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Chapter 5 : Using Risk Analysis for Microbial Food Safety Regulatory Decision Making

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Abstract:

A risk analysis approach emphasizes a shared responsibility for communication about food safety issues by all interested parties including government regulatory officials, industry, consumers, and academics. The three components of risk analysis are risk management, risk assessment, and risk communication. This chapter discusses the use of a risk analysis framework within a food safety context with emphasis on microbiological (biological) hazards, how risk analysis has been implemented in U.S. regulatory agencies and international organizations, and future needs to strengthen the use of risk analysis to help solve food safety issues. Risk analysis requires the interaction of individuals with diverse skills and perspectives, including expertise in communication, coordination, project management, scientific knowledge, and skills in data analysis and modeling. To efficiently allocate resources to address food safety issues, it is vital to establish annual food safety risk management priorities. Risk analysis is emerging as a public health tool that promises to provide a sound scientific basis for developing national and international standards and guidelines for food safety and for supporting risk-based policies and practices to prevent food-borne illness.

Citation: Dennis S, Kause J, Losikoff M, Engeljohn D, Buchanan R. 2008. Using Risk Analysis for Microbial Food Safety Regulatory Decision Making, p 137-175. In Schaffner D, Doyle M (ed), Microbial Risk Analysis of Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815752.ch5

Key Concept Ranking

Risk Analysis Framework
0.6977733
Quantitative Risk Assessment
0.62195534
Risk Assessment
0.5736757
Food Safety
0.5076253
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
0.45395967
Good Agricultural Practices
0.4327173
0.6977733
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Figures

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Figure 1

A risk management framework. Source: .

Citation: Dennis S, Kause J, Losikoff M, Engeljohn D, Buchanan R. 2008. Using Risk Analysis for Microbial Food Safety Regulatory Decision Making, p 137-175. In Schaffner D, Doyle M (ed), Microbial Risk Analysis of Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815752.ch5
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Figure 2

Conceptualized flow chart detailing the conduct of quantitative microbial risk assessments within the risk analysis framework at FSIS. The process begins with identification and annual prioritization of food safety problems after which risk assessments may be initiated to inform decision making by risk managers. The chart depicts risk assessment (shaded boxes) as part of a larger risk analysis framework. Asterisks (*) indicate those points at which input is solicited from stakeholders and others of the public. Adapted from .

Citation: Dennis S, Kause J, Losikoff M, Engeljohn D, Buchanan R. 2008. Using Risk Analysis for Microbial Food Safety Regulatory Decision Making, p 137-175. In Schaffner D, Doyle M (ed), Microbial Risk Analysis of Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815752.ch5
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Figure 3

Baseline and truncated distributions of the frequency of home refrigerator temperatures used in “what if” scenarios for the LMRA ( ).

Citation: Dennis S, Kause J, Losikoff M, Engeljohn D, Buchanan R. 2008. Using Risk Analysis for Microbial Food Safety Regulatory Decision Making, p 137-175. In Schaffner D, Doyle M (ed), Microbial Risk Analysis of Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815752.ch5
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Figure 4

Two-dimensional matrix of food categories based on cluster analysis of predicted per serving and per annum relative rankings from the Risk Assessment. Source: .

Citation: Dennis S, Kause J, Losikoff M, Engeljohn D, Buchanan R. 2008. Using Risk Analysis for Microbial Food Safety Regulatory Decision Making, p 137-175. In Schaffner D, Doyle M (ed), Microbial Risk Analysis of Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815752.ch5
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References

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Tables

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Table 1

Risk analysis activities and responsible parties

Citation: Dennis S, Kause J, Losikoff M, Engeljohn D, Buchanan R. 2008. Using Risk Analysis for Microbial Food Safety Regulatory Decision Making, p 137-175. In Schaffner D, Doyle M (ed), Microbial Risk Analysis of Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815752.ch5
Generic image for table
Table 2

Risk management questions addressed in selected quantitative microbial risk assessments

Citation: Dennis S, Kause J, Losikoff M, Engeljohn D, Buchanan R. 2008. Using Risk Analysis for Microbial Food Safety Regulatory Decision Making, p 137-175. In Schaffner D, Doyle M (ed), Microbial Risk Analysis of Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815752.ch5
Generic image for table
Table 3

Examples of risk management decisions

Citation: Dennis S, Kause J, Losikoff M, Engeljohn D, Buchanan R. 2008. Using Risk Analysis for Microbial Food Safety Regulatory Decision Making, p 137-175. In Schaffner D, Doyle M (ed), Microbial Risk Analysis of Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815752.ch5
Generic image for table
Table 4

Predicted mean annual number of illnesses associated with the consumption of in raw oysters

Citation: Dennis S, Kause J, Losikoff M, Engeljohn D, Buchanan R. 2008. Using Risk Analysis for Microbial Food Safety Regulatory Decision Making, p 137-175. In Schaffner D, Doyle M (ed), Microbial Risk Analysis of Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815752.ch5

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