1887

Chapter 14 : Arterivirus Structural Proteins and Assembly

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Arterivirus Structural Proteins and Assembly, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815790/9781555814557_Chap14-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815790/9781555814557_Chap14-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter reviews the structural characteristics of the , including the basic molecular details of all of the proteins involved, the interactions of these proteins and where they occur, and further functional characterization. The arterivirus structural proteins discussed are E protein, glycoprotein 2, glycoprotein 3, glycoprotein 4, glycoprotein 5, M protein, and N protein. Most recent available literature has been focused on equine arteritis virus (EAV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and thus the review concentrates primarily on these viruses. The chapter also talks about lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus (LDV) and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV). In a study designed to lend understanding of the action of the N protein in viral assembly, PRRSV type 2 strain PA8 N protein oligomerization properties were studied. Finally, the chapter describes a current model of virus propagation.

Citation: Faaberg K. 2008. Arterivirus Structural Proteins and Assembly, p 211-234. In Perlman S, Gallagher T, Snijder E (ed), Nidoviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815790.ch14

Key Concept Ranking

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
0.4847279
0.4847279
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Schematic of arterivirus structural protein gene architecture. The genes coding for known proteins are indicated in the respective reading frame, with the nucleotide start site indicated by a vertical solid line and the stop codon indicated by a dotted line. Identified components of mature viruses are identified by boldface type, and main structural glycoproteins are further indicated by hatched boxes. Publications used for analysis were as follows: for EAV, reference ; for SHFV, references and ; for LDV, reference ; for PRRSV-EU, reference ; and for PRRSV-NA, reference . aa, amino acids.

Citation: Faaberg K. 2008. Arterivirus Structural Proteins and Assembly, p 211-234. In Perlman S, Gallagher T, Snijder E (ed), Nidoviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815790.ch14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Predicted conformations of the E protein and GP2, GP3, and GP4 in eukaryotic membranes.

Citation: Faaberg K. 2008. Arterivirus Structural Proteins and Assembly, p 211-234. In Perlman S, Gallagher T, Snijder E (ed), Nidoviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815790.ch14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Schematics of GP5 disulfide bonded to the M protein for LDV and PRRSV (left) and EAV (right). One neutralization domain has been identified on LDV and PRRSV, and four () have been identified on EAV. N-glycan addition (✧) varies for all arteriviruses, but the N-glycans closest to the disulfide bond between GP5 and M (S-S) are mostly conserved.

Citation: Faaberg K. 2008. Arterivirus Structural Proteins and Assembly, p 211-234. In Perlman S, Gallagher T, Snijder E (ed), Nidoviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815790.ch14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4.
Figure 4.

Variation among 916 unique isolates of PRRSV-NA and -EU in amino acids 36 to 53 of GP5. The sequence in boldface is the sequence of PRRSV-NA strain VR-2332. The smaller letters below indicate other amino acids seen at the same relative positions, and if these are also in boldface, they represent an approximately equal number of PRRSV isolates as for strain VR-2332. Numbers in parentheses point out how few isolates were seen with the indicated residue for amino acids 40 to 53. I42, C48 (predicted to covalently link to M protein through a disulfide bond), and L50 were found to be invariant, and most of the other amino acid positions from 40 to 53 had very few variants.

Citation: Faaberg K. 2008. Arterivirus Structural Proteins and Assembly, p 211-234. In Perlman S, Gallagher T, Snijder E (ed), Nidoviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815790.ch14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 5.
Figure 5.

Model of arteriviral replication based primarily on PRRSV (see text for details).

Citation: Faaberg K. 2008. Arterivirus Structural Proteins and Assembly, p 211-234. In Perlman S, Gallagher T, Snijder E (ed), Nidoviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815790.ch14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 6.
Figure 6.

Schematic of the PRRSV virion. N-glycan addition for the glycoproteins (✧) varies for all arteriviruses.

Citation: Faaberg K. 2008. Arterivirus Structural Proteins and Assembly, p 211-234. In Perlman S, Gallagher T, Snijder E (ed), Nidoviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815790.ch14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815790.ch14
1. Ansari, I. H.,, B. Kwon,, F. A. Osorio, and, A. K. Pattnaik. 2006. Influence of N-linked glycosylation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP5 on virus infectivity, antigenicity, and ability to induce neutralizing antibodies. J. Virol. 80:39944004.
2. Balasuriya, U. B.,, J. C. Dobbe,, H. W. Heidner,, V. L. Smalley,, A. Navarrette,, E. J. Snijder, and, N. J. MacLachlan. 2004. Characterization of the neutralization determinants of equine arteritis virus using recombinant chimeric viruses and site-specific mutagenesis of an infectious cDNA clone. Virology 321:235246.
3. Balasuriya, U. B.,, J. F. Hedges,, V. L. Smalley,, A. Navarrette,, W. H. McCollum,, P. J. Timoney,, E. J. Snijder, and, N. J. MacLachlan. 2004. Genetic characterization of equine arteritis virus during persistent infection of stallions. J. Gen. Virol. 85:379390.
4. Balasuriya, U. B.,, H. W. Heidner,, J. F. Hedges,, J. C. Williams,, N. L. Davis,, R. E. Johnston, and, N. J. MacLachlan. 2000. Expression of the two major envelope proteins of equine arteritis virus as a heterodimer is necessary for induction of neutralizing antibodies in mice immunized with recombinant Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles. J. Virol. 74:1062310630.
5. Balasuriya, U. B., and, N. J. MacLachlan. 2004. The immune response to equine arteritis virus: potential lessons for other arteriviruses. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 102:107129.
6. Balasuriya, U. B.,, N. J. Maclachlan,, A. A. De Vries,, P. V. Rossitto, and, P. J. Rottier. 1995. Identification of a neutralization site in the major envelope glycoprotein (GL) of equine arteritis virus. Virology 207:518527.
7. Balasuriya, U. B.,, J. F. Patton,, P. V. Rossitto,, P. J. Timoney,, W. H. McCollum, and, N. J. MacLachlan. 1997. Neutralization determinants of laboratory strains and field isolates of equine arteritis virus: identification of four neutralization sites in the amino-terminal ectodomain of the G(L) envelope glycoprotein. Virology 232:114128.
8. Balasuriya, U. B.,, P. V. Rossitto,, C. D. DeMaula, and, N. J. MacLachlan. 1993. A 29K envelope glycoprotein of equine arteritis virus expresses neutralization determinants recognized by murine monoclonal antibodies. J. Gen. Virol. 74:25252529.
9. Bastos, R. G.,, O. A. Dellagostin,, R. G. Barletta,, A. R. Doster,, E. Nelson, and, F. A. Osorio. 2002. Construction and immunogenicity of recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG expressing GP5 and M protein of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus. Vaccine 21:2129.
10. Bastos, R. G.,, O. A. Dellagostin,, R. G. Barletta,, A. R. Doster,, E. Nelson,, F. Zuckermann, and, F. A. Osorio. 2004. Immune response of pigs inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis BCG expressing a truncated form of GP5 and M protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Vaccine 22:467474.
11. Bautista, E. M.,, J. J. Meulenberg,, C. S. Choi, and, T. W. Molitor. 1996. Structural polypeptides of the American (VR-2332) strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Arch. Virol. 141:13571365.
12. Brinton, M. A.,, E. I. Gavin, and, A. V. Fernandez. 1986. Genotypic variation among six isolates of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus. J. Gen. Virol. 67:26732684.
13. Brinton-Darnell, M., and, P. G. Plagemann. 1975. Structure and chemical-physical characteristics of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus and its RNA. J. Virol. 16:420433.
14. Buxton, I. K.,, S. P. Chan, and, P. G. Plagemann. 1988. The IA antigen is not the major receptor for lactate dehydrogenaseelevating virus on macrophages from CBA and BALB/c mice. Virus Res. 9:205219.
15. Cafruny, W. A.,, S. P. Chan,, J. T. Harty,, S. Yousefi,, K. Kowalchyk,, D. McDonald,, B. Foreman,, G. Budweg, and, P. G. Plagemann. 1986. Antibody response of mice to lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus during infection and immunization with inactivated virus. Virus Res. 5:357375.
16. Cafruny, W. A., and, P. G. Plagemann. 1982. Immune response to lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus: serologically specific rabbit neutralizing antibody to the virus. Infect. Immun. 37:10071012.
17. Chen, Z.,, L. Kuo,, R. R. Rowland,, C. Even,, K. S. Faaberg, and, P. G. Plagemann. 1993. Sequences of 3’ end of genome and of 5’ end of open reading frame 1a of lactate dehydrogenaseelevating virus and common junction motifs between 5’ leader and bodies of seven subgenomic mRNAs. J. Gen. Virol. 74:643659.
18. Chen, Z.,, K. Li, and, P. G. Plagemann. 2000. Neuropathogenicity and sensitivity to antibody neutralization of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus are determined by polylactosaminoglycan chains on the primary envelope glycoprotein. Virology 266:8898.
19. Chen, Z.,, K. Li,, R. R. Rowland, and, P. G. Plagemann. 1999. Selective antibody neutralization prevents neuropathogenic lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus from causing paralytic disease in immunocompetent mice. J. Neurovirol. 5:200208.
20. Cheon, D. S., and, C. Chae. 2000. Antigenic variation and genotype of isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Korea. Vet. Rec. 147:215218.
21. Chirnside, E. D.,, A. A. de Vries,, J. A. Mumford, and, P. J. Rottier. 1995. Equine arteritis virus-neutralizing antibody in the horse is induced by a determinant on the large envelope glycoprotein GL. J. Gen. Virol. 76:19891998.
22. Chirnside, E. D.,, P. M. Francis, and, J. A. Mumford. 1995. Expression cloning and antigenic analysis of the nucleocapsid protein of equine arteritis virus. Virus Res. 39:277288.
23. Contag, C. H.,, E. F. Retzel, and, P. G. Plagemann. 1986. Genomic differences between strains of lactate dehydrogenaseelevating virus. Intervirology 26:228233.
24. Conzelmann, K. K.,, N. Visser,, P. Van Woensel, and, H. J. Thiel. 1993. Molecular characterization of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, a member of the arterivirus group. Virology 193:329339.
25. Coutelier, J. P., and, J. Van Snick. 1988. Neutralization and sensitization of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus with monoclonal antibodies. J. Gen. Virol. 69:20972100.
26. Dea, S.,, C. A. Gagnon,, H. Mardassi, and, G. Milane. 1996. Antigenic variability among North American and European strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus as defined by monoclonal antibodies to the matrix protein. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:14881493.
27. Dea, S.,, C. A. Gagnon,, H. Mardassi,, B. Pirzadeh, and, D. Rogan. 2000. Current knowledge on the structural proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus: comparison of the North American and European isolates. Arch. Virol. 145:659688.
28. de Haan, C. A.,, H. Vennema, and, P. J. Rottier. 2000. Assembly of the coronavirus envelope: homotypic interactions between the M proteins. J. Virol. 74:49674978.
29. Delputte, P. L.,, S. Costers, and, H. J. Nauwynck. 2005. Analysis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus attachment and internalization: distinctive roles for heparan sulphate and sialoadhesin. J. Gen. Virol. 86:14411445.
30. Delputte, P. L., and, H. J. Nauwynck. 2004. Porcine arterivirus infection of alveolar macrophages is mediated by sialic acid on the virus. J. Virol. 78:80948101.
31. Delputte, P. L.,, N. Vanderheijden,, H. J. Nauwynck, and, M. B. Pensaert. 2002. Involvement of the matrix protein in attachment of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus to a heparinlike receptor on porcine alveolar macrophages. J. Virol. 76:43124320.
32. den Boon, J. A.,, M. F. Kleijnen,, W. J. Spaan, and, E. J. Snijder. 1996. Equine arteritis virus subgenomic mRNA synthesis: analysis of leader-body junctions and replicative-form RNAs. J. Virol. 70:42914298.
33. den Boon, J. A.,, E. J. Snijder,, E. D. Chirnside,, A. A. de Vries,, M. C. Horzinek, and, W. J. Spaan. 1991. Equine arteritis virus is not a togavirus but belongs to the coronaviruslike superfamily. J. Virol. 65:29102920.
34. Deregt, D.,, A. A. de Vries,, M. J. Raamsman,, L. D. Elmgren, and, P. J. Rottier. 1994. Monoclonal antibodies to equine arteritis virus proteins identify the GL protein as a target for virus neutralization. J. Gen. Virol. 75:24392444.
35. de Vries, A. A.,, E. D. Chirnside,, M. C. Horzinek, and, P. J. Rottier. 1992. Structural proteins of equine arteritis virus. J. Virol. 66:62946303.
36. de Vries, A. A.,, S. M. Post,, M. J. Raamsman,, M. C. Horzinek, and, P. J. Rottier. 1995. The two major envelope proteins of equine arteritis virus associate into disulfide-linked heterodimers. J. Virol. 69:46684674.
37. Dimmock, N. J. 1993. Neutralization of animal viruses. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 183:1149.
38. Doan, D. N., and, T. Dokland. 2003. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the structural domain of the nucleocapsid N protein from porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Acta Crystallogr. Sect. D 59:15041506.
39. Doan, D. N., and, T. Dokland. 2003. Structure of the nucleocapsid protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Structure 11:14451451.
40. Dobbe, J. C.,, Y. van der Meer,, W. J. Spaan, and, E. J. Snijder. 2001. Construction of chimeric arteriviruses reveals that the ectodomain of the major glycoprotein is not the main determinant of equine arteritis virus tropism in cell culture. Virology 288:283294.
41. Drew, T. W.,, J. J. Meulenberg,, J. J. Sands, and, D. J. Paton. 1995. Production, characterization and reactivity of monoclonal antibodies to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. J. Gen. Virol. 76:13611369.
42. Duan, X.,, H. J. Nauwynck,, H. W. Favoreel, and, M. B. Pensaert. 1998. Identification of a putative receptor for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on porcine alveolar macrophages. J. Virol. 72:45204523.
43. Duan, X.,, H. J. Nauwynck, and, M. B. Pensaert. 1997. Effects of origin and state of differentiation and activation of monocytes/macrophages on their susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Arch. Virol. 142:24832497.
44. Eisenberg, D.,, E. Schwarz,, M. Komaromy, and, R. Wall. 1984. Analysis of membrane and surface protein sequences with the hydrophobic moment plot. J. Mol. Biol. 179:125142.
45. Faaberg, K. S.,, C. Even,, G. A. Palmer, and, P. G. Plagemann. 1995. Disulfide bonds between two envelope proteins of lac-tate dehydrogenase-elevating virus are essential for viral infectivity. J. Virol. 69:613617.
46. Faaberg, K. S.,, C. J. Nelsen, and, T. M. Truong. 1998. Effects of 5 ’ and 3’ untranslated regions on in vitro expression of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) mRNA7, abstr. W33–6. Abstr. 17th Annu. Meet. Am. Soc. Virol.
47. Faaberg, K. S.,, G. A. Palmer,, C. Even,, G. W. Anderson, and, P. G. Plagemann. 1995. Differential glycosylation of the ecto-domain of the primary envelope glycoprotein of two strains of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus that differ in neuropathogenicity. Virus Res. 39:331340.
48. Faaberg, K. S., and, P. G. Plagemann. 1995. The envelope proteins of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus and their membrane topography. Virology 212:512525.
49. Faaberg, K. S., and, P. G. Plagemann. 1997. ORF 3 of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus encodes a soluble, nonstructural, highly glycosylated, and antigenic protein. Virology 227:245251.
50. Forsberg, R.,, M. B. Oleksiewicz,, A. M. Petersen,, J. Hein,, A. Botner, and, T. Storgaard. 2001. A molecular clock dates the common ancestor of European-type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus at more than 10 years before the emergence of disease. Virology 289:174179.
51. Gagnon, C. A., and, S. Dea. 1998. Differentiation between porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates by restriction fragment length polymorphism of their ORFs 6 and 7 genes. Can. J. Vet. Res. 62:110116.
52. Glaser, A. L.,, A. A. de Vries, and, E. J. Dubovi. 1995. Comparison of equine arteritis virus isolates using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and identification of sequence changes in GL associated with neutralization resistance. J. Gen. Virol. 76:22232233.
53. Godeny, E. K.,, L. Chen,, S. N. Kumar,, S. L. Methven,, E. V. Koonin, and, M. A. Brinton. 1993. Complete genomic sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Virology 194:585596.
54. Godeny, E. K.,, A. A. de Vries,, X. C. Wang,, S. L. Smith, and, R. J. de Groot. 1998. Identification of the leader-body junctions for the viral subgenomic mRNAs and organization of the simian hemorrhagic fever virus genome: evidence for gene duplication during arterivirus evolution. J. Virol. 72:862867.
55. Godeny, E. K.,, D. W. Speicher, and, M. A. Brinton. 1990. Map location of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV) capsid protein (Vp1) gene. Virology 177:768771.
56. Godeny, E. K.,, M. R. Werner, and, M. A. Brinton. 1989. The 3 ’ terminus of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus genome RNA does not contain togavirus or flavivirus conserved sequences. Virology 172:647650.
57. Godeny, E. K.,, L. Zeng,, S. L. Smith, and, M. A. Brinton. 1995. Molecular characterization of the 3’ terminus of the simian hemorrhagic fever virus genome. J. Virol. 69:26792683.
58. Gonin, P.,, H. Mardassi,, C. A. Gagnon,, B. Massie, and, S. Dea. 1998. A nonstructural and antigenic glycoprotein is encoded by ORF3 of the IAF-Klop strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Arch. Virol. 143:19271940.
59. Gonin, P.,, B. Pirzadeh,, C. A. Gagnon, and, S. Dea. 1999. Seroneutralization of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus correlates with antibody response to the GP5 major envelope glycoprotein. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 11:2026.
60. Gorlich, D., and, I. W. Mattaj. 1996. Nucleocytoplasmic transport. Science 271:15131518.
61. Harty, J. T., and, P. G. Plagemann. 1988. Formalin inactivation of the lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus reveals a major neutralizing epitope not recognized during natural infection. J. Virol. 62:32103216.
62. Hedges, J. F.,, U. B. Balasuriya, and, N. J. MacLachlan. 1999. The open reading frame 3 of equine arteritis virus encodes an immunogenic glycosylated, integral membrane protein. Virology 264:9298.
63. Hedges, J. F.,, U. B. Balasuriya,, P. J. Timoney,, W. H. McCollum, and, N. J. MacLachlan. 1999. Genetic divergence with emergence of novel phenotypic variants of equine arteritis virus during persistent infection of stallions. J. Virol. 73:36723681.
64. Henderson, B. R., and, P. Percipalle. 1997. Interactions between HIV Rev and nuclear import and export factors: the Rev nuclear localisation signal mediates specific binding to human importin-beta. J. Mol. Biol. 274:693707.
65. Hiscox, J. A.,, T. Wurm,, L. Wilson,, P. Britton,, D. Cavanagh, and, G. Brooks. 2001. The coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus nucleoprotein localizes to the nucleolus. J. Virol. 75:506512.
66. Horzinek, M. C., and, P. S. Wielink. 1975. Purification and electron microscopy of lactic dehydrogenase virus of mice. J. Gen. Virol. 26:217226.
67. Inada, T., and, C. A. Mims. 1984. Mouse Ia antigens are receptors for lactate dehydrogenase virus. Nature 309:5961.
68. Jeronimo, C., and, D. Archambault. 2002. Importance of M-protein C terminus as substrate antigen for serodetection of equine arteritis virus infection. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 9:698703.
69. Jusa, E. R.,, Y. Inaba,, M. Kouno, and, O. Hirose. 1997. Effect of heparin on infection of cells by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Am J. Vet. Res. 58:488491.
70. Kalicharran, K.,, D. Mohandas,, G. Wilson, and, S. Dales. 1996. Regulation of the initiation of coronavirus JHM infection in primary oligodendrocytes and L-2 fibroblasts. Virology 225:3343.
71. Kapur, V.,, M. R. Elam,, T. M. Pawlovich, and, M. P. Murtaugh. 1996. Genetic variation in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates in the midwestern United States. J. Gen. Virol. 77:12711276.
72. Katz, J. B.,, A. L. Shafer,, K. A. Eernisse,, J. G. Landgraf, and, E. A. Nelson. 1995. Antigenic differences between European and American isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are encoded by the carboxyterminal portion of viral open reading frame 3. Vet. Microbiol. 44:6576.
73. Kheyar, A.,, S. Martin,, G. St-Laurent,, P. J. Timoney,, W. H. McCollum, and, D. Archambault. 1997. Expression cloning and humoral immune response to the nucleocapsid and membrane proteins of equine arteritis virus. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 4:648652.
74. Kim, J. K.,, A. M. Fahad,, K. Shanmukhappa, and, S. Kapil. 2006. Defining the cellular target(s) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus blocking monoclonal antibody 7G10. J. Virol. 80:689696.
75. Kowalchyk, K., and, P. G. Plagemann. 1985. Cell surface receptors for lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus on subpopulation of macrophages. Virus Res. 2:211229.
76. Krogh, A.,, B. Larsson,, G. von Heijne, and, E. L. Sonnhammer. 2001. Predicting transmembrane protein topology with a hidden Markov model: application to complete genomes. J. Mol. Biol. 305:567580.
77. Kuo, L.,, Z. Chen,, R. R. Rowland,, K. S. Faaberg, and, P. G. Plagemann. 1992. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV): subgenomic mRNAs, mRNA leader and comparison of 3’-terminal sequences of two LDV isolates. Virus Res. 23:5572.
78. Kwang, J.,, F. Zuckermann,, G. Ross,, S. Yang,, F. Osorio,, W. Liu, and, S. Low. 1999. Antibody and cellular immune responses of swine following immunisation with plasmid DNA encoding the PRRS virus ORF9s 4, 5, 6 and 7. Res. Vet. Sci. 67:199201.
79. Lee, C., and, D. Yoo. 2005. Cysteine residues of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus small envelope protein are non-essential for virus infectivity. J. Gen. Virol. 86:30913096.
80. Li, K.,, Z. Chen, and, P. Plagemann. 1998. The neutralization epitope of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus is located on the short ectodomain of the primary envelope glycoprotein. Virology 242:239245.
81. Li, X.,, B. Hu,, J. Harty,, C. Even, and, P. G. Plagemann. 1990. Polyclonal B cell activation of IgG2a and IgG2b production by infection of mice with lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus is partly dependent on CD4+ lymphocytes. Viral Immunol. 3:273288.
82. Lin, Y. C.,, R. Y. Chang, and, L. L. Chueh. 2002. Leader-body junction sequence of the viral subgenomic mRNAs of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolated in Taiwan. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 64:961965.
83. Lipman, D. J., and, W. R. Pearson. 1985. Rapid and sensitive protein similarity searches. Science 227:14351441.
84. Magar, R.,, R. Larochelle,, S. Dea,, C. A. Gagnon,, E. A. Nelson,, J. Christopher-Hennings, and, D. A. Benfield. 1995. Antigenic comparison of Canadian and US isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus using monoclonal antibodies to the nucleocapsid protein. Can. J. Vet. Res. 59:232234.
85. Magar, R.,, R. Larochelle,, E. A. Nelson, and, C. Charreyre. 1997. Differential reactivity of a monoclonal antibody directed to the membrane protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Can. J. Vet. Res. 61:6971.
86. Mardassi, H.,, R. Athanassious,, S. Mounir, and, S. Dea. 1994. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: morphological, biochemical and serological characteristics of Quebec isolates associated with acute and chronic outbreaks of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome. Can. J. Vet. Res. 58:5564.
87. Mardassi, H.,, P. Gonin,, C. A. Gagnon,, B. Massie, and, S. Dea. 1998. A subset of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP3 glycoprotein is released into the culture medium of cells as a non-virion-associated and membrane-free (soluble) form. J. Virol. 72:62986306.
88. Mardassi, H.,, B. Massie, and, S. Dea. 1996. Intracellular synthesis, processing, and transport of proteins encoded by ORFs 5 to 7 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Virology 221:98112.
89. Mardassi, H.,, S. Mounir, and, S. Dea. 1995. Molecular analysis of the ORFs 3 to 7 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Quebec reference strain. Arch. Virol. 140:14051418.
90. Meng, X. J.,, P. S. Paul, and, P. G. Halbur. 1994. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequencing of the 3’-terminal genomic RNA of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. J. Gen. Virol. 75:17951801.
91. Meng, X. J.,, P. S. Paul,, P. G. Halbur, and, I. Morozov. 1995. Sequence comparison of open reading frames 2 to 5 of low and high virulence United States isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. J. Gen. Virol. 76:31813188.
92. Meulenberg, J. J.,, M. M. Hulst,, E. J. de Meijer,, P. L. Moonen,, A. den Besten,, E. P. de Kluyver,, G. Wensvoort, and, R. J. Moormann. 1993. Lelystad virus, the causative agent of porcine epidemic abortion and respiratory syndrome (PEARS), is related to LDV and EAV. Virology 192:6272.
93. Meulenberg, J. J.,, M. M. Hulst,, E. J. de Meijer,, P. L. Moonen,, A. den Besten,, E. P. de Kluyver,, G. Wensvoort, and, R. J. Moormann. 1994. Lelystad virus belongs to a new virus family, comprising lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus, equine arteritis virus, and simian hemorrhagic fever virus. Arch. Virol. Suppl. 9:441448.
94. Meulenberg, J. J., and, A. Petersen-den Besten. 1996. Identification and characterization of a sixth structural protein of Lelystad virus: the glycoprotein GP2 encoded by ORF2 is incorporated in virus particles. Virology 225:4451.
95. Meulenberg, J. J.,, A. Petersen-den Besten,, E. P. De Kluyver,, R. J. Moormann,, W. M. Schaaper, and, G. Wensvoort. 1995. Characterization of proteins encoded by ORFs 2 to 7 of Lelystad virus. Virology 206:155163.
96. Meulenberg, J. J.,, A. P. van Nieuwstadt,, A. van Essen-Zandbergen,, J. N. Bos-de Ruijter,, J. P. Langeveld, and, R. H. Meloen. 1998. Localization and fine mapping of antigenic sites on the nucleocapsid protein N of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus with monoclonal antibodies. Virology 252:106114.
97. Meulenberg, J. J.,, A. P. van Nieuwstadt,, A. van Essen-Zandbergen, and, J. P. M. Langeveld. 1997. Posttranslational processing and identification of a neutralization domain of the GP4 protein encoded by ORF4 of Lelystad virus. J. Virol. 71:60616067.
98. Michaelides, M. C., and, S. Schlesinger. 1973. Structural proteins of lactic dehydrogenase virus. Virology 55:211217.
99. Mickelson, D. J., and, K. S. Faaberg. 1999. Effects of 5’ and 3’ untranslated regions on in vitro expression of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) mRNA2, abstr. W131. Abstr. 18th Annu. Meet. Am. Soc. Virol.
100. Molenkamp, R.,, B. C. Rozier,, S. Greve,, W. J. Spaan, and, E. J. Snijder. 2000. Isolation and characterization of an arterivirus defective interfering RNA genome. J. Virol. 74:31563165.
101. Molenkamp, R.,, H. van Tol,, B. C. Rozier,, Y. van der Meer,, W. J. Spaan, and, E. J. Snijder. 2000. The arterivirus replicase is the only viral protein required for genome replication and subgenomic mRNA transcription. J. Gen. Virol. 81:24912496.
102. Moore, B. D.,, U. B. Balasuriya,, J. F. Hedges, and, N. J. MacLachlan. 2002. Growth characteristics of a highly virulent, a moderately virulent, and an avirulent strain of equine arteritis virus in primary equine endothelial cells are predictive of their virulence to horses. Virology 298:3944.
103. Moroianu, J.,, G. Blobel, and, A. Radu. 1996. The binding site of karyopherin alpha for karyopherin beta overlaps with a nuclear localization sequence. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:65726576.
104. Murphy, T. W.,, W. H. McCollum,, P. J. Timoney,, B. W. Klingeborn,, B. Hyllseth,, W. Golnik, and, B. Erasmus. 1992. Genomic variability among globally distributed isolates of equine arteritis virus. Vet. Microbiol. 32:101115.
105. Murtaugh, M. P.,, M. R. Elam, and, L. T. Kakach. 1995. Comparison of the structural protein coding sequences of the VR-2332 and Lelystad virus strains of the PRRS virus. Arch. Virol. 140:14511460.
106. Nauwynck, H. J.,, X. Duan,, H. W. Favoreel,, P. Van Oostveldt, and, M. B. Pensaert. 1999. Entry of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus into porcine alveolar macrophages via receptor-mediated endocytosis. J. Gen. Virol. 80:297305.
107. Nelsen, C. J.,, M. P. Murtaugh, and, K. S. Faaberg. 1999. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus comparison: divergent evolution on two continents. J. Virol. 73:270280.
108. Nelson, E. A.,, J. Christopher-Hennings,, T. Drew,, G. Wensvoort,, J. E. Collins, and, D. A. Benfield. 1993. Differentiation of U.S. and European isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by monoclonal antibodies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:31843189.
109. Nielsen, H. S.,, G. Liu,, J. Nielsen,, M. B. Oleksiewicz,, A. Botner,, T. Storgaard, and, K. S. Faaberg. 2003. Generation of an infectious clone of VR-2332, a highly virulent North American-type isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. J. Virol. 77:37023711.
110. Ostrowski, M.,, J. A. Galeota,, A. M. Jar,, K. B. Platt,, F. A. Osorio, and, O. J. Lopez. 2002. Identification of neutralizing and nonneutralizing epitopes in the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP5 ectodomain. J. Virol. 76:42414250.
111. Palmer, G. A.,, L. Kuo,, Z. Chen,, K. S. Faaberg, and, P. G. Plagemann. 1995. Sequence of the genome of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus: heterogenicity between strains P and C. Virology 209:637642.
112. Pasternak, A. O.,, A. P. Gultyaev,, W. J. Spaan, and, E. J. Snijder. 2000. Genetic manipulation of arterivirus alternative mRNA leader-body junction sites reveals tight regulation of structural protein expression. J. Virol. 74:1164211653.
113. Pirzadeh, B., and, S. Dea. 1997. Monoclonal antibodies to the ORF5 product of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus define linear neutralizing determinants. J. Gen. Virol. 78:18671873.
114. Pirzadeh, B., and, S. Dea. 1998. Immune response in pigs vaccinated with plasmid DNA encoding ORF5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. J. Gen. Virol. 79:989999.
115. Pirzadeh, B.,, C. A. Gagnon, and, S. Dea. 1998. Genomic and antigenic variations of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus major envelope GP5 glycoprotein. Can. J. Vet. Res. 62:170177.
116. Plagemann, P. G. 2001. An ORF-2a protein is not present at a significant level in virions of the arterivirus lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus. Virus Res. 74:4752.
117. Plagemann, P. G. 2001. Complexity of the single linear neutralization epitope of the mouse arterivirus lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus. Virology 290:1120.
118. Plagemann, P. G. 2004. The primary GP5 neutralization epitope of North American isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 102:263275.
119. Plagemann, P. G.,, J. T. Harty, and, C. Even. 1992. Mode of neutralization of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus by polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Arch. Virol. 123:89100.
120. Plagemann, P. G.,, R. R. Rowland,, C. Even, and, K. S. Faaberg. 1995. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus: an ideal persistent virus? Springer Semin. Immunopathol. 17:167186.
121. Plagemann, P. G.,, R. R. Rowland, and, K. S. Faaberg. 2002. The primary neutralization epitope of porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus strain VR-2332 is located in the middle of the GP5 ectodomain. Arch. Virol. 147:23272347.
122. Qian, P.,, X. Li,, G. Tong, and, H. Chen. 2003. High-level expression of the ORF6 gene of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in Pichia pastoris. Virus Genes 27:189196.
123. Rodriguez, M. J.,, J. Sarraseca,, J. Garcia,, A. Sanz,, J. Plana-Duran, and, J. Ignacio Casal. 1997. Epitope mapping of the nucleocapsid protein of European and North American isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. J. Gen. Virol. 78:22692278.
124. Rowland, R. R.,, R. Kervin,, C. Kuckleburg,, A. Sperlich, and, D. A. Benfield. 1999. The localization of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein to the nucleolus of infected cells and identification of a potential nucleolar localization signal sequence. Virus Res. 64:112.
125. Rowland, R. R.,, P. Schneider,, Y. Fang,, S. Wootton,, D. Yoo, and, D. A. Benfield. 2003. Peptide domains involved in the localization of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein to the nucleolus. Virology 316:135145.
126. Rowland, R. R., and, D. Yoo. 2003. Nucleolar-cytoplasmic shuttling of PRRSV nucleocapsid protein: a simple case of molecular mimicry or the complex regulation by nuclear import, nucleolar localization and nuclear export signal sequences. Virus Res. 95:2333.
127. Siddell, S. G. 1995. The Coronaviridae. Plenum Press, New York, NY.
128. Smith, S. L.,, X. Wang, and, E. K. Godeny. 1997. Sequence of the 3 ’ end of the simian hemorrhagic fever virus genome. Gene 191:205210.
129. Snijder, E. J.,, J. C. Dobbe, and, W. J. Spaan. 2003. Heterodimerization of the two major envelope proteins is essential for arterivirus infectivity. J. Virol. 77:97104.
130. Snijder, E. J.,, H. van Tol,, K. W. Pedersen,, M. J. Raamsman, and, A. A. de Vries. 1999. Identification of a novel structural protein of arteriviruses. J. Virol. 73:63356345.
131. Spiess, M. 1995. Heads or tails—what determines the orientation of proteins in the membrane. FEBS Lett. 369:7679.
132. Takahashi-Omoe, H.,, K. Omoe,, M. Sakaguchi,, Y. Kameoka,, S. Matsushita, and, T. Inada. 2004. Production of virus-specific antiserum corresponding to sequences in the lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV) ORF6 protein. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 27:4755.
133. Therrien, D.,, Y. St-Pierre, and, S. Dea. 2000. Preliminary characterization of protein binding factor for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on the surface of permissive and non-permissive cells. Arch. Virol. 145:10991116.
134. Tijms, M. A.,, Y. van der Meer, and, E. J. Snijder. 2002. Nuclear localization of non-structural protein 1 and nucleocapsid protein of equine arteritis virus. J. Gen. Virol. 83:795800.
135. Tobiasch, E.,, R. Kehm,, U. Bahr,, C. A. Tidona,, N. J. Jakob,, M. Handermann,, G. Darai, and, M. Giese. 2001. Large envelope glycoprotein and nucleocapsid protein of equine arteritis virus (EAV) induce an immune response in Balb/c mice by DNA vaccination; strategy for developing a DNA-vaccine against EAV-infection. Virus Genes 22:187199.
136. Trousdale, M. D.,, D. W. Trent, and, A. Shelokov. 1975. Simian hemorrhagic fever virus: a new togavirus. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 150:707711.
137. Truong, H. M.,, Z. Lu,, G. F. Kutish,, J. Galeota,, F. A. Osorio, and, A. K. Pattnaik. 2004. A highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus generated from an infectious cDNA clone retains the in vivo virulence and transmissibility properties of the parental virus. Virology 325:308319.
138. van Berlo, M. F.,, P. J. Rottier,, W. J. Spaan, and, M. C. Horzinek. 1986. Equine arteritis virus-induced polypeptide synthesis. J. Gen. Virol. 67:15431549.
139. Vanderheijden, N.,, P. L. Delputte,, H. W. Favoreel,, J. Vandekerckhove,, J. Van Damme,, P. A. van Woensel, and, H. J. Nauwynck. 2003. Involvement of sialoadhesin in entry of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus into porcine alveolar macrophages. J. Virol. 77:82078215.
140. van Nieuwstadt, A. P.,, J. J. Meulenberg,, A. van Essen-Zanbergen,, A. Petersen-den Besten,, R. J. Bende,, R. J. Moormann, and, G. Wensvoort. 1996. Proteins encoded by open reading frames 3 and 4 of the genome of Lelystad virus (Arteriviridae) are structural proteins of the virion. J. Virol. 70:47674772.
141. Verheije, M. H.,, T. J. Welting,, H. T. Jansen,, P. J. Rottier, and, J. J. Meulenberg. 2002. Chimeric arteriviruses generated by swapping of the M protein ectodomain rule out a role of this domain in viral targeting. Virology 303:364373.
142. von Heijne, G. 1988. Transcending the impenetrable: how proteins come to terms with membranes. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 947:307333.
143. von Heijne, G. 1990. The signal peptide. J. Membr. Biol. 115:195201.
144. Wahlberg, J. M., and, M. Spiess. 1997. Multiple determinants direct the orientation of signal-anchor proteins: the topogenic role of the hydrophobic signal domain. J. Cell Biol. 137:555562.
145. Weiland, E.,, S. Bolz,, F. Weiland,, W. Herbst,, M. J. Raamsman,, P. J. Rottier, and, A. A. De Vries. 2000. Monoclonal antibodies directed against conserved epitopes on the nucleocapsid protein and the major envelope glycoprotein of equine arteritis virus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:20652075.
146. Weiland, E.,, M. Wieczorek-Krohmer,, D. Kohl,, K. K. Conzelmann, and, F. Weiland. 1999. Monoclonal antibodies to the GP5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus are more effective in virus neutralization than monoclonal antibodies to the GP4. Vet. Microbiol. 66:171186.
147. Welch, S. K.,, R. Jolie,, D. S. Pearce,, W. D. Koertje,, E. Fuog,, S. L. Shields,, D. Yoo, and, J. G. Calvert. 2004. Construction and evaluation of genetically engineered replication-defective porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine candidates. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 102:277290
148. Wieczorek-Krohmer, M.,, F. Weiland,, K. Conzelmann,, D. Kohl,, N. Visser,, P. van Woensel,, H. J. Thiel, and, E. Weiland. 1996. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): monoclonal antibodies detect common epitopes on two viral proteins of European and U.S. isolates. Vet Microbiol. 51:257266.
149. Wieringa, R.,, A. A. F. de Vries,, S. M. Post, and, P. J. M. Rottier. 2003. Intra- and intermolecular disulfide bonds of the GP2b glycoprotein of equine arteritis virus: relevance for virus assembly and infectivity. J. Virol. 77:1299613004.
150. Wieringa, R.,, A. A. F. de Vries,, M. J. B. Raamsman, and, P. J. M. Rottier. 2002. Characterization of two new structural glycoproteins, GP3 and GP4, of equine arteritis virus. J. Virol. 76:1082910840.
151. Wieringa, R.,, A. A. F. de Vries, and, P. J. M. Rottier. 2003. Formation of disulfide-linked complexes between the three minor envelope glycoproteins (GP2b, GP3, and GP4) of equine arteritis virus. J. Virol. 77:62166226.
152. Wieringa, R.,, A. A. F. de Vries,, J. van der Meulen,, G.-J. Godeke,, J. J. M. Onderwater,, H. van Tol,, H. K. Koerten,, A. M. Mommaas,, E. J. Snijder, and, P. J. M. Rottier. 2004. Structural protein requirements in equine arteritis virus assembly. J. Virol. 78:1301913027.
153. Wissink, E. H.,, M. V. Kroese,, J. G. Maneschijn-Bonsing,, J. J. Meulenberg,, P. A. van Rijn,, F. A. Rijsewijk, and, P. J. Rottier. 2004. Significance of the oligosaccharides of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus glycoproteins GP2a and GP5 for infectious virus production. J. Gen. Virol. 85:37153723.
154. Wissink, E. H.,, M. V. Kroese,, H. A. van Wijk,, F. A. Rijsewijk,, J. J. Meulenberg, and, P. J. Rottier. 2005. Envelope protein requirements for the assembly of infectious virions of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. J. Virol. 79:1249512506.
155. Wissink, E. H.,, H. A. van Wijk,, J. M. Pol,, G. J. Godeke,, P. A. van Rijn,, P. J. Rottier, and, J. J. Meulenberg. 2003. Identification of porcine alveolar macrophage glycoproteins involved in infection of porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus. Arch. Virol. 148:177187.
156. Wootton, S.,, G. Koljesar,, L. Yang,, K. J. Yoon, and, D. Yoo. 2001. Antigenic importance of the carboxy-terminal beta-strand of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 8:598603.
157. Wootton, S. K.,, E. A. Nelson, and, D. Yoo. 1998. Antigenic structure of the nucleocapsid protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 5:773779.
158. Wootton, S. K.,, R. R. Rowland, and, D. Yoo. 2002. Phosphorylation of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein. J. Virol. 76:1056910576.
159. Wootton, S. K., and, D. Yoo. 2003. Homo-oligomerization of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein and the role of disulfide linkages. J. Virol. 77:45464557.
160. Wu, W. H.,, Y. Fang,, R. Farwell,, M. Steffen-Bien,, R. R. Rowland,, J. Christopher-Hennings, and, E. A. Nelson. 2001. A 10-kDa structural protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus encoded by ORF2b. Virology 287:183191.
161. Wu, W. H.,, Y. Fang,, R. R. Rowland,, S. R. Lawson,, J. Christopher-Hennings,, K. J. Yoon, and, E. A. Nelson. 2005. The 2b protein as a minor structural component of PRRSV. Virus Res. 114:177181.
162. Wurm, T.,, H. Chen,, T. Hodgson,, P. Britton,, G. Brooks, and, J. A. Hiscox. 2001. Localization to the nucleolus is a common feature of coronavirus nucleoproteins, and the protein may disrupt host cell division. J. Virol. 75:93459356.
163. Yang, L.,, M. L. Frey,, K. J. Yoon,, J. J. Zimmerman, and, K. B. Platt. 2000. Categorization of North American porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses: epitopic profiles of the N, M, GP5 and GP3 proteins and susceptibility to neutralization. Arch. Virol. 145:15991619.
164. Yang, L.,, K. J. Yoon,, Y. Li,, J. H. Lee,, J. J. Zimmerman,, M. L. Frey,, K. M. Harmon, and, K. B. Platt. 1999. Antigenic and genetic variations of the 15 kD nucleocapsid protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates. Arch. Virol. 144:525546.
165. Yoo, D.,, S. K. Wootton,, G. Li,, C. Song, and, R. R. Rowland. 2003. Colocalization and interaction of the porcine arterivirus nucleocapsid protein with the small nucleolar RNA-associated protein fibrillarin. J. Virol. 77:1217312183.
166. Yuan, S.,, M. P. Murtaugh, and, K. S. Faaberg. 2000. Heteroclite subgenomic RNAs are produced in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection. Virology 275:158169.
167. Yuan, S.,, M. P. Murtaugh,, F. A. Schumann,, D. Mickelson, and, K. S. Faaberg. 2004. Characterization of heteroclite subgenomic RNAs associated with PRRSV infection. Virus Res. 105:7587.
168. Zeegers, J. J.,, B. A. Van der Zeijst, and, M. C. Horzinek. 1976. The structural proteins of equine arteritis virus. Virology 73:200205.
169. Zeng, L.,, E. K. Godeny,, S. L. Methven, and, M. A. Brinton. 1995. Analysis of simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) subgenomic RNAs, junction sequences, and 5’ leader. Virology 207:543548.
170. Zhang, Y.,, R. D. Sharma, and, P. S. Paul. 1998. Monoclonal antibodies against conformationally dependent epitopes on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Vet. Microbiol. 63:125136.
171. Zhou, Y. J.,, T. Q. An,, Y. X. He,, J. X. Liu,, H. J. Qiu,, Y. F. Wang, and, G. Tong. 2006. Antigenic structure analysis of glycosylated protein 3 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Virus Res. 118:98104.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

sg mRNAs utilized to produce structural proteins

Citation: Faaberg K. 2008. Arterivirus Structural Proteins and Assembly, p 211-234. In Perlman S, Gallagher T, Snijder E (ed), Nidoviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815790.ch14

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error