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Chapter 6 : Antimicrobial-Resistant Food-Borne Pathogens in Imported Food

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Abstract:

As background to the relevance of antimicrobial-resistant food-borne pathogens in imported food, this chapter first provides a brief explanation of the mechanisms by which antimicrobial resistance develops in microorganisms. The chapter then focuses on the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens both in infections in humans and in food items, followed by a discussion on the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) surveillance of imported foods for this group of pathogens. The magnitude of the public health burden due to infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant food-borne pathogens differs by region and country. Foreign travel and the consumption of imported foods contaminated with drug-resistant strains were suggested as causative factors in the increased incidence of antibiotic-resistant strains of serotype Enteritidis between 2000 and 2004, with resistance to nalidixic acid coupled with decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin associated with infections in England and Wales. The chapter focuses on antimicrobial-resistant isolated from FDA-regulated imported products, in particular, seafood and fresh produce. Imported foods, especially aquatic food products, can be contaminated with antimicrobial-resistant food-borne pathogens. Global trade of foods is expected to increase in dramatic proportion in the future; hence, efforts to provide greater public health protection to foods should address antimicrobial-resistant food-borne pathogens in imported food products. Global surveillance of food-borne pathogens and sharing of antimicrobial susceptibility data among developed and developing countries are also needed to monitor trends and emerging resistance phenotypes.

Citation: Zhao S. 2008. Antimicrobial-Resistant Food-Borne Pathogens in Imported Food, p 159-185. In Doyle M, Erickson M (ed), Imported Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815745.ch6

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Dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. Possible pathways depicting transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes and/or antimicrobial-resistant bacteria ( ]).

Citation: Zhao S. 2008. Antimicrobial-Resistant Food-Borne Pathogens in Imported Food, p 159-185. In Doyle M, Erickson M (ed), Imported Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815745.ch6
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Tables

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Table 1

Prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant enteric pathogens in the United States and other countries at selected time points between 1979 and 2006

Citation: Zhao S. 2008. Antimicrobial-Resistant Food-Borne Pathogens in Imported Food, p 159-185. In Doyle M, Erickson M (ed), Imported Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815745.ch6
Generic image for table
Table 2

Multidrug-resistant strains recovered from FDA-regulated imported foods from 2000 to 2005

Citation: Zhao S. 2008. Antimicrobial-Resistant Food-Borne Pathogens in Imported Food, p 159-185. In Doyle M, Erickson M (ed), Imported Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815745.ch6
Generic image for table
Table 3

Examples of antimicrobials approved for use in food animals in the United States and their corresponding importance in human medicine

Citation: Zhao S. 2008. Antimicrobial-Resistant Food-Borne Pathogens in Imported Food, p 159-185. In Doyle M, Erickson M (ed), Imported Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815745.ch6
Generic image for table
Table 4

Major antimicrobial drugs (and classes) used in aquaculture in some locations in the world

Citation: Zhao S. 2008. Antimicrobial-Resistant Food-Borne Pathogens in Imported Food, p 159-185. In Doyle M, Erickson M (ed), Imported Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815745.ch6

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