Chapter 4 : The Challenge of Estimating the Burden of an Underreported Disease

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

The Challenge of Estimating the Burden of an Underreported Disease, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815738/9781555814649_Chap04-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815738/9781555814649_Chap04-2.gif


This chapter focuses on the epidemiologic and surveillance challenges posed by food-borne viral disease. The exemplar used is norovirus (NoV), although most of the principles apply equally to other viruses transmitted through food. In a study examining archived DNA and cDNA from stool samples from a large population-based case-control study of infectious intestinal disease (IID) in England, the increased detection of NoV was statistically significant in all age groups. This study illustrated dramatically that what you find in stool samples depends not only on what you look for but also how hard you look for it. There are at least three ways in which the public health system can militate against a good understanding of the burden of food-borne viral gastroenteritis. For example, in a survey of environmental health departments (sanitarians) in England, 64% of respondents always investigated a case of viral gastroenteritis reported to them (compared with 96% for Salmonella enteritis). For an infection that is, perhaps, classically regarded as predominantly outbreak related, the approach to the investigation of outbreaks is also variable. It is essential that the understanding of the contribution of NoV and other viruses to the burden of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) should be improved by using DNA microarray technology in diagnostic laboratories, perhaps as part of national sentinel networks. Integrating virological investigations with standardized epidemiologic data should enhance the detection of NoV and hence the understanding of the role of NoV in food-borne disease.

Citation: O’Brien S. 2008. The Challenge of Estimating the Burden of an Underreported Disease, p 87-115. In Koopmans M, Cliver D, Bosch A, Doyle M (ed), Food-Borne Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815738.ch4

Key Concept Ranking

Viral Gastroenteritis
Food Microbiology
Infectious Diseases
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Bacterial Gastroenteritis
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Relationship between disease in the community, presenting to primary care, and reported to national surveillance (ratios).

Citation: O’Brien S. 2008. The Challenge of Estimating the Burden of an Underreported Disease, p 87-115. In Koopmans M, Cliver D, Bosch A, Doyle M (ed), Food-Borne Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815738.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Adak, G. K.,, S. M. Long, and, S.J. O’Brien. 2002. Trends in indigenous foodborne disease and deaths, England and Wales: 1992 to 2000. Gut 51:832841.
2. Adak, G. K.,, S. M. Meakins,, H. Yip,, B. A. Lopman, and, S.J. O’Brien. 2005. Disease risks from foods, England and Wales, 1996–2000. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:365372.
3. Amar, C. F.,, C. L. East,, J. Gray,, M. Iturriza-Gomara,, E. A. Maclure, and, J. McLauchlin. 2007. Detection by PCR of eight groups of enteric pathogens in 4,627 faecal samples: reexamination of the English case-control Infectious Intestinal Disease Study (1993–1996). Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 26:311323.
4. Ashbolt, R.,, R. Givney,, J. E. Gregory,, G. Hall,, R. Hundy,, M. Kirk,, I. McKay,, L. Meuleners,, G. Millard,, J. Raupach,, P. Roche,, N. Prasopa-Plaizier,, M. K. Sama,, R. Stafford,, N. Tomaska,, L. Unicomb, andC. Williams for the OzFoodNet Working Group. 2002. Enhancing food-borne disease surveillance across Australia in 2001: the OzFoodNet Working Group. Commun. Dis. Intell. 26:375406.
5. Balter, S.,, D. Weiss,, H. Hanson,, V. Reddy,, D. Das, and, R Heffernan. 2005. Three years of emergency department gastrointestinal syndromic surveillance in New York City: what have we found? Morb. Mortal. Wily. Rep. 54(Suppl.):175180.
6. Batz, M. B.,, M. P. Doyle,, G. Morris, Jr.,, J. Painter,, R. Singh,, R. V. Tauxe,, M. R. Taylor, andD. M. Lo Fo Wong for the Food Attribution Working Group., 2005. Attributing illness to food. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:993999.
7. Black, R. E.,, H. B. Greenberg,, A. Z. Kapikian,, K. H. Brown, and, S. Becker. 1982. Acquisition of serum antibody to Norwalk virus and rotavirus and relation to diarrhea in a longitudinal study of young children in rural Bangladesh. J. Infect. Dis. 145:483489.
8. Blanton, L. H.,, S. M. Adams,, R. S. Beard,, G. Wei,, S. N. Bulens,, M. A. Widdowson,, R. I. Glass, and, S. S. Monroe. 2006. Molecular and epidemiologic trends of caliciviruses associated with outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in the United States, 2000–2004. J. Infect. Dis. 193:413421.
9. Bruijnzeels, M. A.,, J. C. vanderWouden,, M. Foets,, A. Prins, and, W.J. vandenHeuvel. 1998. Validity and accuracy of interview and diary data on children’s medical utilisation in The Netherlands. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 52:6569.
10. Buesa, J.,, B. Collado,, P. Lopez-Andujar,, R. Abu-Mallouh,, J. Rodriguez Diaz,, A. Garcia Diaz,, J. Prat,, S. Guix,, T. Llovet,, G. Prats, and, A. Bosch. 2002. Molecular epidemiology of caliciviruses causing outbreaks and sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis in Spain. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:28542859.
11. Butot, S.,, T. Putallaz, and, G. Sanchez. 2007. Procedure for rapid concentration and detection of enteric viruses from berries and vegetables. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73:186192.
12. Colomba, C.,, S. De Grazia,, G. M. Giammanco,, L. Saporito,, F. Scarlata,, L. Titone, and, S. Arista. 2006. Viral gastroenteritis in children hospitalised in Sicily, Italy. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 25:570575.
13. Cooper, D.,, E. Arnold,, G. Smith,, V. Hollyoak,, F. Chinemana,, M. Baker, and, S. J. O’Brien. 2005. The effect of deprivation, age and sex on NHS Direct call rates. Br. J. Gen. Pract. 55:287291.
14. Cooper, D. L.,, G. E. Smith,, S.J. O’Brien,, V. A. Hollyoak, and, M. Baker. 2003. What can analysis of calls to NHS direct tell us about the epidemiology of gastrointestinal infections in the community? J. Infect. 46:101105.
15. Cooper, D. L.,, N. Q. Verlander,, G. E. Smith,, A. Charlett,, E. Gerard,, L. Willocks, and, S. O’Brien. 2006. Can syndromic surveillance data detect local outbreaks of communicable disease? A model using a historical cryptosporidiosis outbreak. Epidemiol. Infect. 134:1320.
16. Dai, Y. C.,, J. Nie,, Y. Liu,, Y. M. Yao,, Z. F. Li, and, S. Y. Yu. 2004. Preliminary study of human calicivirus infection in Guangzhou. Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao 24:296299.
17. Derby, M. P.,, J. McNally,, J. Ranger-Moore,, L. Hulette,, R. Villar,, T. Hysong,, E. MacNeill,, M. Lebowitz, and, J. Burgess. 2005. Poison Control Center-based syndromic surveillance for foodborne illness. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 54(Suppl.):3540.
18. de Villiers, M. R.,, P. J. de Villiers, and, A. P. Kent. 2005. The Delphi technique in health sciences education research. Med. Teach. 27:639643.
19. deWit, M. A.,, L. M. Kortbeek,, M. P. Koopmans,, C. J. deJager,, W. J. Wannet,, A. I. Bartelds, and, Y. T. vanDuynhoven. 2001. A comparison of gastroenteritis in a general practice-based study and a community based study. Epidemiol. Infect. 127:389397.
20. deWit, M. A.,, M. P. Koopmans,, L. M. Kortbeek,, W. J. Wannet,, J. Vinjé,, F. van Leusden,, A. I. Bartelds, and, Y. T. van Duynhoven. 2001. Sensor, a population-based cohort study on gastroenteritis in the Netherlands: incidence and etiology. Am.J. Epidemiol. 154:666674.
21. deWit, M. A.,, M. P. Koopmans,, L. M. Kortbeek,, N. J. vanLeeuwen,, J. Vinjé, and, Y. T. vanDuynhoven. 2001. Etiology of gastroenteritis in sentinel general practices in The Netherlands. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33:280288.
22. deWit, M. A.,, M. P. Koopmans,, L. M. Kortbeek,, N. J. van Leeuwen,, A. I. Bartelds, and, Y. T. vanDuynhoven. 2001. Gastroenteritis in sentinel general practices, The Netherlands. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7:8291.
23. deWit, M. A.,, M. P. Koopmans, and, Y. T. vanDuynhoven. 2003. Risk factors for norovirus, Sapporo-like virus, and group A rotavirus gastroenteritis. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:15631570.
24. Duizer, E., and, M. Koopmans. 2006. Tracking emerging pathogens: the case of noroviruses, p. 77110. In Y. Motarjemi, and, M. Adams (ed.) Emerging Food-Borne Pathogens. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
25. Flahault, A.,, T. Blanchon,, Y. Dorleans,, L. Toubiana,, J. F. Vibert, and, A. J. Valleron. 2006. Virtual surveillance of communicable diseases: a 20-year experience in France. Stat. Methods Med. Res. 15:413421.
26. Foley, B.,, J. O’Mahony,, S. M. Morgan,, C. Hill, and, J. G. Morgan. 2000. Detection of sporadic cases of Norwalk-like virus (NLV) and astrovirus infection in a single Irish hospital from 1996 to 1998. J. Clin. Virol. 17:109117.
27. Fretz, R.,, L. Herrmann,, A. Christen,, P. Svoboda,, O. Dubuis,, E. H. Viollier,, M. Tanner, and, A. Baumgartner. 2005. Frequency of Norovirus in stool samples from patients with gastrointestinal symptoms in Switzerland. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 24:214216.
28. Fretz, R.,, P. Svoboda,, D. Schorr,, M. Tanner, and, A. Baumgartner. 2005. Risk factors for infections with Norovirus gastrointestinal illness in Switzerland. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 24:256261.
29. Fretz, R.,, P. Svoboda,, T. M. Luthi,, M. Tanner, and, A. Baumgartner. 2005. Outbreaks of gastroenteritis due to infections with Norovirus in Switzerland, 2001–2003. Epidemiol. Infect. 133:429437.
30. Froggatt, P. C.,, I. B. Vipond,, C. R. Ashley,, P. R. Lambden,, I. N. Clarke, and, E. O. Caul. 2004. Surveillance of norovirus infection in a study of sporadic childhood gastroenteritis in South West England and South Wales, during one winter season (1999–2000). J. Med. Virol. 72:307311.
31. Frosst, G. O.,, S. E. Majowicz, and, V. L. Edge. 2006. Factors associated with the use of over-the-counter medications in cases of acute gastroenteritis in Hamilton, Ontario. Can. J. Public Health 97:489493.
32. Gotz, H.,, K. Ekdahl,, J. Lindback,, B. de Jong,, K. O. Hedlund, and, J. Giesecke. 2001. Clinical spectrum and transmission characteristics of infection with Norwalk-like virus: findings from a large community outbreak in Sweden. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33:622628.
33. Guevremont, E.,, J. Brassard,, A. Houde,, C. Simard, and, Y. L. Trottier. 2006. Development of an extraction and concentration procedure and comparison of RT-PCR primer systems for the detection of hepatitis A virus and norovirus GII in green onions. J. Virol. Methods 134:130135.
34. Gurwith, M.,, W. Wenman,, D. Gurwith,, J. Brunton,, S. Feltham, and, H. Greenberg. 1983. Diarrhea among infants and young children in Canada: a longitudinal study in three northern communities. J. Infect. Dis. 147:685692.
35. Hall, G.,, M. D. Kirk,, N. Becker,, J. E. Gregory,, L. Unicomb,, G. Millard,, R. Stafford, and, K. Lalor for the OzFoodNet Working Group. 2005. Estimating food-borne gastroenteritis, Australia. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:12571264.
36. Hall, G. V.,, M. D. Kirk,, R. Ashbolt,, R. Stafford, and, K. Lalor. 2006. Frequency of infectious gastrointestinal illness in Australia, 2002: regional, seasonal and demographic variation. Epidemiol. Infect. 134:111118.
37. Hansman, G. S.,, L. T. Doan,, T. A. Kguyen,, S. Okitsu,, K. Katayama,, S. Ogawa,, K. Natori,, N. Takeda,, Y. Kato,, O. Nishio,, M. Noda, and, H. Ushijima. 2004. Detection of norovirus and sapovirus infection among children with gastroenteritis in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Arch. Virol. 149:16731688.
38. Hellard, M. E.,, M. I. Sinclair,, A. H. Harris,, M. Kirk, and, C. K. Fairley. 2003. Cost of community gastroenteritis. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 18:322328.
39. Hoffmann, S.,, P. Fischbeck,, A. Krupnick, and, M. McWilliams. 2007. Using expert elicitation to link food-borne illnesses in the United States to foods. J. Food Prot. 70:12201229.
40. Imhoff, B.,, D. Morse,, B. Shiferaw,, M. Hawkins,, D. Vugia,, S. Lance-Parker,, J. Hadler,, C. Medus,, M. Kennedy,, M. R. Moore, andT. Van Gilder for the Emerging Infections Program FoodNet Working Group. 2004. Burden of self-reported acute diarrheal illness in FoodNet surveillance areas, 1998–1999. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38(Suppl. 3):S219S226.
41. Jaaskelainen, A. J., and, L. Maunula. 2006. Applicability of microarray technique for the detection of noro- and astroviruses. J. Virol. Methods 136:210216.
42. Jiang, X.,, D. O. Matson,, F. R. Velazquez,, J. J. Calva,, W. M. Zhong,, J. Hu,, G. M. Ruiz-Palacios, and, L. K. Pickering. 1995. Study of Norwalk-related viruses in Mexican children. J. Med. Virol. 47:309316.
43. Johnson, P. C.,, J. Hoy,, J. J. Mathewson,, C. D. Ericsson, and, H. L. DuPont. 1990. Occurrence of Norwalk virus infections among adults in Mexico. J. Infect. Dis. 162:389393.
44. Jones, N. F., and, R. Marshall. 2004. Evaluation of an electronic general-practitioner-based syndromic surveillance system-Auckland, New Zealand, 2000–2001. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 53(Suppl.):173178.
45. Jones, T. F.,, M. B. McMillian,, E. Scallan,, P. D. Frenzen,, A. B. Cronquist,, S. Thomas, and, F. J. Angulo. 2007. A population-based estimate of the substantial burden of diarrheal disease in the United States; FoodNet, 1996–2003. Epidemiol. Infect. 135:293301.
46. Jones, T. F.,, E. Scallan, and, F.J. Angulo. 2007. FoodNet: overview of a decade of achievement. Food-Borne Pathog. Dis. 4:6066.
47. Kaplan, J. E.,, G. W. Gary,, R. C. Baron,, N. Singh,, L. B. Schonberger,, R. Feldman, and, H. B. Greenberg. 1982. Epidemiology of Norwalk gastroenteritis and the role of Norwalk virus in outbreaks of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Ann. Intern. Med. 96:756761.
48. Kirkwood, C. D.,, R. Clark,, N. Bogdanonic-Sakran, and, R. F. Bishop. 2005. A 5–year study of the prevalence and genetic diversity of human caliciviruses associated with sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis in young children admitted to hospital in Melbourne, Australia (1998–2002). J. Med. Virol. 77:96101.
49. Kuusi, M.,, P. Aavitsland,, B. Gondrosen, and, G. Kapperud. 2003. Incidence of gastroenteritis in Norway-a population-based survey. Epidemiol. Infect. 131:591597.
50. Lau, C. S.,, D. A. Wong,, L. K. Tong,, J. Y. Lo,, A. M. Ma,, P. K. Cheng, and, W. W. Lim. 2004. High rate and changing molecular epidemiology pattern of norovirus infections in sporadic cases and outbreaks of gastroenteritis in Hong Kong. J. Med. Virol. 73:113117.
51. Leggitt, P. R., and, L. A. Jaykus. 2000. Detection methods for human enteric viruses in representative foods. J. Food Prot. 63:17381744.
52. Lopman, B. A.,, M. H. Reacher,, Y. Van Duijnhoven,, F. X. Hanon,, D. Brown, and, M. Koopmans. 2003. Viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in Europe, 1995–2000. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:9096.
53. Lupo, L.,, V. De Grandi,, E. Ganci,, A. Nastri,, S. Ielo,, A. Mistretta, and, G. Giammanco. 1989. Epidemiology of acute diarrhea in children living in Sicily. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 5:400402.
54. MacDougall, L.,, S. Majowicz,, K. Dore,, J. Flint,, K. Thomas,, S. Kovacs, and, P. Sockett. 2007. Underreporting of infectious gastrointestinal illness in British Columbia, Canada: who is counted in provincial communicable disease statistics? Epidemiol. Infect. Apr. 16:1-9 [Epub ahead of print].
55. Majowicz, S. E.,, K. Dore,, J. A. Flint,, V. L. Edge,, S. Read,, M. C. Buffett,, S. McEwen,, W. B. McNab,, D. Stacey,, P. Sockett, and, J. B. Wilson. 2004. Magnitude and distribution of acute, self-reported gastrointestinal illness in a Canadian community. Epidemiol. Infect. 132:607617.
56. Mead, P. S.,, L. Slutsker,, V. Dietz,, L. F. McCaig,, J. S. Bresee,, C. Shapiro,, P. M. Griffin, and, R. V. Tauxe. 1999. Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:607625.
57. Medici, M. C.,, M. Martinelli,, L. A. Abelli,, F. M. Ruggeri,, I. Di Bartolo,, M. C. Arcangeletti,, F. Pinardi,, F. De Conto,, G. Izzi,, S. Bernasconi,, C. Chezzi, and, G. Dettori. 2006. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus infections in sporadic cases of viral gastroenteritis among children in Northern Italy. J. Med. Virol. 78:14861492.
58. Moe, C. L.,, A. Sair,, L. Lindesmith,, M. K. Estes, and, L. A. Jaykus. 2004. Diagnosis of Norwalk virus infection by indirect enzyme immunoassay detection of salivary antibodies to recombinant Norwalk virus antigen. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 11:10281034.
59. Monto, A. S., and, J. S. Koopman. 1980. The Tecumseh study. XI. Occurrence of acute enteric illness in the community. Am.J. Epidemiol. 112:323333.
60. Nebot, M., and, M. A. Llauger. 1992. Self care of common health disorders: results of a telephone survey of the general population. Med. Clin. (Barcelona) 99:420424.
61. O’Brien, S. J.,, R. Elson,, I. A. Gillespie,, G. K. Adak, and, J. M. Cowden. 2002. Surveillance of food-borne outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease in England and Wales 1992–1999: contributing to evidence-based food policy? Public Health 116:7580.
62. O’Brien, S. J.,, I. A. Gillespie,, M. A. Sivanesan,, R. Elson,, C. Hughes, and, G. K. Adak. 2006. Publication bias in food-borne outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease and its implications for evidence-based food policy. England and Wales 1992–2003. Epidemiol. Infect. 134:667674.
63. O’Brien, S. J., and, I. S. T. Fisher. 2006. Surveillance of emerging pathogen in Europe, p. 5076. In Y. Motarjemi, and M. Adams (ed.), Emerging Food-Borne Pathogens. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, United Kindgom.
64. Okada, M.,, T. Ogawa,, I. Kaiho, and, K. Shinozaki. 2005. Genetic analysis of noroviruses in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, between 1999 and 2004. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:439401.
65. O’Ryan, M. L.,, P. A. Vial,, N. Mamani,, X. Jiang,, M. K. Estes,, C. Ferrecio,, H. Lakkis, and, D. O. Matson. 1998. Seroprevalence of Norwalk virus and Mexico virus in Chilean individuals: assessment of independent risk factors for antibody acquisition. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27:789795.
66. Peasey, A. E.,, G. M. Ruiz-Palacios,, M. Quigley,, W. Newsholme,, J. Martinez,, G. Rosales,, X. Jiang, and, U. J. Blumenthal. 2004. Seroepidemiology and risk factors for sporadic norovirus/Mexico strain. J. Infect. Dis. 189:20272036.
67. Phan, T. G.,, F. Yagyu,, V. Kozlov,, A. Kozlov,, S. Okitsu,, W. E. Muller, and, H. Ushijima. 2006. Viral gastroenteritis and genetic characterization of recombinant norovirus circulating in Eastern Russia. Clin. Lab. 52:247253.
68. Pickles, A.,, M. Neale,, E. Simonoff,, M. Rutter,, J. Hewitt,, J. Meyer,, R. Crouchley,, J. Silberg, and, L. Eaves. 1994. A simple method for censored age-of-onset data subject to recall bias: mothers’ reports of age of puberty in male twins. Behav. Genet. 24:457468.
69. Roberts, J. A.,, P. Cumberland,, P. N. Sockett,, J. Wheeler,, L. C. Rodrigues,, D. Sethi, andP. J. Roderick for the Infectious Intestinal Disease Study Executive. 2003. The study of infectious intestinal disease in England: socio-economic impact. Epidemiol. Infect. 130: 111.
70. Rockx, B.,, M. De Wit,, H. Vennema,, J. Vinjé,, E. De Bruin,, Y. Van Duynhoven, and, M. Koopmans. 2002. Natural history of human calicivirus infection: a prospective cohort study. Clin. Infect. Dis. 35:246253.
71. Rooney, R.,, S. J. O’Brien,, R. Mitchell,, R. Stanwell-Smith, and, P. E. Cook. 2000. Survey of local authority approaches to investigating sporadic cases of suspected food poisoning. Commun. Dis. Public Health 3:101105
72. Sagalova, O. I.,, A. T. Podkolzin,, N. I. Abramycheva,, O. A. Pishchulova, and, V. V. Maleev. 2006. Acute intestinal infections of virus etiology in adults. Ter. Arkh. 78:1723.
73. Sair, A. I.,, D. H. D’Souza,, C. L. Moe, and, L. A. Jaykus. 2002. Improved detection of human enteric viruses in foods by RT-PCR. J. Virol. Methods 100:5769.
74. Sarfati, D.,, M. N. Bates,, N. Garrett, and, M. G. Baker. 1997. Acute gastroenteritis diagnostic practices of New Zealand general practitioners. N. Z. Med. J. 110:354356.
75. Sargeant, J. M.,, S. E. Majowicz, and, J. Snelgrove. 2007. The burden of acute gastrointestinal illness in Ontario, Canada, 2005–2006. Epidemiol. Infect. Jun 13:110 [Epub ahead of print].
76. Scallan, E.,, T. F. Jones,, A. Cronquist,, S. Thomas,, P. Frenzen,, D. Hoefer,, C. Medus, andF. J. Angulo for the FoodNet Working Group. 2006. Factors associated with seeking medical care and submitting a stool sample in estimating the burden of food-borne illness. Food-Borne Pathog. Dis. 3:432438.
77. Scallan, E.,, S. E. Majowicz,, G. Hall,, A. Banerjee,, C. L. Bowman,, L. Daly,, T. Jones,, M. D. Kirk,, M. Fitzgerald, and, F. J. Angulo. 2005. Prevalence of diarrhoea in the community in Australia, Canada, Ireland, and the United States. Int. J. Epidemiol. 34:454460.
78. Sinclair, M. I.,, M. E. Hellard,, R. Wolfe,, T. Z. Mitakakis,, K. Leder, and, C. K. Fairley. 2005. Pathogens causing community gastroenteritis in Australia. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 20:16851690.
79. Smit, T. K.,, P. Bos,, I. Peenze,, X. Jiang,, M. K. Estes, and, A. D. Steele. 1999. Seroepidemiological study of genogroup I and II calicivirus infections in South and southern Africa. J. Med. Virol. 59:227331.
80. Steiner-Sichel, L.,, J. Greenko,, R. Heffernan,, M. Layton, and, D. Weiss. 2004. Field investigations of emergency department syndromic surveillance signals-New York City. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 53(Suppl.):184189.
81. Subekti, D.,, M. Lesmana,, P. Tjaniadi,, N. Safari,, E. Frazier,, C. Simanjuntak,, S. Komalarini,, J. Taslim,, J. R. Campbell, and, B. A. Oyofo. 2002. Incidence of Norwalk-like viruses, rotavirus and adenovirus infection in patients with acute gastroenteritis in Jakarta, Indonesia. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 33:2733.
82. Sumi, A.,, N. Kobayashi, and, N. Ohtomo. 2005. Proportion of sporadic gastroenteritis cases caused by rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus and bacteria in Japan from January 2000 to December 2003. Microbiol. Immunol. 49:745756.
83. Talal, A. H.,, C. L. Moe,, A. A. Lima,, K. A. Weigle,, L. Barrett,, S. I. Bangdiwala,, M. K. Estes, and, R. L. Guerrant. 2000. Seroprevalence and seroincidence of Norwalk-like virus infection among Brazilian infants and children. J. Med. Virol. 61:117124.
84. Tam, C. C.,, L. C. Rodrigues, and, S. J. O’Brien. 2003. The study of infectious intestinal disease in England: what risk factors for presentation to general practice tell us about potential for selection bias in case-control studies of reported cases of diarrhoea. Int. J. Epidemiol. 32:99105.
85. Thomas, M. K.,, S. E. Majowicz,, L. MacDougall,, P. N. Sockett,, S. J. Kovacs,, M. Fyfe,, V. L. Edge,, K. Dore,, J. A. Flint,, S. Henson, and, A. Q. Jones. 2006. Population distribution and burden of acute gastrointestinal illness in British Columbia, Canada. BMC Public Health 6:307.
86. Tompkins, D. S.,, M. J. Hudson,, H. R. Smith,, R. P. Eglin,, J. G. Wheeler,, M. M. Brett,, R. J. Owen,, J. S. Brazier,, P. Cumberland,, V. King, and, P. E. Cook. 1999. A study of infectious intestinal disease in England: microbiological findings in cases and controls. Commun. Dis. Public Health 2:108113.
87. Turcios, R. M.,, M. A. Widdowson,, A. C. Sulka,, P. S. Mead, and, R. I. Glass. 2006. Re-evaluation of epidemiological criteria for identifying outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis due to norovirus: United States, 1998–2000. Clin. Infect. Dis. 42:964969.
88. Vaillant, V.,, H. de Valk,, E. Baron,, T. Ancelle,, P. Colin,, M. C. Delmas,, B. Dufour,, R. Pouillot,, Y. Le Strat,, P. Weinbreck,, E. Jougla, and, J. C. Desenclos. 2005. Food-borne infections in France. Food-Borne Pathog. Dis. 2:221232.
89. vandenBrandhof, W. E.,, G. A. de Wit,, M. A. de Wit, and, Y. T. van Duynhoven. 2004. Costs of gastroenteritis in The Netherlands. Epidemiol. Infect. 132:211221.
90. vandenBrandhof, W. E.,, A. I. Bartelds,, M. P. Koopmans, and, Y. T. van Duynhoven. 2006. General practitioner practices in requesting laboratory tests for patients with gastroenteritis in The Netherlands, 2001–2002. BMCFam. Pract. 7:56.
91. Vernacchio, L.,, R. M. Vezina,, A. A. Mitchell,, S. M. Lesko,, A. G. Plaut, and, D. W. Acheson. 2006. Diarrhea in American infants and young children in the community setting: incidence, clinical presentation and microbiology. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 25:27.
92. Vinjé, J., and, M. P. Koopmans. 2000. Simultaneous detection and genotyping of “Norwalk-like viruses” by oligonucleotide array in a reverse line blot hybridization format. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:25952601.
93. Wheeler, J. G.,, D. Sethi,, J. M. Cowden,, P. G. Wall,, L. C. Rodrigues,, D. S. Tompkins,, M.J. Hudson, andP.J. Roderick for The Infectious Intestinal Disease Study Executive. 1999. Study of infectious intestinal disease in England: rates in the community, presenting to general practice, and reported to national surveillance. BMJ 318:10461050.
94. Widdowson, M. A.,, A. Sulka,, S. N. Bulens,, R. S. Beard,, S. S. Chaves,, R. Hammond,, E. D. Salehi,, E. Swanson,, J. Totaro,, R. Woron,, P. S. Mead,, J. S. Bresee,, S. S. Monroe, and, R. I. Glass. 2005. Norovirus and food-borne disease, United States, 1991–2000. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:95102.
95. Wolfaardt, M.,, M. B. Taylor,, H. F. Booysen,, L. Engelbrecht,, W. O. Grabow, and, X. Jiang. 1997. Incidence of human calicivirus and rotavirus infection in patients with gastroenteritis in South Africa. J. Med. Virol. 51:290296.
96. Zintz, C.,, K. Bok,, E. Parada,, M. Barnes-Eley,, T. Berke,, M. A. Staat,, P. Azimi,, X. Jiang, and, D. O. Matson. 2005. Prevalence and genetic characterization of caliciviruses among children hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis in the United States. Infect. Genet. Evol. 5:281290.


Generic image for table
Table 1

Recent prevalence estimates for “sporadic” NoV infection

Citation: O’Brien S. 2008. The Challenge of Estimating the Burden of an Underreported Disease, p 87-115. In Koopmans M, Cliver D, Bosch A, Doyle M (ed), Food-Borne Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815738.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 2

Retrospective population-based cross-sectional survey studies of self-reported AGE

Citation: O’Brien S. 2008. The Challenge of Estimating the Burden of an Underreported Disease, p 87-115. In Koopmans M, Cliver D, Bosch A, Doyle M (ed), Food-Borne Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815738.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 3

Incidence estimates for AGE or NoV infection from population-based prospective cohort studies

Citation: O’Brien S. 2008. The Challenge of Estimating the Burden of an Underreported Disease, p 87-115. In Koopmans M, Cliver D, Bosch A, Doyle M (ed), Food-Borne Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815738.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 4

Estimating the burden of NoV that is food borne

Citation: O’Brien S. 2008. The Challenge of Estimating the Burden of an Underreported Disease, p 87-115. In Koopmans M, Cliver D, Bosch A, Doyle M (ed), Food-Borne Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815738.ch4

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error