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Chapter 10 : Risk Assessment of Viruses in Food: Opportunities and Challenges
Category: Applied and Industrial Microbiology; Food Microbiology
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Microbiological risk analysis originated in the 1980s, with the publication of a seminal paper on dose-response assessment by Haas (23). Building on this, the first studies concerned the safety of drinking water. Viruses were important target organisms in these first studies. Most early risk assessments focused on enteroviruses and rotaviruses, for which culture methods and dose-response information were available (19, 20, 24, 37). These studies demonstrated that risks of viral contamination can be analyzed by the risk assessment paradigm. Risk assessments in the domain of food safety have focused primarily on bacterial pathogens, for which routine culture methods are generally available; quantitative information on the occurrence of bacteria along the food chain has been produced at an increasing pace. Methods to quantify infectious viruses (and protozoa) in foods are generally more complex or not available at all. This implies that quantitative risk assessment for these organisms is hampered by limited data availability even more than are risk assessments of bacterial pathogens.
Dose-response models for virus infection in human volunteer experiments a