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Chapter 21 : Arterivirus Pathogenesis and Immune Response
Category: Viruses and Viral Pathogenesis
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The family Arteriviridae within the order Nidovirales includes a single genus, Arterivirus. Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is the type species of the genus, and the three other currently known members are lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV). Although the arteriviruses share many common biological and molecular features, the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the infections caused by each virus are distinct, as are the diseases they cause. The host range of individual arteriviruses is also highly restricted; however, all four viruses share the ability to cause prolonged or truly persistent infections in their natural hosts, and the humoral immune response to LDV, PRRSV, and SHFV in naturally infected animals is frequently weak and ineffectual. This chapter presents aspects of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, immune response, and, where appropriate, the treatment and prevention of EAV, PRRSV, LDV, and SHFV infections of their respective animal hosts.
Key Concept Ranking
Epidemiology of EAV infection of horses, depicting the central role of the carrier stallion in maintenance and dissemination of the virus.