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Chapter 36 : Interactions of Immune Cells with the Facultative Intracellular Pathogen

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Abstract:

has a polysaccharide capsule, which is the major virulence factor of the organism. This chapter covers the interactions of with immune cells, with a focus on macrophages. Macrophages produce cytokines and chemokines, thereby recruiting and activating other immune cells such as T cells and neutrophils. In vitro studies have shed important light on macrophage- interactions, but the differences seen between human and murine cells and between macrophages from different anatomical sites make it difficult to draw conclusions about the requirements for macrophage anticryptococcal activity. Macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α) is made by numerous types of immune cells and is induced in the lungs of -infected mice. Growth of the phospholipase mutant is impaired in alveolar macrophages in vivo, and the mutant has reduced virulence in animal models of cryptococcosis. NK cells are innate immune cells that mediate the cytotoxicity of infected cells and tumor cells. The anticryptococcal activity of immune cells in vitro depends on numerous factors, including the species, cell type, and anatomical source of the host cells, the availability of opsonins, and the target strain. Studies of –immune-cell interactions have led to the identification of candidate vaccines and immunomodulators, some of which have been studied in clinical trials.

Citation: Yauch L, Levitz S. 2006. Interactions of Immune Cells with the Facultative Intracellular Pathogen , p 537-554. In Heitman J, Filler S, Edwards, Jr. J, Mitchell A (ed), Molecular Principles of Fungal Pathogenesis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815776.ch36

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Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Scanning electron micrograph of human MDM incubated with serum-opsonized encapsulated for 30 min. Reprinted from reference by permission of Routledge/Taylor Francis Group, LLC.

Citation: Yauch L, Levitz S. 2006. Interactions of Immune Cells with the Facultative Intracellular Pathogen , p 537-554. In Heitman J, Filler S, Edwards, Jr. J, Mitchell A (ed), Molecular Principles of Fungal Pathogenesis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815776.ch36
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Nomarski differential interference contrast microscopy of the interaction between a human CD8 T cell (top) and encapsulated (bottom). Granules released by the T cell are visible on the yeast cell capsule. Reprinted from reference with permission.

Citation: Yauch L, Levitz S. 2006. Interactions of Immune Cells with the Facultative Intracellular Pathogen , p 537-554. In Heitman J, Filler S, Edwards, Jr. J, Mitchell A (ed), Molecular Principles of Fungal Pathogenesis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815776.ch36
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References

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