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Chapter 22 : The Immune Response to Coronaviruses
Category: Viruses and Viral Pathogenesis
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Coronaviruses (CoV) infect a variety of organs, including the liver, respiratory and enteric tracts, and the central nervous system (CNS). Viral cellular and tissue tropism affects both the quality and quantity of the immune response, which ultimately determine viral control and pathogenesis. This chapter focuses primarily on the in vivo interactions between the immune system and the infected CNS as a target of neurotropic mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) infection because these interactions have been examined in the greatest detail. Immune responses to additional viruses, e.g., transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), associated with diseases in other tissues are included, as well as the various MHV strains with distinct tissue tropisms. Control of infections by enveloped viruses involves a coordinated immune response that is initiated and subsequently orchestrated by innate immune mediators such as macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), interferon (IFN)- α/ β, and chemokines. These factors provide both an initial antiviral response and the appropriate milieu for activation of both cellular and humoral immune responses.