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Chapter 4 : Animal and Human Waste as Vehicles for Cross-Contamination of Imported Foods

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Abstract:

This chapter focuses on animal and human wastes as potential sources of contamination of imported foods. The amount of animal and human feces generated on a worldwide basis is enormous. The use of human wastes or wastewater for produce production in developed countries is not allowed or is strictly regulated because of the potential for transmission of enteric pathogens. Although use of highly treated domestic wastewater for food crops to be eaten raw is allowed in some states in the United States, it is seldom practiced because of potential health hazards. Of the enteric bacteria, , , and O157:H7 present the greatest problem because they infect a wide variety of animals besides humans. The occurrence of enteric pathogens in the environment is a reflection of the incidence of infection by the pathogen in a population. For example, various studies have indicated that O157:H7 is commonly present in animal and human wastewaters at levels of 10 to 100/100 ml of municipal sewage and 100 to 1,000/100 ml of animal wastewaters and wastewaters from slaughterhouses. The concentrations of pathogens detected in raw sewage are provided in the chapter. Animal wastes and effluents from farming operations, including manures and slurries, are frequently applied to increase the soil fertility of cropland. Multiple contamination sources and pathways pose risks to food safety, with solid and liquid waste handling and irrigation of produce and shellfish production representing major risk factors.

Citation: Gerba C, Scott C. 2008. Animal and Human Waste as Vehicles for Cross-Contamination of Imported Foods, p 113-138. In Doyle M, Erickson M (ed), Imported Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815745.ch4

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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Enteric bacteria, protozoa, microsporidia, and helminthes that infect animals and humans

Citation: Gerba C, Scott C. 2008. Animal and Human Waste as Vehicles for Cross-Contamination of Imported Foods, p 113-138. In Doyle M, Erickson M (ed), Imported Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815745.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 2

Enteric viruses, bacteria, and protozoa that infect only humans

Citation: Gerba C, Scott C. 2008. Animal and Human Waste as Vehicles for Cross-Contamination of Imported Foods, p 113-138. In Doyle M, Erickson M (ed), Imported Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815745.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 3

Occurrence of enteric pathogens in human feces in the United States

Citation: Gerba C, Scott C. 2008. Animal and Human Waste as Vehicles for Cross-Contamination of Imported Foods, p 113-138. In Doyle M, Erickson M (ed), Imported Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815745.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 4

Concentration of enteric pathogens in domestic sewage in developed versus developing countries

Citation: Gerba C, Scott C. 2008. Animal and Human Waste as Vehicles for Cross-Contamination of Imported Foods, p 113-138. In Doyle M, Erickson M (ed), Imported Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815745.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 5

Removal and estimated concentration of enteric pathogens after treatment of domestic sewage

Citation: Gerba C, Scott C. 2008. Animal and Human Waste as Vehicles for Cross-Contamination of Imported Foods, p 113-138. In Doyle M, Erickson M (ed), Imported Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815745.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 6

Concentration of enteric pathogens in untreated (raw) sewage sludge (biosolids) in the United States and Mexico

Citation: Gerba C, Scott C. 2008. Animal and Human Waste as Vehicles for Cross-Contamination of Imported Foods, p 113-138. In Doyle M, Erickson M (ed), Imported Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815745.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 7

Percentage of Great Britain livestock manures contaminated with zoonotic microbes

Citation: Gerba C, Scott C. 2008. Animal and Human Waste as Vehicles for Cross-Contamination of Imported Foods, p 113-138. In Doyle M, Erickson M (ed), Imported Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815745.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 8

Cell numbers of zoonotic pathogens in British livestock manures

Citation: Gerba C, Scott C. 2008. Animal and Human Waste as Vehicles for Cross-Contamination of Imported Foods, p 113-138. In Doyle M, Erickson M (ed), Imported Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815745.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 9

Die-off rates of enteric pathogens in the environment

Citation: Gerba C, Scott C. 2008. Animal and Human Waste as Vehicles for Cross-Contamination of Imported Foods, p 113-138. In Doyle M, Erickson M (ed), Imported Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815745.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 10

Irrigated area (1,000 ha) by type of system, 1993 to 1997 (unless otherwise noted)

Citation: Gerba C, Scott C. 2008. Animal and Human Waste as Vehicles for Cross-Contamination of Imported Foods, p 113-138. In Doyle M, Erickson M (ed), Imported Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815745.ch4

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