1887

Chapter 7 : Rethinking Virus Detection in Food

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Rethinking Virus Detection in Food, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815738/9781555814649_Chap07-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815738/9781555814649_Chap07-2.gif

Abstract:

Well over 100 different enteric viruses are liable to be found as food contaminants; however, with few exceptions most well-characterized food-borne viral outbreaks are restricted to calicivirus, essentially norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV), which in consequence are the main targets for virus detection in food. Nucleic acid amplification techniques are currently the most widely used methods for detection of viruses in food. Although nucleic acid sequence based amplification and loop-mediated isothermal amplification techniques have been reported to be highly sensitive and specific, respectively, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) remains the current “gold standard” for virus detection in food. A wide variety of foodstuffs may become contaminated by viruses during the farm-to-fork chain, during either the preharvest or postharvest stages. Among the foods at risk of preharvest contamination are bivalve shellfish, fresh produce, and water. Prospective virological analysis of food is envisaged to ensure the safety of the foodstuff before public consumption. A sensible prospective food safety approach is to identify and prevent hazards that could cause food-borne illnesses rather than relying on spot checks of the manufacturing processes and random sampling of finished products to ensure safety. The advent of standardized molecular techniques allowing the detection and quantification of viruses in foodstuffs is a major breakthrough in food safety.

Citation: Pintó R, Bosch A. 2008. Rethinking Virus Detection in Food, p 171-188. In Koopmans M, Cliver D, Bosch A, Doyle M (ed), Food-Borne Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815738.ch7

Key Concept Ranking

Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
0.4502778
0.4502778
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Secondary structure of the 5′NCR RNA of HAV strain HM175. (Reprinted from reference with permission.)

Citation: Pintó R, Bosch A. 2008. Rethinking Virus Detection in Food, p 171-188. In Koopmans M, Cliver D, Bosch A, Doyle M (ed), Food-Borne Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815738.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Analysis of the variability of full-length NoV genomes of genogroup I (A) and genogroup II (B) strains. The locations of the ORFs are noted. Thick lines depict the most highly conserved regions. The average similarity score within each genogroup is represented as a dotted line. (Reprinted from reference with permission.)

Citation: Pintó R, Bosch A. 2008. Rethinking Virus Detection in Food, p 171-188. In Koopmans M, Cliver D, Bosch A, Doyle M (ed), Food-Borne Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815738.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Proposed standardized procedure for an accurate estimation of the number of viral genome copies in food. (Reprinted from reference with permission.)

Citation: Pintó R, Bosch A. 2008. Rethinking Virus Detection in Food, p 171-188. In Koopmans M, Cliver D, Bosch A, Doyle M (ed), Food-Borne Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815738.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815738.ch07
1. Abid, I.,, S. Guix,, M. Aouni,, R. Pinto, and, A. Bosch. 2007. Detection and characterization of human group C rotavirus in the pediatric population of Barcelona, Spain. J. Clin. Virol. 38:7882.
2. Abuzwaida, A. R. N.,, M. Sidoni,, C. F. T. Yoshida, and, H. G. Schatzmayr. 1987. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis-A and hepatitis-B in 2 urban communities of Rio-de-Janeiro, Brazil. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo 29:219223.
3. Asanaka, M.,, R. L. Atmar,, V. Ruvolo,, S. E. Crawford,, F. H. Neill, and, M. K. Estes. 2005. Replication and packaging of Norwalk virus RNA in cultured mammalian cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 102:1032710332.
4. Atmar, R. L. 2006. Molecular methods of virus detection in foods, p. 121149. In S. M. Goyal (ed.), Viruses in Foods. Springer, New York, NY.
5. Atmar, R. L., and, M. K. Estes. 2001. Diagnosis of noncultivatable gastroenteritis viruses, the human caliciviruses. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 14:1537.
6. Backues, K. A.,, M. Hill,, A. C. Palmenberg,, C. Miller,, K. F. Soike, and, R. Aguilar. 1999. Genetically engineered mengo virus vaccination of multiple captive wildlife species. J. Wildl. Dis. 35:384387.
7. Berg, D. E.,, M. A. Kohn,, T. A. Farley, and, L. M. McFarland. 2000. Multi-state outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis traced to fecal-contaminated oysters harvested in Louisiana. J. Infect. Dis. 181(Suppl. 2):381–386.
8. Beuret, C.,, D. Kohler,, A. Baumgartner, and, T. M. Luthi. 2002. Norwalk-like virus sequences in mineral waters: one-year monitoring of three brands. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:19251931.
9. Beuret, C.,, D. Kohler, and, T. Luthi. 2000. Norwalk-like virus sequences detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in mineral waters imported into or bottled in Switzerland. J. Food Prot. 63:15761582.
10. Biebricher, C. K., and, M. Eigen. 2005. The error threshold. Virus Res. 107:117127.
11. Bostock, A. D.,, P. Mepham,, S. Phillips,, S. Skidmore, and, M. H. Hambling. 1979. Hepatitis A infection associated with the consumption of mussels. J. Infect. 1:171177.
12. Brown, E. A.,, A. J. Zajac, and, S. M. Lemon. 1994. In vitro characterization of an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) present within the 5’ nontranslated region of hepatitis A virus RNA: comparison with the IRES of encephalomyocarditis virus. J. Virol. 68:10661074.
13. Calder, L.,, G. Simmons,, C. Thornley,, P. Taylor,, K. Pritchard,, G. Greening, and, J. Bishop. 2003. An outbreak of hepatitis A associated with consumption of raw blueberries. Epidemiol. Infect. 131:745751.
14. Cannon, J. L.,, E. Papafragkou,, G. W. Park,, J. Osborne,, L. A. Jaykus, and, J. Vinje. 2006. Surrogates for the study of norovirus stability and inactivation in the environment: a comparison of murine norovirus and feline calicivirus. J. Food Prot. 69:27612765.
15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1997. Hepatitis A associated with consumption of frozen strawberries-Michigan, March 1997. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 46:288295.
16. Chen, R.,, J. D. Neill,, J. S. Noel,, A. M. Hutson,, R. I. Glass,, M. K. Estes, and, B. V. V. Prasad. 2004. Interand intragenus structural variations in caliciviruses and their functional implications. J. Virol. 78:64696479.
17. Chung, H.,, L. A. Jaykus,, G. Lovelace, and, M. D. Sobsey. 1998. Bacteriophages and bacteria as indicators of enteric viruses in oysters and their harvest waters. Water Sci. Technol. 38:3744.
18. Citino, S. B.,, B. L. Homer,, J. H. Gaskin, and, D. J. Wickham. 1988. Fatal encephalomy-ocarditis virus infection in a Sumatran orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus abelii). J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 19:214218.
19. Costafreda, M. I.,, A. Bosch, and, R. M. Pinto. 2006. Development, evaluation, and standardization of a real-time TaqMan reverse transcription-PCR assay for quantification of hepatitis A virus in clinical and shellfish samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72:38463855.
20. Costa-Mattioli, M.,, J. Cristina,, H. Romero,, R. Perez-Bercof,, D. Casane,, R. Colina,, L. Garcia,, I. Vega,, G. Glikman,, V. Romanowsky,, A. Castello,, E. Nicand,, M. Gassin,, S. Billaudel, and, V. Ferre. 2002. Molecular evolution of hepatitis A virus: a new classification based on the complete VP1 protein. J.Virol. 76:95169525.
21. Costa-Mattioli, M.,, S. Monpoeho,, E. Nicand,, M. H. Aleman,, S. Billaudel, and, V. Ferre. 2002. Quantification and duration of viraemia during hepatitis A infection as determined by real-time RT-PCR. J. ViralHepat. 9:101106.
22. Daemer, R. J.,, S. M. Feinstone,, I. D. Gust, and, R. H. Purcell. 1981. Propagation of hepatitis A virus in African green monkey kidney cell culture: primary isolation and serial passage. Infect. Immun. 32:388393.
23. Dentinger, C. M.,, W. A. Bower,, O. V. Nainan,, S. M. Cotter,, G. Myers,, L. M. Dubusky,, S. Fowler,, E. D. Salehi, and, B. P. Bell. 2001. An outbreak of hepatitis A associated with green onions. J. Infect. Dis. 183:12731276.
24. Domingo, E., and, J. J. Holland. 1997. RNA virus mutations and fitness for survival. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 51:151178.
25. Duizer, E.,, K. J. Schwab,, F. H. Neill,, R. L. Atmar,, M. P. Koopmans, and, M. K. Estes. 2004. Laboratory efforts to cultivate noroviruses. J. Gen. Virol. 85:7987.
26. Ehrenfeld, E., and, N. L. Teterina. 2002. Initiation of translation of picornavirus RNAs: structure and function of the internal ribosome entry site, p. 159169. In B. L. W. E. Semler (ed.), Molecular Biology ofPicornaviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
27. Fauquet, C. M.,, M. A. Mayo,, J. Maniloff,, U. Desselberger, and, L. A. Ball. 2005. Virus Taxonomy. Eighth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Elsevier Academic Press, New York, NY.
28. Fix, A. D.,, M. Abdel-Hamid,, R. H. Purcell,, M. H. Shehata,, F. Abdel-Aziz,, N. Mikhail,, H. el Sebai,, M. Nafeh,, M. Habib,, R. R. Arthur,, S. U. Emerson, and, G. T. Strickland. 2000. Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis E in two rural Egyptian communities. Am. J.Trop. Med. Hyg. 62:519523.
29. Flehmig, B. 1980. Hepatitis A virus in cell culture., 1. Propagation of different hepatitis A isolates in a foetal rhesus monkey kidney cell line (FRhK–4). Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 168:239248.
30. Fukuda, S.,, S. Takao,, M. Kuwayama,, Y. Shimazu, and, K. Miyazaki. 2006. Rapid detection of norovirus from fecal specimens by real-time reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:13761381.
31. Gaspar, A. M.,, C. L. Vitral,, R. S. Marchevsky,, C. F. T. Yoshida, and, H. G. Schatzmayr. 1992. A Brazilian hepatitis-A virus isolated and adapted in primate and primate cell-line as a chance for the development of a vaccine. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 87:449450.
32. Gaulin, C. D.,, D. Ramsay,, P. Cardinal, and, M. A. D’Halevyn. 1999. Epidemic of gastroenteritis of viral origin associated with eating imported raspberries. Can. J. Public Health (In French.) 90:3740.
33. Green, K. Y.,, R. M. Chanock, and, A. Z. Kapikian., 2001. Human caliciviruses, p. 841874. In B. N. Fields,, D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley, and, D. E. Griffin (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
34. Halliday, M. L.,, L.-Y. Kang,, T.-Z. Zhou,, M.-D. Hu,, Q.-C. Pan,, T.-Y. Fu,, Y. S. Huang, and, S.-L. Hu. 1991. An epidemic of hepatitis A attributable to the ingestion of raw clams in Shanghai, China. J. Infect. Dis. 164:852859.
35. Havelaar, A. H.,, K. Furuse, and, W. M. Hogeboom. 1986. Bacteriophages and indicator bacteria in human and animal faeces. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 60:255262.
36. Hewitt, J., and, G. E. Greening. 2004. Survival and persistence of norovirus, hepatitis A virus, and feline calicivirus in marinated mussels. J. Food Prot. 67:17431750.
37. Hietala, S. K., and, B. M. Crossley. 2006. Armored RNA as virus surrogate in a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay proficiency panel. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:6770.
38. Hohne, M., and, E. Schreier. 2004. Detection and characterization of norovirus outbreaks in Germany: application of a one-tube RT-PCR using a fluorogenic real-time detection system. J. Med. Virol. 72:312319.
39. Hoorfar, J.,, B. Malorny,, A. Abdulmawjood,, N. Cook,, M. Wagner, and, P. Fach. 2004. Practical considerations in design of internal amplification controls for diagnostic PCR assays. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:18631868.
40. Jean, J.,, B. Blais,, A. Darveau, and, I. Fliss. 2001. Detection of hepatitis A virus by the nucleic acid sequence-based amplification technique and comparison with reverse tran-scription-PCR. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:55935600.
41. Jean, J.,, D. H. D’Souza, and, L. A. Jaykus. 2004. Multiplex nucleic acid sequence-based amplification for simultaneous detection of several enteric viruses in model ready-to-eat foods. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:66036610.
42. Jothikumar, N.,, T. L. Cromeans,, M. D. Sobsey, and, B. H. Robertson. 2005. Development and evaluation of a broadly reactive TaqMan assay for rapid detection of hepatitis A virus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:33593363.
43. Jothikumar, N.,, J. A. Lowther,, K. Henshilwood,, D. N. Lees,, V. R. Hill, and, J. Vinje. 2005. Rapid and sensitive detection of noroviruses by using TaqMan-based one-step reverse transcription-PCR assays and application to naturally contaminated shellfish samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:18701875.
44. Kageyama, T.,, S. Kojima,, M. Shinohara,, K. Uchida,, S. Fukushi,, F. B. Hoshino,, N. Takeda, and, K. Katayama. 2003. Broadly reactive and highly sensitive assay for Norwalk-like viruses based on real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:15481557.
45. Kageyama, T.,, M. Shinohara,, K. Uchida,, S. Fukushi,, F. B. Hoshino,, S. Kojima,, R. Takai,, T. Oka,, N. Takeda, and, K. Katayama. 2004. Coexistence of multiple genotypes, including newly identified genotypes, in outbreaks of gastroenteritis due to Norovirus in Japan. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:29882995.
46. Katayama, H.,, A. Shimasaki, and, S. Ohgaki. 2002. Development of a virus concentration method and its application to detection of enterovirus and Norwalk virus from coastal sea-water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:10331039.
47. Katayama, K.,, H. Shirato-Horikoshi,, S. Kojima,, T. Kageyama,, T. Oka,, F. Hoshino,, S. Fukushi,, M. Shinohara,, K. Uchida,, Y. Suzuki,, T. Gojobori, and, N. Takeda. 2002. Phylo-genetic analysis of the complete genome of 18 Norwalk-like viruses. Virology 299:225239.
48. Kirkland, P. D.,, R. A. Hawkes,, H. M. Naim, and, C. R. Boughton. 1989. Human infection with encephalomyocarditis virus in New South Wales. Med.J.Aust. 151:176.
49. Kohn, M. A.,, T. A. Farley,, T. Ando,, M. Curtis,, S. A. Wilson,, Q. Jin,, S. S. Monroe,, R. C. Baron,, L. M. McFarland, and, R. I. Glass. 1995. An outbreak of Norwalk virus gastroenteritis associated with eating raw oysters. Implications for maintaining safe oyster beds. JAMA 273:466471.
50. Konduru, K., and, G. Kaplan. 2006. Stable growth of wild-type hepatitis a virus in cell culture. J. Virol. 80:13521360.
51. Loisy, F.,, R. L. Atmar,, P. Guillon,, P. Le Cann,, M. Pommepuy, and, F. S. Le Guyader. 2005. Real-time RT-PCR for norovirus screening in shellfish. J. Virol. Methods 123:17.
52. Lopman, B.,, H. Vennema,, E. Kohli,, P. Pothier,, A. Sanchez,, A. Negredo,, J. Buesa,, E. Schreier,, M. Reacher,, D. Brown,, J. Gray,, M. Iturriza,, C. Gallimore,, B. Bottiger,, K. O. Hedlund,, M. Torven,, C. H. von Bonsdorff,, L. Maunula,, M. Poljsak-Prijatelj,, J. Zimsek,, G. Reuter,, G. Szucs,, B. Melegh,, L. Svennson,, Y. van Duijnhoven, and, M. Koopmans. 2004. Increase in viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in Europe and epidemic spread of new norovirus variant. Lancet 363:682688.
53. Lopman, B. A.,, M. H. Reacher,, Y. van Duijnhoven,, F. X. Hanon,, D. Brown, and, M. Koopmans. 2003. Viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in Europe, 1995–2000. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:9096.
54. Luttermann, C., and, G. Meyers. 2007. A bipartite sequence motif induces translation reinitiation in feline calicivirus RNA. J. Biol. Chem. 282:70567065.
55. Martin, A., and, S. M. Lemon. 2006. Hepatitis A virus: from discovery to vaccines. Hepatology 43:S164S172.
56. Mead, P. S.,, L. Slutsker,, V. Dietz,, L. F. McCaig,, J. S. Bresee,, C. Shapiro,, P. M. Griffin, and, R. V. Tauxe. 1999. Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:607625.
57. Mueller, S.,, D. Papamichail,, J. R. Coleman,, S. Skiena, and, E. Wimmer. 2006. Reduction of the rate of poliovirus protein synthesis through large-scale codon deoptimization causes attenuation of viral virulence by lowering specific infectivity. J.Virol. 80:96879696.
58. Nainan, O. V.,, G. L. Armstrong,, X. H. Han,, I. Williams,, B. P. Bell, and, H. S. Margolis. 2005. Hepatitis A molecular epidemiology in the United States, 1996–1997: sources of infection and implications of vaccination policy. J. Infect. Dis. 191:957963.
59. Nainan, O. V.,, G. L. Xia,, gG. Vaughan, and, H. S. Margolis. 2006. Diagnosis of hepatitis a virus infection: a molecular approach. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 19:6379.
60. Nishida, T.,, H. Kimura,, M. Saitoh,, M. Shinohara,, M. Kato,, S. Fukuda,, T. Munemura,, T. Mikami,, A. Kawamoto,, M. Akiyama,, Y. Kato,, K. Nishi,, K. Kozawa, and, O. Nishio. 2003. Detection, quantitation, and phylogenetic analysis of noroviruses in Japanese oysters. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:57825786.
61. Notomi, T.,, H. Okayama,, H. Masubuchi,, T. Yonekawa,, K. Watanabe,, N. Amino, and, T. Hase. 2000. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 28:e63.
62. Nuanualsuwan, S., and, D. O. Cliver. 2002. Pretreatment to avoid positive RT-PCR results with inactivated viruses. J. Virol. Methods 104:217225.
63. Ormerod, E.,, I. A. P. Mccandlish, and, O. Jarrett. 1979. Diseases produced by feline cali-civiruses when administered to cats by aerosol or intranasal instillation. Vet. Rec. 104:6569.
64. Osorio, J. E.,, G. B. Hubbard,, K. F. Soike,, M. Girard,, S. van der Werf,, J. C. Moulin, and, A. C. Palmenberg. 1996. Protection of non-murine mammals against encephalomy-ocarditis virus using a genetically engineered Mengo virus. Vaccine 14:155161.
65. Parshionikar, S. U.,, J. L. Cashdollar, and, G. S. Fout. 2004. Development of homologous viral internal controls for use in RT-PCR assays of waterborne enteric viruses. J. Virol. Methods 121:3948.
66. Pasloske, B. L.,, C. R. Walkerpeach,, R. D. Obermoeller,, M. Winkler, and, D. B. DuBois. 1998. Armored RNA technology for production of ribonuclease-resistant viral RNA controls and standards. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:35903594.
67. Paul, A. V. 2002. Possible unifying mechanism of picornavirus genome replication, p. 227246. In B. L. Semler, and, E. Wimmer (ed.), Molecular Biology of Picornaviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
68. Pillai, S. D. 2006. Bacteriophages as fecal indicator organisms, p. 205222. In S. M. Goyal (ed.), Viruses in Foods. Springer, New York, NY.
69. Ponka, A.,, L. Maunula,, C. H. von Bonsdorff, and, O. Lyytikainen. 1999. An outbreak of calicivirus associated with consumption of frozen raspberries. Epidemiol. Infect. 123:469474.
70. Poyry, T.,, L. Kinnunen, and, T. Hovi. 1992. Genetic variation in vivo and proposed functional domains of the 5’ noncoding region of poliovirus RNA. J.Virol. 66:53135319.
71. Racaniello, V. R. 2001. Picornaviridae: the viruses and their replication, p. 685722. In B. N. Fields,, D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley, and, D. E. Griffin (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
72. Robertson, B. H.,, R. W. Jansen,, B. Khanna,, A. Totsuka,, O. V. Nainan,, G. Siegl,, A. Widell,, H. S. Margolis,, S. Isomura,, K. Ito,, T. Ishizu,, Y. Moritsugu, and, S. M. Lemon. 1992. Genetic relatedness of hepatitis A virus strains recovered from different geographical regions. J. Gen. Virol. 73:13651377.
73. Rosenblum, L. S.,, I. R. Mirkin,, D. T. Allen,, S. Safford, and, S. C. Hadler. 1990. A multifocal outbreak of hepatitis A traced to commercially distributed lettuce. Am.J.Public Health 80:10751079.
74. Sanchez, G.,, H. Joosten,, R. Meyer, and, C. Beuret. 2005. Presence of norovirus sequences in bottled waters is questionable. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:22032205.
75. Sanchez, G.,, R. M. Pinto,, H. Vanaclocha, and, A. Bosch. 2002. Molecular characterization of hepatitis a virus isolates from a transcontinental shellfish-borne outbreak. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:41484155.
76. Shieh, Y. C.,, Y. E. Khudyakov,, G. Xia,, L. M. Ganova-Raeva,, F. M. Khambaty,, J. W. Woods,, J. E. Veazey,, M. L. Motes,, M. B. Glatzer,, S. R. Bialek, and, A. E. Fiore. 2007. Molecular confirmation of oysters as the vector for hepatitis A in a 2005 multistate outbreak. J. Food Prot. 70:145150.
77. Straub,T. M.,, K. Honer zu Bentrup,, P. O. Orosz-Coghlan,, A. Dohnalkova,, B. K. Mayer,, R. A. Bartholomew,, C. O. Valdez,, C. J. Bruckner,, C. P. Gerba,, M. Abbaszadegan, and, C. A. Nickerson. 2007. In vitro cell culture infectivity assay for human noroviruses. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13:396403.
78. Tallo, T.,, H. Norder,, V. Tefanova,, K. Ott,, V. Ustina,, T. Prukk,, O. Solomonova,, J. Schmidt,, K. Zilmer,, L. Priimagi,, T. Krispin, and, L. O. Magnius. 2003. Sequential changes in hepatitis A virus genotype distribution in Estonia during 1994 to 2001. J. Med. Virol. 70:187193.
79. Tsai, G. J., and, S. C. Yu. 1997. Microbiological evaluation of bottled uncarbonated mineral water in Taiwan. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 37:137143.
80. Vennema, H.,, E. de Bruin, and, M. Koopmans. 2002. Rational optimization of generic primers used for Norwalk-like virus detection by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. J. Clin. Virol. 25:233235.
81. Vinje, J.,, J. Green,, D. C. Lewis,, C. I. Gallimore,, D. W. Brown, and, M. P. Koopmans. 2000. Genetic polymorphism across regions of the three open reading frames of “Norwalk-like viruses.” Arch. Virol. 145:223241.
82. Vinje, J.,, H. Vennema,, L. Maunula,, C. H. von Bonsdorff,, M. Hoehne,, E. Schreier,, A. Richards,, J. Green,, D. Brown,, S. S. Beard,, S. S. Monroe,, E. de Bruin,, L. Svensson, and, M. P. Koopmans. 2003. International collaborative study to compare reverse transcriptase PCR assays for detection and genotyping of noroviruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:14231433.
83. Vinje, J.,, R. A. Hamidjaja, and, M. D. Sobsey. 2004. Development and application of a capsid VP1 (region D) based reverse transcription PCR assay for genotyping of genogroup I and II noroviruses. J. Virol. Methods 116:109117.
84. Wheeler, C.,, T. M. Vogt,, G. L. Armstrong,, G. Vaughan,, A. Weltman,, O. V. Nainan,, V. Dato,, G. L. Xia,, K. Waller,, J. Amon,, T. M. Lee,, A. Highbaugh-Battle,, C. Hembree,, S. Evenson,, M. A. Ruta,, I. T. Williams,, A. E. Fiore, and, B. P. Bell. 2005. An outbreak of hepatitis A associated with green onions. N. Engl. J. Med. 353:890897.
85. Wilkinson, F. H., and, K. G. Kerr. 1998. Bottled water as a source of multi-resistant Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas species for neutropenic patients. Eur. J. Cancer Care 7:1214.
86. Wobus, C. E.,, S. M. Karst,, L. B. Thackray,, K. O. Chang,, S. V. Sosnovtsev,, G. Belliot,, A. Krug,, J. M. Mackenzie,, K. Y. Green, and, H. W. Virgin. 2004. Replication of Norovirus in cell culture reveals a tropism for dendritic cells and macrophages. PLoS Biol. 2:20762084.
87. Wobus, C. E.,, L. B. Thackray, and, H. W. Virgin. 2006. Murine norovirus: a model system to study norovirus biology and pathogenesis. J.Virol. 80:51045112.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Examples of documented NoV and HAV food-borne outbreaks.

Citation: Pintó R, Bosch A. 2008. Rethinking Virus Detection in Food, p 171-188. In Koopmans M, Cliver D, Bosch A, Doyle M (ed), Food-Borne Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815738.ch7
Generic image for table
Table 2

QC measures for real-time RT-PCR-based analysis of food

Citation: Pintó R, Bosch A. 2008. Rethinking Virus Detection in Food, p 171-188. In Koopmans M, Cliver D, Bosch A, Doyle M (ed), Food-Borne Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815738.ch7

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error