1887

Chapter 1 : An Introduction to Nidoviruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

An Introduction to Nidoviruses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815790/9781555814557_Chap01-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815790/9781555814557_Chap01-2.gif

Abstract:

Nidoviruses excite interest for two main reasons. First, nidovirus infections are often associated with severe disease. Second, among the RNA viruses, the nidoviruses exhibit extraordinary genetic complexity. This chapter provides an introduction to nidoviruses. It presents a discussion on the taxonomy, classification, nomenclature, and morphology of nidoviruses. It also talks about nidovirus genome structure and virion proteins, and nidovirus replication. It is convenient, although clearly arbitrary, to consider the immune response to nidovirus infections in three categories: the innate response, the humoral response, and the cell-mediated response. Clearly, there is a need for a more rational approach to the control of many nidovirus infections, and research in the area of nidovirus antivirals and vaccines is a current focus for many laboratories.

Citation: Siddell S, Snijder E. 2008. An Introduction to Nidoviruses, p 1-13. In Perlman S, Gallagher T, Snijder E (ed), Nidoviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815790.ch1

Key Concept Ranking

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
0.54127574
0.54127574
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815790.ch01
1. Almazan, F.,, J. M. Gonzalez,, Z. Penzes,, A. Izeta,, E. Calvo,, J. Plana-Duran, and, L. Enjuanes. 2000. Engineering the largest RNA virus genome as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:5516-5521.
2. Balasuriya, U. B., and, N. J. MacLachlan. 2004. The immune response to equine arteritis virus: potential lessons for other arteriviruses. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 102:107-129.
3. Barretto, N.,, D. Jukneliene,, K. Ratia,, Z. Chen,, A. D. Mesecar, and, S. C. Baker. 2005. The papain-like protease of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus has deubiquitinating activity. J. Virol. 79:15189-15198.
4. Bautista, E. M.,, P. Suarez, and, T. W. Molitor. 1999. T cell responses to the structural polypeptides of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Arch. Virol. 144:117-134.
5. Beniac, D. R.,, A. Andonov,, E. Grudeski, and, T. F. Booth. 2006. Architecture of the SARS coronavirus prefusion spike. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 13:751-752.
6. Bosch, B. J.,, B. E. Martina,, R. Van Der Zee,, J. Lepault,, B. J. Haijema,, C. Versluis,, A. J. Heck,, R. De Groot,, A. D. Osterhaus, and, P. J. Rottier. 2004. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection inhibition using spike protein heptad repeat-derived peptides. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:8455-8460.
7. Castillo-Olivares, J.,, J. P. Tearle,, F. Montesso,, D. Westcott,, J. H. Kydd,, N. J. Davis-Poynter, and, D. Hannant. 2003. Detection of equine arteritis virus (EAV)-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocyte precursors from EAV-infected ponies. J. Gen. Virol. 84:2745-2753.
8. Cavanagh, D. 2003. Severe acute respiratory syndrome vaccine development: experiences of vaccination against avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus. Avian Pathol. 32:567-582.
9. Cervantes-Barragan, L.,, R. Zust,, F. Weber,, M. Spiegel,, K. S. Lang,, S. Akira,, V. Thiel, and, B. Ludewig. 2007. Control of coronavirus infection through plasmacytoid dendritic-cell-derived type I interferon. Blood 109:1131-1137.
10. de Groot-Mijnes, J. D.,, J. M. van Dun,, R. G. van der Most, and, R. J. de Groot. 2005. Natural history of a recurrent feline coronavirus infection and the role of cellular immunity in survival and disease. J. Virol. 79:1036-1044.
11. Doan, D. N., and, T. Dokland. 2003. Structure of the nucleocapsid protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Structure 11:1445-1451.
12. Drosten, C.,, S. Gunther,, W. Preiser,, S. van der Werf,, H. R. Brodt,, S. Becker,, H. Rabenau,, M. Panning,, L. Kolesnikova,, R. A. Fouchier,, A. Berger,, A. M. Burguiere,, J. Cinatl,, M. Eickmann,, N. Escriou,, K. Grywna,, S. Kramme,, J. C. Manuguerra,, S. Muller,, V. Rickerts,, M. Sturmer,, S. Vieth,, H. D. Klenk,, A. D. Osterhaus,, H. Schmitz, and, H. W. Doerr. 2003. Identification of a novel coronavirus in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 348:1967-1976.
13. Fan, H.,, A. Ooi,, Y. W. Tan,, S. Wang,, S. Fang,, D. X. Liu, and, J. Lescar. 2005. The nucleocapsid protein of coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus: crystal structure of its N-terminal domain and multimerization properties. Structure 13:1859-1868.
14. Fischer, F.,, D. Peng,, S. T. Hingley,, S. R. Weiss, and, P. S. Masters. 1997. The internal open reading frame within the nucleocapsid gene of mouse hepatitis virus encodes a structural protein that is not essential for viral replication. J. Virol. 71:996-1003.
15. Gorbalenya, A. E.,, L. Enjuanes,, J. Ziebuhr, and, E. J. Snijder. 2006. Nidovirales: evolving the largest RNA virus genome. Virus Res. 117:17-37.
16. Gorbalenya, A. E.,, E. J. Snijder, and, W. J. Spaan. 2004. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus phylogeny: toward consensus. J. Virol. 78:7863-7866.
17. Granzow, H.,, F. Weiland,, D. Fichtner,, H. Schutze,, A. Karger,, E. Mundt,, B. Dresenkamp,, P. Martin, and, T. C. Mettenleiter. 2001. Identification and ultrastructural characterization of a novel virus from fish. J. Gen. Virol. 82:2849-2859.
18. Haijema, B. J.,, H. Volders, and, P. J. Rottier. 2004. Live, attenuated coronavirus vaccines through the directed deletion of group-specific genes provide protection against feline infectious peritonitis. J. Virol. 78:3863-3871.
19. Hakansson-McReynolds, S.,, S. Jiang,, L. Rong, and, M. Caffrey. 2006. Solution structure of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus heptad repeat 2 domain in the prefusion state. J. Biol. Chem. 281:11965-11971.
20. Huang, C.,, N. Ito,, C. T. Tseng, and, S. Makino. 2006. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 7a accessory protein is a viral structural protein. J. Virol. 80:7287-7294.
21. Hwang, W. C.,, Y. Lin,, E. Santelli,, J. Sui,, L. Jaroszewski,, B. Stec,, M. Farzan,, W. A. Marasco, and, R. C. Liddington. 2006. Structural basis of neutralization by a human anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome spike protein antibody, 80R. J. Biol. Chem. 281:34610-34616.
22. Ito, N.,, E. C. Mossel,, K. Narayanan,, V. L. Popov,, C. Huang,, T. Inoue,, C. J. Peters, and, S. Makino. 2005. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 3a protein is a viral structural protein. J. Virol. 79:3182-3186.
23. Jakob, H. 1914. Therapeutische, kasuistische und statistische Mitteilung aus der Klinik fuer kleine Haustiere an der Reichstierarzneischule in Utrecht (Holland). Jahrgang 1912/13. Z. Tiermed. 18:193.
24. Jayaram, H.,, H. Fan,, B. R. Bowman,, A. Ooi,, J. Jayaram,, E. W. Collisson,, J. Lescar, and, B. V. Prasad. 2006. X-ray structures of the N- and C-terminal domains of a coronavirus nucleocapsid protein: implications for nucleocapsid formation. J. Virol. 80:6612-6620.
25. Keffaber, K. K. 1989. Reproductive failure of unknown etiology. Am. Assoc. Swine Pract. Newsl. 1:1-9.
26. Koetzner, C. A.,, M. M. Parker,, C. S. Ricard,, L. S. Sturman, and, P. S. Masters. 1992. Repair and mutagenesis of the genome of a deletion mutant of the coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus by targeted RNA recombination. J. Virol. 66:1841-1848.
27. Kopecky-Bromberg, S. A.,, L. Martinez-Sobrido,, M. Frieman,, R. A. Baric, and, P. Palese. 2007. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus open reading frame (ORF) 3b, ORF 6, and nucleocapsid proteins function as interferon antagonists. J. Virol. 81:548-557.
28. Ksiazek, T. G.,, D. Erdman,, C. S. Goldsmith,, S. R. Zaki,, T. Peret,, S. Emery,, S. Tong,, C. Urbani,, J. A. Comer,, W. Lim,, P. E. Rollin,, S. F. Dowell,, A. E. Ling,, C. D. Humphrey,, W. J. Shieh,, J. Guarner,, C. D. Paddock,, P. Rota,, B. Fields,, J. DeRisi,, J. Y. Yang,, N. Cox,, J. M. Hughes,, J. W. LeDuc,, W. J. Bellini, and, L. J. Anderson. 2003. A novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 348:1953-1966.
29. Kuo, L.,, K. R. Hurst, and, P. S. Masters. 2007. Exceptional flexibility in the sequence requirements for coronavirus small envelope protein function. J. Virol. 81:2249-2262.
30. Kuo, L., and, P. S. Masters. 2003. The small envelope protein E is not essential for murine coronavirus replication. J. Virol. 77:4597-4608.
31. Lindner, H. A.,, N. Fotouhi-Ardakani,, V. Lytvyn,, P. Lachance,, T. Sulea, and, R. Menard. 2005. The papain-like protease from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus is a deubiquitinating enzyme. J. Virol. 79:15199-15208.
32. Masters, P. S. 2006. The molecular biology of coronaviruses. Adv. Virus Res. 66:193-292.
33. Menasveta, P. 1990. The present status of aquaculture in Thailand and the potential use of biotechnology to increase coastal aquaculture production. National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment, Bangkok, Thailand.
34. Meng, X. J. 2000. Heterogeneity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: implications for current vaccine efficacy and future vaccine development. Vet. Microbiol. 74:309-329.
35. Meulenberg, J. J.,, J. N. Bos-de Ruijter,, G. Wensvoort, and, R. J. Moormann. 1998. An infectious cDNA clone of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 440:199-206.
36. Neuman, B. W.,, B. D. Adair,, C. Yoshioka,, J. D. Quispe,, G. Orca,, P. Kuhn,, R. A. Milligan,, M. Yeager, and, M. J. Buchmeier. 2006. Supramolecular architecture of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus revealed by electron cryomicroscopy. J. Virol. 80:7918-7928.
37. Pasternak, A. O.,, W. J. Spaan, and, E. J. Snijder. 2006. Nidovirus transcription: how to make sense...? J. Gen. Virol. 87:1403-1421.
38. Pedersen, K. W.,, Y. van der Meer,, N. Roos, and, E. J. Snijder. 1999. Open reading frame 1a-encoded subunits of the arteri-virus replicase induce endoplasmic reticulum-derived double-membrane vesicles which carry the viral replication complex. J. Virol. 73:2016-2026.
39. Peiris, J. S.,, S. T. Lai,, L. L. Poon,, Y. Guan,, L. Y. Yam,, W. Lim,, J. Nicholls,, W. K. Yee,, W. W. Yan,, M. T. Cheung,, V. C. Cheng,, K. H. Chan,, D. N. Tsang,, R. W. Yung,, T. K. Ng, and, K. Y. Yuen. 2003. Coronavirus as a possible cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Lancet 361:1319-1325.
40. Prentice, E.,, W. G. Jerome,, T. Yoshimori,, N. Mizushima, and, M. R. Denison. 2004. Coronavirus replication complex formation utilizes components of cellular autophagy. J. Biol. Chem. 279:10136-10141.
41. Sawicki, S. G.,, D. L. Sawicki, and, S. G. Siddell. 2007. A contemporary view of coronavirus transcription. J. Virol. 81:20-29.
42. Sawicki, S. G.,, D. L. Sawicki,, D. Younker,, Y. Meyer,, V. Thiel,, H. Stokes, and, S. G. Siddell. 2005. Functional and genetic analysis of coronavirus replicase-transcriptase proteins. PLoS Pathog. 1:e39.
43. Schalk, A. F., and, M. C. Hawn. 1931. An apparently new disease of chicks. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 78:413-422.
44. Schutze, H.,, R. Ulferts,, B. Schelle,, S. Bayer,, H. Granzow,, B. Hoffmann,, T. C. Mettenleiter, and, J. Ziebuhr. 2006. Characterization of white bream virus reveals a novel genetic cluster of nidoviruses. J. Virol. 80:11598-11609.
45. Snijder, E. J.,, S. G. Siddell, and, A. E. Gorbalenya. 2005. The order Nidovirales, p. 390-404. In B. W. J. Mahy and, V. ter Meulen (ed)., Topley & Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections, 10th ed., vol. 1. Virology. Hodder Arnold, London, United Kingdom.
46. Snijder, E. J.,, Y. van der Meer,, J. Zevenhoven-Dobbe,, J. J. Onderwater,, J. van der Meulen,, H. K. Koerten, and, A. M. Mommaas. 2006. Ultrastructure and origin of membrane vesicles associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus replication complex. J. Virol. 80:5927-5940.
47. Stertz, S.,, M. Reichelt,, M. Spiegel,, T. Kuri,, L. Martinez-Sobrido,, A. Garcia-Sastre,, F. Weber, and, G. Kochs. 2007. The intracellular sites of early replication and budding of SARS-coronavirus. Virology 361:304-315.
48. Supekar, V. M.,, C. Bruckmann,, P. Ingallinella,, E. Bianchi,, A. Pessi, and, A. Carfi. 2004. Structure of a proteolytically resistant core from the severe acute respiratory syndrome corona-virus S2 fusion protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:17958-17963.
49. Thiel, V.,, J. Herold,, B. Schelle, and, S. G. Siddell. 2001. Infectious RNA transcribed in vitro from a cDNA copy of the human coronavirus genome cloned in vaccinia virus. J. Gen. Virol. 82:1273-1281.
50. Tsao, Y. P.,, J. Y. Lin,, J. T. Jan,, C. H. Leng,, C. C. Chu,, Y. C. Yang, and, S. L. Chen. 2006. HLA-A*0201 T-cell epitopes in severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus nucleocapsid and spike proteins. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 344:63-71.
51. van Dinten, L. C.,, J. A. den Boon,, A. L. Wassenaar,, W. J. Spaan, and, E. J. Snijder. 1997. An infectious arterivirus cDNA clone: identification of a replicase point mutation that abolishes discontinuous mRNA transcription. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:991-996.
52. Wensvoort, G.,, C. Terpstra,, J. M. Pol,, E. A. ter Laak,, M. Bloemraad,, E. P. de Kluyver,, C. Kragten,, L. van Buiten,, A. den Besten,, F. Wagenaar, et al. 1991. Mystery swine disease in The Netherlands: the isolation of Lelystad virus. Vet. Q. 13:121-130.
53. Wieringa, R.,, A. A. de Vries,, J. van der Meulen,, G. J. Godeke,, J. J. Onderwater,, H. van Tol,, H. K. Koerten,, A. M. Mommaas,, E. J. Snijder, and, P. J. Rottier. 2004. Structural protein requirements in equine arteritis virus assembly. J. Virol. 78:13019-13027.
54. Wissink, E. H.,, M. V. Kroese,, H. A. van Wijk,, F. A. Rijsewijk,, J. J. Meulenberg, and, P. J. Rottier. 2005. Envelope protein requirements for the assembly of infectious virions of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. J. Virol. 79:12495-12506.
55. Xu, Y.,, Y. Liu,, Z. Lou,, L. Qin,, X. Li,, Z. Bai,, H. Pang,, P. Tien,, G. F. Gao, and, Z. Rao. 2004. Structural basis for coronavirus-mediated membrane fusion. Crystal structure of mouse hepatitis virus spike protein fusion core. J. Biol. Chem. 279:30514-30522.
56. Xu, Y.,, Z. Lou,, Y. Liu,, H. Pang,, P. Tien,, G. F. Gao, and, Z. Rao. 2004. Crystal structure of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein fusion core. J. Biol. Chem. 279:49414-49419.
57. Yang, H.,, W. Xie,, X. Xue,, K. Yang,, J. Ma,, W. Liang,, Q. Zhao,, Z. Zhou,, D. Pei,, J. Ziebuhr,, R. Hilgenfeld,, K. Y. Yuen,, L. Wong,, G. Gao,, S. Chen,, Z. Chen,, D. Ma,, M. Bartlam, and, Z. Rao. 2005. Design of wide-spectrum inhibitors targeting coronavirus main proteases. PLoS Biol. 3:e324.
58. Ye, Y.,, K. Hauns,, J. O. Langland,, B. L. Jacobs, and, B. G. Hogue. 2007. Mouse hepatitis coronavirus A59 nucleocapsid protein is a type I interferon antagonist. J. Virol. 81:2554-2563.
59. Yount, B.,, M. R. Denison,, S. R. Weiss, and, R. S. Baric. 2002. Systematic assembly of a full-length infectious cDNA of mouse hepatitis virus strain A59. J. Virol. 76:11065-11078.
60. Yount, B.,, R. S. Roberts,, A. C. Sims,, D. Deming,, M. B. Frieman,, J. Sparks,, M. R. Denison,, N. Davis, and, R. S. Baric. 2005. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus group-specific open reading frames encode nonessential functions for replication in cell cultures and mice. J. Virol. 79:14909-14922.
61. Yu, I. M.,, M. L. Oldham,, J. Zhang, and, J. Chen. 2006. Crystal structure of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus nucleocapsid protein dimerization domain reveals evolutionary linkage between corona- and arteriviridae. J. Biol. Chem. 281:17134-17139.
62. Zhou, M.,, D. Xu,, X. Li,, H. Li,, M. Shan,, J. Tang,, M. Wang,, F. S. Wang,, X. Zhu,, H. Tao,, W. He,, P. Tien, and, G. F. Gao. 2006. Screening and identification of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus-specific CTL epitopes. J. Immunol. 177:2138-2145.
63. Ziegler, T.,, S. Matikainen,, E. Ronkko,, P. Osterlund,, M. Sillanpaa,, J. Siren,, R. Fagerlund,, M. Immonen,, K. Melen, and, I. Julkunen. 2005. Severe acute respiratory syndrome corona-virus fails to activate cytokine-mediated innate immune responses in cultured human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. J. Virol. 79:13800-13805.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Some landmarks of nidovirus molecular biology

Citation: Siddell S, Snijder E. 2008. An Introduction to Nidoviruses, p 1-13. In Perlman S, Gallagher T, Snijder E (ed), Nidoviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815790.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Additional landmarks of nidovirus molecular biology

Citation: Siddell S, Snijder E. 2008. An Introduction to Nidoviruses, p 1-13. In Perlman S, Gallagher T, Snijder E (ed), Nidoviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815790.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 3.

List of species in the order

Citation: Siddell S, Snijder E. 2008. An Introduction to Nidoviruses, p 1-13. In Perlman S, Gallagher T, Snijder E (ed), Nidoviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815790.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 4.

Components of the nidovirus particle

Citation: Siddell S, Snijder E. 2008. An Introduction to Nidoviruses, p 1-13. In Perlman S, Gallagher T, Snijder E (ed), Nidoviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815790.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 5.

Coronavirus and arterivirus receptors

Citation: Siddell S, Snijder E. 2008. An Introduction to Nidoviruses, p 1-13. In Perlman S, Gallagher T, Snijder E (ed), Nidoviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815790.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 6.

Enyzmatic activities associated with nidovirus nonstructural protein domains

Citation: Siddell S, Snijder E. 2008. An Introduction to Nidoviruses, p 1-13. In Perlman S, Gallagher T, Snijder E (ed), Nidoviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815790.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 7.

Pathogenic nidovirus infections in natural hosts

Citation: Siddell S, Snijder E. 2008. An Introduction to Nidoviruses, p 1-13. In Perlman S, Gallagher T, Snijder E (ed), Nidoviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815790.ch1

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error