodies that have the ability to detect a very specific protein(s) (allergen[s]) within a complex mixture of compounds. On the other hand, PCR targets the gene encoding the protein or allergen of interest. This chapter provides an overview of the current trends for the detection of food allergens, based on published information and the factors and steps involved in the analysis process. Moreover, special attention will be focused on commercially available kits. A section discusses the future approaches, such as the applicability of proteomics and genomics in the field, automation of analysis procedures, and confirmatory methods. From the point of view of detection of food allergens by immunoassay, allergenic proteins are comparable to nonallergenic proteins in that they are both antigens that are detected by IgG antibodies. As technology advances, new analytical techniques are being applied to the field of detection of food allergens or the characterization of new ones.

Citation: Westphal C. 2006. Approaches to the Detection of Food Allergens, from a Food Science Perspective, p 189-218. In Maleki S, Burks A, Helm R (ed), Food Allergy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815721.ch8

Key Concept Ranking

Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
0.45799562
0.45799562
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

ELISA formats: sandwich (A), sandwich enhanced (B), and competitive (C).

Citation: Westphal C. 2006. Approaches to the Detection of Food Allergens, from a Food Science Perspective, p 189-218. In Maleki S, Burks A, Helm R (ed), Food Allergy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815721.ch8
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Scheme of a lateral flow test.

Citation: Westphal C. 2006. Approaches to the Detection of Food Allergens, from a Food Science Perspective, p 189-218. In Maleki S, Burks A, Helm R (ed), Food Allergy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815721.ch8
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Peanut protein extracted from light and dark roasted peanut flour with phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) (PBS), high-salt buffer (pH 7.4) (HSB), carbonate buffer (pH 9.5) (Carb), and Tris buffer (pH 8.2) (Tris). (Reproduced with permission from the [ ].)

Citation: Westphal C. 2006. Approaches to the Detection of Food Allergens, from a Food Science Perspective, p 189-218. In Maleki S, Burks A, Helm R (ed), Food Allergy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815721.ch8
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4.
Figure 4.

Typical standard curve in sandwich ELISA and direct ELISA, used to determine the concentration of an allergen in a blind sample.

Citation: Westphal C. 2006. Approaches to the Detection of Food Allergens, from a Food Science Perspective, p 189-218. In Maleki S, Burks A, Helm R (ed), Food Allergy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815721.ch8
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 5.
Figure 5.

Steps of a conventional PCR cycle.

Citation: Westphal C. 2006. Approaches to the Detection of Food Allergens, from a Food Science Perspective, p 189-218. In Maleki S, Burks A, Helm R (ed), Food Allergy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815721.ch8
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815721.ch08
1. Acosta, M. R.,, K. H. Roux,, S. S. Teuber, and, S. K. Sathe. 1999. Production and characterization of rabbit polyclonal antibodies to almond (Prunus dulcis L.) major storage protein. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47:40534059.
2. Akkerdaas, J. H.,, M. Wensing,, A. Knulst,, O. Stephan,, S. L. Hefle,, R. C. Aalberse, and, R. van Ree. 2004. A novel approach for the detection of potentially hazardous pepsin stable hazelnut proteins as contaminants in chocolate-based food. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52:77267731.
3. Aranishi, F., and, T. Okimoto. 2004. PCR-based detection of allergenic mackerel ingredients in seafood. J. Genet. 83:193195.
4. Awazuhara,, H.,, H. Kawai,, M. Baba,, T. Matsui, and, A. Komiyama. 1998. Antigenicity of the proteins in soy lecithin and soy oil in soybean allergy. Clin. Exp. Allergy 28:1 5591564.
5. Bacarese-Hamilton,, T.,, A. Ardizzoni,, J. Gray, and, A. Crisanti. 2004. Protein arrays for serodiagnosis of disease. Methods Mol. Biol. 264:271283.
6. Baeumner, A. J. 2003. Biosensors for environmental pollutants and food contaminants. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377:434445.
7. Bando, N.,, H. Tsuji,, M. Hiemori,, K. Yoshizumi,, R. Yamanishi,, M. Kimoto, and, T. Ogawa. 1998. Quantitative analysis of Gly m Bd 28K in soybean products by a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 44:655664.
8. Baumgartner, S.,, I. Steiner,, S. Kloiber,, D. Hirmann,, R. Krska, and, J. M. Yeung. 2002. Towards the development of a dipstick immunoassay for the detection of trace amounts of egg proteins in food. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 214:168170.
9. Bayard, C., and, F. Lottspeich. 2001. Bioanalytical characterization of proteins. J. Chromatogr. B Biomed. Sci. Appl. 756:113122.
10. Benrejeb, B. S.,, M. Abbott,, D. Davies,, J. Querry,, C. Cleroux,, C. Streng,, P. Delahaut, and, J. M. Yeung. 2003. Immunochemical-based method for the detection of hazelnut proteins in proteins in processed foods. J. AOAC Int. 86:557563.
11. Besler, M.,, H. Steinhart, and, A. Paschke. 2001. Stability of food allergens and allergenicity of processed foods. J. Chromatogr. B Biomed. Sci. Appl. 756:207228.
12. Beyer, K.,, L. Bardina,, G. Grishina, and, H. A. Sampson. 2002a. Identification of sesame seed allergens by 2-dimensional proteomics and Edman sequencing: seed storage proteins as common food allergens. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 110:154159.
13. Beyer, K.,, G. Grishina,, L. Bardina,, A. Grishin, and, H. A. Sampson. 2002b. Identification of an 11S globulin as a major hazelnut food allergen in hazelnut-induced systemic reactions. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 110:517523.
14. Blais, B. W., and, L. Phillippe. 2001. Detection of hazelnut proteins in foods by enzyme immunoassay using egg yolk antibodies. J. Food Prot. 64:895898.
15. Blais, B. W., and, L. M. Phillippe. 2000. A cloth-based enzyme immunoassay for detection of peanut proteins in foods. Food Agric. Immunol. 12:243248.
16. Blais, B. W.,, M. Gaudreault, and, L. Phillippe. 2003. Multiplex enzyme immunoassay system for the simultaneous detection of multiple allergens in foods. Food Control 14:4347.
17. Blais, B. W.,, M. Omar, and, L. Phillippe. 2002. Detection of Brazil nut proteins in foods by enzyme immunoassay. Food Agric. Immunol. 14:163168.
18. Bredehorst, R., and, K. David. 2001. What establishes a protein as an allergen. J. Chromatogr. B Biomed. Sci. Appl. 756:3340.
19. Burks, W.,, R. Helm,, S. Stanley, and, G. A. Bannon. 2001. Food allergens. Curr. Opin. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 1:243248.
20. Clemente, A.,, S. J. Chambers,, F. Lodi,, C. Nicoletti, and, G. M. Brett. 2004. Use of the indirect competitive ELISA for the detection of Brazil nut in food products. Food Control 15:65.
21. Crevel, R. 2002. Industrial dimensions of food allergy. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 30:941944.
22. Crevel, R. W.,, M. A. Kerkhoff, and, M. M. Koning. 2000. Allergenicity of refined vegetable oils. Food Chem. Toxicol. 38:385393.
23. Davis, P. J.,, C. M. Smales, and, D. C. James. 2001. How can thermal processing modify the antigenicity of proteins? Allergy 56 (Suppl. 67): 5660.
24. Davis, P. J., and, S. C. Williams. 1998. Protein modification by thermal processing. Allergy 53 (Suppl. 46): 102105.
25. De Boer,, S. H.,, L. J. Ward,, X. Li, and, S. Chittaranjan. 1995. Attenuation of PCR inhibition in the presence of plant compounds by addition of BLOTTO. Nucleic Acids Res. 23:25672568.
26. de Meulenaer,, B.,, M. de La Court,, D. Acke,, T. de Meyere, and, A. van de Keere. 2005. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for peanut proteins using chicken immunoglobulins. Food Agric. Immunol. 16:129148.
27. Drs, E.,, S. Baumgartner,, M. Bremer,, A. Kemmers-Voncken,, N. Smits,, W. Hassnoot,, J. Banks,, P. Reece,, C. Danks,, V. Tomkies,, U. Immer,, K. Schmitt, and, R. Krska. 2004. Detection of hidden hazelnut protein in food by IgY-based indirect competitive enzyme-immunoassay. Anal. Chim. Acta 520:223228.
28. Fall, B. I.,, B. Eberlein-Konig,, H. Behrendt,, R. Niessner,, J. Ring, and, M. G. Weller. 2003. Microarrays for the screening of allergen-specific IgE in human serum. Anal. Chem. 75:556562.
29. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1995. Report of the FAO Technical Consultation on Food Allergies, p. 1314. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
30. Gendel, S. M. 2004. Bioinformatics and food allergens. J. AOAC Int. 87:14171422.
31. Gruber, P.,, M. Suhr,, A. Frey,, W. M. Becker, and, T. Hofmann. 2004. Development of an epitope-specific analytical tool for the major peanut allergen Ara h 2 using a high-density multiple-antigenic peptide strategy. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 48:449458.
32. Harwanegg, C.,, S. Laffer,, R. Hiller,, M. W. Mueller,, D. Kraft,, S. Spitzauer, and, R. Valenta. 2003. Microarrayed recombinant allergens for diagnosis of allergy. Clin. Exp. Allergy 33:713.
33. Hefle, S. L. 1999. Impact of processing on food allergens. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 459:107119.
34. Hefle, S. L., and, D. M. Lambrecht. 2004. Validated sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for casein and its application to retail and milk-allergic complaint foods. J. Food Prot. 67:19331938.
35. Hefle, S. L., and, S. L. Taylor. 2004. Food allergy and the food industry. Curr. Allergy Asthma Rep. 4:5559.
36. Hefle, S. L.,, R. K. Bush,, J. W. Yunginger, and, F. S. Chu. 1994. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantitation of selected peanut proteins in food. J. Food Prot. 57:419423.
37. Hefle, S. L.,, E. Jeanniton, and, S. L. Taylor. 2001. Development of a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of egg residues in processed foods. J. Food Prot. 64:18121816.
38. Herman, L.,, J. D. Block, and, R. Viane. 2003. Detection of hazelnut DNA traces in chocolate by PCR. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 38:633640.
39. Hiller, R.,, S. Laffer,, C. Harwanegg,, M. Huber,, W. M. Schmidt,, A. Twardosz,, B. Barletta,, W. M. Becker,, K. Blaser,, H. Breiteneder,, M. Chapman,, R. Crameri,, M. Duchene,, F. Ferreira,, H. Fiebig,, K., Hoffmann-Sommergruber,, T. P. King,, T. Kleber-Janke,, V. P. Kurup,, S. B. Lehrer,, J. Lidholm,, U. Muller,, C. Pini,, G. Reese,, O. Scheiner,, A. Scheynius,, H. D. Shen,, S. Spitzauer,, R. Suck,, I. Swoboda,, W. Thomas,, R. Tinghino,, M. Van Hage-Hamsten,, T. Virtanen,, D. Kraft,, M. W. Muller, and, R. Valenta. 2002. Microarrayed allergen molecules: diagnostic gatekeepers for allergy treatment. FASEB J. 16:414416.
40. Hird, H.,, J. Lloyd,, R. Goodier,, J. Brown, and, P. Reece. 2003. Detection of peanut using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 217:265268.
41. Hird, H.,, R. Pumphrey,, P. Wilson,, J. Sunderland, and, P. Reece. 2000. Identification of peanut and hazelnut allergens by native two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Electrophoresis 21:26782683.
42. Hlywka, J. J.,, S. L. Hefle, and, S. L. Taylor. 2000. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of almonds in foods. J. Food Prot. 63:252257.
43. Holzhauser, T., and, S. Vieths. 1999a. Indirect competitive ELISA for determination of traces of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) protein in complex food matrices. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47 (Suppl. 2): 603611.
44. Holzhauser, T., and, S. Vieths. 1999b. Quantitative sandwich ELISA for determination of traces of hazelnut (Corylus avellana) protein in complex food matrixes. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47:42094218.
45. Holzhauser, T.,, O. Stephan, and, S. Vieths. 2002. Detection of potentially allergenic hazelnut (Corylus avellana) residues in food: a comparative study with DNA PCR-ELISA and protein sandwich-ELISA. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50:58085815.
46. Holzhauser, T.,, A. Wangorsh, and, S. Vieths. 2000. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of potentially allergenic hazelnut residues in complex food matrixes. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 211:360365.
47. Hourihane, J. O., and, A. C. Knulst. 2005. Thresholds of allergenic proteins in foods. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 207 (Suppl. 2): 152156.
48. Immer, U.,, B. Reck,, S. Lindeke, and, S. J. Koppelman. 2004. RIDASCREEN FAST PEANUT, a rapid and safe tool to determine peanut contamination in food. I. J. Food Sci. Technol. 39:869871.
49. Jahn-Schmid,, B.,, C. Harwanegg,, R. Hiller,, B. Bohle,, C. Ebner,, O. Scheiner, and, M. W. Mueller. 2003. Allergen microarray: comparison of microarray using recombinant allergens with conventional diagnostic methods to detect allergen-specific serum immunoglobulin E. Clin. Exp. Allergy 33:14431449.
50. James, D., and, A. M. Schmidt. 2004. Use of an intron region of a chloroplast tRNA gene (trn L) as a target for PCR identification of specific food crops including sources of potential allergens. Food Res. Int. 37:395402.
51. James, D.,, A. M. Schmidt,, E. Wall,, M. Green, and, S. Masri. 2003. Reliable detection and identification of genetically modified maize, soybean, and canola by multiplex PCR analysis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51:58295834.
52. Jeoung, B. J.,, G. Reese,, P. Hauck,, J. B. Oliver,, C. B. Daul, and, S. B. Lehrer. 1997. Quantification of the major brown shrimp allergen Pen a 1 (tropomyosin) by a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 100:229234.
53. Jonsson, H., and, K. E. Hellenäs. 2001. Optimizing assay conditions in the detection of food allergens with Biacore’s SPR technology. Biacore J. 2:1618.
54. Joshi, P.,, S. Mofidi, and, S. H. Sicherer. 2002. Interpretation of commercial food ingredient labels by parents of food-allergic children. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 109:10191021.
55. Keck-Gassenmeier,, B.,, S. Bénet,, C. Rosa, and, C. Hischenhuber. 1999. Determination of peanut traces in food by a commercially-available ELISA test. Food Agric. Immunol. 11:243250.
56. Koppelman, S. J.,, H. Bleeker-Marcelis,, G. Duijn, and, M. Hessing. 1996. Detecting peanut allergens. The development of an immunochemical assay for peanut proteins. World Ingredients 12:3538.
57. Koppelman, S. J.,, A. C. Knulst,, W. J. Koers,, A. H. Penninks,, H. Peppelman,, R. A. Vlooswijk,, I. Pigmans,, G. van Duijn, and, M. Hessing. 1999. Comparison of different immunochemical methods for the detection and quantification of hazelnut proteins in food products. J. Immunol. Methods 229:107120.
58. Koppelman, S. J.,, G. A. van Koningsveld,, A. C. Knulst,, H. Gruppen,, I. G. Pigmans, and, H. H. de Jongh. 2002. Effect of heat-induced aggregation on the IgE binding of patatin (Sol t 1) is dominated by other potato proteins. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50:15621568.
59. Kopper, R. A.,, N. J. Odum,, M. Sen,, R. M. Helm,, J. S. Stanley, and, A. W. Burks. 2004. Peanut protein allergens: the effect of roasting on solubility and allergenicity. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 136:1622.
60. Lauwaars, M., and, E. Anklam. 2004. Method validation and reference materials. Accredit. Qual. Assur. 9:253258.
61. Leduc, V.,, C. Demeulemester,, B. Polack,, C. Guizard,, L. Le Guern, and, G. Peltre. 1999. Immunochemical detection of egg-white antigens and allergens in meat products. Allergy 54:464472.
62. Lorenz, A. R.,, S. Scheurer,, D. Haustein, and, S. Vieths. 2001. Recombinant food allergens. J. Chromatogr. B Biomed. Sci. Appl. 756:255279.
63. Lu, Y.,, T. Oshima, and, H. Ushio. 2004. Rapid detection of fish major allergen parvalbumin by surface plasmon resonance biosensor. J.Food Chem. Toxicol. 69:C652C658.
64. Maleki, S. J. 2004. Food processing: effects on allergenicity. Curr. Opin. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 4:241245.
65. Maleki, S. J.,, S. Y. Chung,, E. T. Champagne, and, J. P. Raufman. 2000a. The effects of roasting on the allergenic properties of peanut proteins. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 106:76768.
66. Maleki, S. J.,, R. A. Kopper,, D. S. Shin,, C. W. Park,, C. M. Compadre,, H. Sampson,, A. W. Burks, and, G. A. Bannon. 2000b. Structure of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 may protect IgE-binding epitopes from degradation. J. Immunol. 164:58445849.
67. Meyer, R.,, F. Chardonnens,, P. Hubner, and, J. Luthy. 1996. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the quality and safety assurance of food: detection of soya in processed meat products. Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch. 203:339344.
68. Mills, E. N.,, A. Potts,, G. W. Plumb,, N. Lambert, and, M. R. A. Morgan. 1997. Development of a rapid dipstick immunoassay for the detection of peanut contamination of food. Food Agric. Immunol. 9:3750.
69. Mohammed, I.,, W. M. Mullett,, E. P. C. Lai, and, J. M. Yeung. 2001. Is biosensor a viable method for food allergen detection? Anal. Chim. Acta 444:97102.
70. Moneret-Vautrin,, D. A., and, G. Kanny. 2004. Update on threshold doses of food allergens: implications for patients and the food industry. Curr. Opin. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 4:215219.
71. Morisset, M.,, D. A. Moneret-Vautrin,, G. Kanny,, L. Guenard,, E. Beaudouin,, J. Flabbee, and, R. Hatahet. 2003. Thresholds of clinical reactivity to milk, egg, peanut and sesame in immunoglobulin E-dependent allergies: evaluation by double-blind or single-blind placebo-controlled oral challenges. Clin. Exp. Allergy 33:10461051.
72. Mullett, W. M.,, E. P. Lai, and, J. M. Yeung. 2000. Surface plasmon resonance-based immunoassays. Methods 22:7791.
73. Munoz-Furlong,, A. 2004. Food allergy in schools: concerns for allergists, pediatricians, parents, and school staff. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 93 (Suppl. 3): S47S50.
74. Natale, M.,, C. Bisson,, G. Monti,, A. Peltran,, L. P. Garoffo,, S. Valentini,, C. Fabris,, E. Bertino,, A. Coscia, and, A. Conti. 2004. Cow’s milk allergens identification by two-dimensional immunoblotting and mass spectrometry. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 48:363369.
75. Negroni, L.,, H. Bernard,, G. Clement,, J. M. Chatel,, P. Brune,, Y. Frobert,, J. M. Wal, and, J. Grassi. 1998. Two-site enzyme immunometric assays for determination of native and denatured β-lactoglobulin. J. Immunol. Methods 220:2537.
76. Nogueira, M. C. L.,, R. McDonald,, C. D. Westphal,, S. J. Maleki, and, J. M. Yeung. 2004. Can commercial peanut assay kits detect peanut allergens? J. AOAC Int. 87:14801484.
77. Park, D. L.,, S. Coates,, V. A. Brewer,, E. A. E. Garber,, M. Abouzied,, K. Johnson,, B. Ritter, and, D. McKenzie. 2005. Performance tested method multiple laboratory validation study of ELISA-based assays for the detection of peanuts in food. J. AOAC Int. 88:156160.
78. Perry, T. T.,, E. C. Matsui,, M. K. Conover-Walker, and, R. A. Wood. 2004. Risk of oral food challenges. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 114:11641168.
79. Pineiro, C.,, J. Barros-Velazquez,, J. Vazquez,, A. Figueras, and, J. M. Gallardo. 2003. Proteomics as a tool for the investigation of seafood and other marine products. J. Proteome Res. 2:127135.
80. Pomés,, A.,, R. M. Helm,, G. A. Bannon,, A. W. Burks,, A. Tsay, and, M. D. Chapman. 2003. Monitoring peanut allergen in food products by measuring Ara h 1. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 111:640645.
81. Pomés,, A.,, R. Vinton, and, M. D. Chapman. 2004. Peanut allergen (Ara h 1) detection in foods containing chocolate. J. Food Prot. 67:793798.
82. Poms, R. E., and, E. Anklam. 2004. Effects of chemical, physical and technological processes on the nature of food allergens. J. AOAC Int. 87:14661474.
83. Poms, R. E.,, C. Capelletti, and, E. Anklam. 2004a. Effect of roasting history and buffer composition on peanut protein extraction efficiency. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 48:459464.
84. Poms, R. E.,, C. L. Klein, and, E. Anklam. 2004b. Methods for allergen analysis in food: a review. Food Addit. Contam. 21:131.
85. Poms, R. E.,, M. E. Agazzi,, A. Bau,, M. Brohee,, C. Capelletti,, J. V. Norgaard, and, E. Anklam. 2005. Interlaboratory validation study of five commercial ELISA test kits for the determination of peanut proteins in biscuits and dark chocolate. Food Addit. Contam. 22:104112.
86. Rosendal, A., and, V. Barkholt. 2000. Detection of potentially allergenic material in 12 hydrolyzed milk formulas. J. Dairy Sci. 83:22002210.
87. Roux, K. H.,, S. S. Teuber,, J. M. Robotham, and, S. K. Sathe. 2001. Detection and stability of the major almond allergen in foods. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49:21312136.
88. Sampson, H. A. 2004. Update on food allergy. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 113:805819.
89. Sandberg, M.,, L. Lundberg,, M. Ferm, and, I. M. Yman. 2003. Real time PCR for the detection and discrimination of cereal contamination in gluten free foods. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 217:344349.
90. Scheibe, B.,, W. Weiss,, F. Ruëff,, B. Przybilla, and, A. Görg. 2001. Detection of trace amounts of hidden allergens: hazelnut and almond proteins in chocolate. J. Chromatogr. B Biomed. Sci. Appl. 756:229237.
91. Schmitt, D. A.,, H. Cheng,, S. J. Maleki, and, A. W. Burks. 2004. Competitive inhibition ELISA for quantification of Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, the major allergens of peanuts. J. AOAC Int. 87:14921502.
92. Sen, M.,, R. Kopper,, L. Pons,, E. C. Abraham,, A. W. Burks, and, G. A. Bannon. 2002. Protein structure plays a critical role in peanut allergen stability and may determine immunodominant IgE-binding epitopes. J. Immunol. 169:882887.
93. Shefcheck, K. J., and, S. M. Musser. 2004. Confirmation of the allergenic peanut protein, Ara h 1, in a model food matrix using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). J. Agric. Food Chem. 52:27852790.
94. Shreffler, W. G.,, K. Beyer,, T. H. Chu,, A. W. Burks, and, H. A. Sampson. 2004. Microarray immunoassay: association of clinical history, in vitro IgE function, and heterogeneity of allergenic peanut epitopes. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 113:776782.
95. Shriver-Lake,, L. C.,, C. R. Taitt, and, F. S. Ligler. 2004. Application of an array biosensor for detection of food allergens. J. AOAC Int. 87:14981502.
96. Sicherer, S. H.,, J. DeSimone, and, T. J. Furlong. 2001. Peanut and tree nut allergic reactions in restaurant and food establishments. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 107:S231.
97. Skerrit, J. H., and, A. S. Hill. 1991. Enzyme immunoassay for determination of gluten in foods: collaborative study. J. AOAC Int. 74:257264.
98. Sorell, L.,, J. A. López,, I. Valdés,, P. Alfonso,, E. Camafeita,, B. Acevedo,, F. Chirdo,, J. Gavilondo, and, E. Méndez. 1998. An innovative sandwich ELISA system based on an antibody cocktail for gluten analysis. FEBS Lett. 439:4650.
99. Stephan, O.,, N. Möller,, S. Lehmann,, T. Holzhauser, and, S. Vieths. 2002. Development and validation of two dipstick type immunoassays for determination of trace amounts of peanut and hazelnut in processed foods. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 215:431436.
100. Stephan, O., and, S. Vieths. 2004. Development of a real-time PCR and a sandwich ELISA for detection of potentially allergenic trace amounts of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) in processed foods. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54:37543760.
101. Stephan, O.,, N. Weisz,, S. Vieths,, T. Weiser,, B. Rabe, and, W. Vatterott. 2004. Protein quantification, sandwich ELISA, and real-time PCR used to monitor industrial cleaning procedures for contamination with peanut and celery allergens. J. AOAC Int. 87:14481457.
102. Taylor, S. L., and, S. B. Lehrer. 1996. Principles and characteristics of food allergens. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 36 (Suppl.): S91S118.
103. Taylor, S. L.,, S. L. Hefle,, C. Bindslev-Jensen,, F. M. Atkins,, C. Andre,, C. Bruijnzeel-Koomen,, A. W. Burks,, R. K. Bush,, M. Ebisawa,, P. A. Eigenmann,, A. Host,, J. O. Hourihane,, E. Isolauri,, D. J. Hill,, A. Knulst,, G. Lack,, H. A. Sampson,, D. A. Moneret-Vautrin,, F. Rance,, P. A. Vadas,, J. W. Yunginger,, R. S. Zeiger,, J. W. Salminen,, C. Madsen, and, P. Abbott. 2004. A consensus protocol for the determination of the threshold doses for allergenic foods: how much is too much? Clin. Exp. Allergy 34:689695.
104. Taylor, S. L.,, S. L. Hefle,, C. Bindslev-Jensen,, S. A. Bock,, A. W. Burks, Jr.,, L. Christie,, D. J. Hill,, A. Host,, J. O. Hourihane,, G. Lack,, D. D. Metcalfe,, D. A. Moneret-Vautrin,, P. A. Vadas,, F. Rance,, D. J. Skrypec,, T. A. Trautman,, I. M. Yman, and, R. S. Zeiger. 2002. Factors affecting the determination of threshold doses for allergenic foods: how much is too much? J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 109:2430.
105. Trucksess, M. W.,, V. A. Brewer,, K. M. Williams,, C. D. Westphal, and, J. T. Heeres. 2004. Preparation of peanut butter suspension for determination of peanuts using enzyme-linked immunoassay kits. J. AOAC Int. 87:424428.
106. Tsuji, H.,, N. Okada,, R. Yamanishi,, N. Bando,, M. Kimoto, and, T. Ogawa. 1995. Measurement of Gly m Bd 30K, a major soybean allergen, in soybean products by a sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 59:150151.
107. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2001. Food allergen partnership. [Online.] http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/alrgpart.html.
108. Valdes, I.,, E. Garcia,, M. Llorente, and, E. Mendez. 2003. Innovative approach to low-level gluten determination in foods using a novel sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay protocol. Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 15:465474.
109. Wei, Y.,, S. K. Sathe,, S. S. Teuber, and, K. H. Roux. 2003. A sensitive sandwich ELISA for the detection of trace amounts of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut in foods. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51:32153221.
110. Wensing, M.,, A. H. Penninks,, S. L. Hefle,, S. J. Koppelman,, C. A. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, and, A. C. Knulst. 2002. The distribution of individual threshold doses eliciting allergic reactions in a population with peanut allergy. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 110:915920.
111. Westphal, C. D.,, M. R. Pereira,, R. B. Raybourne, and, K. M. Williams. 2004. Evaluation of extraction buffers using the current approach of detecting multiple allergenic and nonallergenic proteins in food. J. AOAC Int. 87:14581465.
112. Whitaker, T. B.,, K. M. Williams,, M. W. Trucksess, and, A. B. Slate. 2005. Immunochemical analytical methods for the determination of peanut proteins in foods. J. AOAC Int. 88:161174.
113. Williams, K. M.,, L. C. Shriver-Lake, and, C. D. Westphal. 2004. Determination of egg proteins in snack food and noodles. J. AOAC Int. 87:14851491.
114. Yamashita, H.,, M. Kimoto,, M. Hiemori,, M. Okita,, K. Suzuki, and, H. Tsuji. 2001. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system for micro-detection of the wheat allergen, Tri a Bd 17 K. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 65:27302734.
115. Yeung, J. M., and, P. G. Collins. 1996. Enzyme immunoassay for determination of peanut proteins in food products. J. AOAC Int. 79:14111416.
116. Yeung, J. M., and, P. G. Collins. 1997. Determination of soy proteins in food products by enzyme immunoassay. Food Technol. Biotechnol. 35:209214.
117. Yeung, J. M.,, R. S. Applebaum, and, R. Hildwine. 2000a. Criteria to determine food allergen priority. J. Food Prot. 63:982986.
118. Yeung, J. M.,, W. H. Newsome, and, M. Abbott. 2000b. Determination of egg proteins in food products by enzyme immunoassay. J. AOAC Int. 83:139143.
119. Yu, C. J.,, Y. F. Lin,, B. L. Chiang, and, L. P. Chow. 2003. Proteomics and immunological analysis of a novel shrimp allergen, Pen m 2. J. Immunol. 170:445453.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Mandatory or recommended labeling of allergenic ingredients

Citation: Westphal C. 2006. Approaches to the Detection of Food Allergens, from a Food Science Perspective, p 189-218. In Maleki S, Burks A, Helm R (ed), Food Allergy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815721.ch8
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Published ELISA protocols for the detection of allergenic foods

Citation: Westphal C. 2006. Approaches to the Detection of Food Allergens, from a Food Science Perspective, p 189-218. In Maleki S, Burks A, Helm R (ed), Food Allergy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815721.ch8
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Commercial kits for the detection of food allergens

Citation: Westphal C. 2006. Approaches to the Detection of Food Allergens, from a Food Science Perspective, p 189-218. In Maleki S, Burks A, Helm R (ed), Food Allergy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815721.ch8
Generic image for table
Table 4.

Nomenclature of allergenic proteins

Citation: Westphal C. 2006. Approaches to the Detection of Food Allergens, from a Food Science Perspective, p 189-218. In Maleki S, Burks A, Helm R (ed), Food Allergy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815721.ch8
Generic image for table
Table 5.

Characteristics of commercial kits for the detection of egg or egg proteins

Citation: Westphal C. 2006. Approaches to the Detection of Food Allergens, from a Food Science Perspective, p 189-218. In Maleki S, Burks A, Helm R (ed), Food Allergy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815721.ch8
Generic image for table
Table 6.

Published PCR and RT-PCR protocols for the detection of allergenic foods

Citation: Westphal C. 2006. Approaches to the Detection of Food Allergens, from a Food Science Perspective, p 189-218. In Maleki S, Burks A, Helm R (ed), Food Allergy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815721.ch8

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error