Chapter 25 : Vaccines for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Other Coronaviruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Vaccines for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Other Coronaviruses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815790/9781555814557_Chap25-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815790/9781555814557_Chap25-2.gif


This chapter provides a brief overview of the state of the art on coronavirus (CoV) vaccines, with special attention paid to severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV), as this virus has had the largest impact on humans. First, the chapter considers basic aspects affecting vaccine development, such as correlates of protection, antigenic variability, and role of B- and T-cell responses. Then, it discusses different types of vaccines under development, including inactivated viruses, subunit vaccines, virus-like particles (VLPs), DNA vaccines, heterologous expression systems, and vaccines derived by reverse genetics. Finally, the chapter considers potential side effects of these vaccines.

Citation: Enjuanes L, Dediego M, Alvarez E, Capiscol C, Baric R. 2008. Vaccines for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Other Coronaviruses, p 379-407. In Perlman S, Gallagher T, Snijder E (ed), Nidoviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815790.ch25

Key Concept Ranking

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Structure and genome organization of CoVs. (A) Schematic diagram of SARS-CoV structure. 3a, 7a, and 7b are structural envelope SARS-CoV proteins. (B) Representation of a prototype SARS-CoV genome. AAA, poly(A) tail. Numbers and letters indicate viral genes.

Citation: Enjuanes L, Dediego M, Alvarez E, Capiscol C, Baric R. 2008. Vaccines for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Other Coronaviruses, p 379-407. In Perlman S, Gallagher T, Snijder E (ed), Nidoviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815790.ch25
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Growth kinetics of rSARS-CoV-ΔE in vitro and in vivo. (A) Vero-E6 cells were infected at a multiplicity of infection of 0.5 with either the rSARS-CoV-ΔE or the recombinant wild-type virus. At different times postinfection, virus titers were determined by plaque assay. Error bars represent standard deviations of the mean from three experiments. (B) Hamsters were inoculated with 10 tissue culture infectious doses (TCID) of rSARS-CoV or rSARS-CoV-ΔE. Animals were sacrificed and tissues were harvested at different times postinfection. Viral titers in the lungs were determined in Vero-E6 cell monolayers. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U statistical method was used for ascertaining the significance of observed differences. Statistical significance is indicated by an asterisk ( < 0.05). The dotted line indicates the lower limit of detection.

Citation: Enjuanes L, Dediego M, Alvarez E, Capiscol C, Baric R. 2008. Vaccines for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Other Coronaviruses, p 379-407. In Perlman S, Gallagher T, Snijder E (ed), Nidoviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815790.ch25
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Reorganization of the SARS-CoV genome to generate safe attenuated virus vaccines. (Top) Potential recombination between vaccine and field CoV strains leading to the generation of a recombinant SARS-CoV. The wild-type SARS-CoV TRS, ACGAAC (black circles), was changed to CCGGAT (white circles), leading to SARS-CRG virus. Since the wild-type and mutant TRS signals are not compatible in regulating subgenomic transcription ( ), a recombination event resulting in a viral genome with mixed TRS signals is not viable. (Bottom) The icSARS-CoV TRS is unique from that of other described CoVs. TRSs for selected group 1, 2, and 3 CoVs are summarized. At the bottom, the TRS selected to generate a safe recombinant SARS-CoV is indicated.

Citation: Enjuanes L, Dediego M, Alvarez E, Capiscol C, Baric R. 2008. Vaccines for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Other Coronaviruses, p 379-407. In Perlman S, Gallagher T, Snijder E (ed), Nidoviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815790.ch25
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Agapov, E. V.,, I. Frolov,, B. D. Lindenbach,, B. M. Pragai,, S. Schlesinger, and, C. M. Rice. 1998. Noncytopathic Sindbis virus RNA vectors for heterologous gene expression. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:1298912994.
2. Akerström, S.,, Y. J. Tan, and, A. Mirazimi. 2006. Amino acids 15-28 in the ectodomain of SARS coronavirus 3a protein induces [sic] neutralizing antibodies. FEBS Lett. 580:37993803.
3. Almazán, F.,, M. L. DeDiego,, C. Galán,, D. Escors,, E. Álvarez,, J. Ortego,, I. Sola,, S. Zuñiga,, S. Alonso,, J. L. Moreno,, A. Nogales,, C. Capiscol, and, L. Enjuanes. 2006. Construction of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infectious cDNA clone and a replicon to study coronavirus RNA synthesis. J. Virol. 80:1090010906.
4. Almazan, F.,, C. Galan, and, L. Enjuanes. 2004. The nucleoprotein is required for efficient coronavirus genome replication. J. Virol. 78:1268312688.
5. Almazán, F.,, J. M. González,, Z. Pénzes,, A. Izeta,, E. Calvo,, J. Plana-Durán, and, L. Enjuanes. 2000. Engineering the largest RNA virus genome as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:55165521.
6. Anton, I. M.,, S. Gonzalez,, M. J. Bullido,, M. Corsin,, C. Risco,, J. P. Langeveld, and, L. Enjuanes. 1996. Cooperation between transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) structural proteins in the in vitro induction of virus-specific antibodies. Virus Res. 46:111124.
7. Anton, I. M.,, C. Sune,, R. H. Meloen,, F. Borras-Cuesta, and, L. Enjuanes. 1995. A transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus nucleoprotein epitope elicits T helper cells that collaborate in the in vitro antibody synthesis to the three major structural viral proteins. Virology 212:746751.
8. Arvidson, Y.,, G. A. Tannock,, M. Zerbes, and, J. Ignjatovic. 1991. Efficacy of Australian vaccines against recent isolates of avian infectious bronchitis viruses. Aust. Vet. J. 68:211212.
9. Arvin, A. M., and, H. B. Greenberg. 2006. New viral vaccines. Virology 344:240249.
10. Baca-Estrada, M. E.,, X. Liang,, L. A. Babiuk, and, D. Yoo. 1995. Induction of mucosal immunity in cotton rats to haemagglutinin-esterase glycoprotein of bovine coronavirus by recombinant adenovirus. Immunology 86:134140.
11. Bae, J. L.,, J. G. Lee,, T. J. Kang,, H. S. Jang,, Y. S. Jang, and, M. S. Yang. 2003. Induction of antigen-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses by feeding animals transgenic plants expressing the antigen. Vaccine 21:40524058.
12. Baldwin, C. W., and, F. W. Scott. 1997. Attempted immunization of cats with feline infectious peritonitis virus propagated at reduced temperatures. Am. J. Vet. Res. 58:251256.
13. Ball, L. A.,, C. R. Pringle,, B. Flanagan,, V. P. Perepelitsa, and, G. W. Wertz. 1999. Phenotypic consequences of rearranging the P, M, and, G genes of vesicular stomatitis virus. J. Virol. 73:47054712.
14. Ballesteros, M. L.,, C. M. Sanchez, and, L. Enjuanes. 1997. Two amino acid changes at the N-terminus of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus spike protein result in the loss of enteric tropism. Virology 227:378388.
15. Baric, R. S.,, T. Sheahan,, D. Deming,, E. Donaldson,, B. Yount,, A. C. Sims,, R. S. Roberts,, M. Frieman, and, B. Rockx. 2006. SARS coronavirus vaccine development. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 581:553560.
16. Baric, R. S., and, A. C. Sims. 2005. Development of mouse hepatitis virus and SARS-CoV infectious cDNA constructs. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 287:229252.
17. Barlough, J. E.,, C. M. Johnson-Lussenburg,, C. A. Stoddart,, R. H. Jacobson, and, F. W. Scott. 1985. Experimental inoculation of cats with human coronavirus 229E and subsequent challenge with feline infectious peritonitis virus. Can. J. Comp. Med. 49:303307.
18. Barlough, J. E.,, C. A. Stoddart,, G. P. Soresso,, R. H. Jacobson, and, F. W. Scott. 1984. Experimental inoculation of cats with canine coronavirus and subsequent challenge with feline infectious peritonitis virus. Lab. Anim. Sci. 34:592597.
19. Bastien, N.,, K. Anderson,, L. Hart,, P. Van Caeseele,, K. Brandt,, D. Milley,, T. Hatchette,, E. C. Weiss, and, Y. Li. 2005. Human coronavirus NL63 infection in Canada. J. Infect. Dis. 191:503506.
20. Baudoux, P.,, C. Carrat,, L. Besnardeau,, B. Charley, and, H. Laude. 1998. Coronavirus pseudoparticles formed with recombinant M and E proteins induce alpha interferon synthesis by leukocytes. J. Virol. 72:86368643.
21. Berry, J. D.,, S. Jones,, M. A. Drebot,, A. Andonov,, M. Sabara,, X. Y. Yuan,, H. Weingartl,, L. Fernando,, P. Marszal,, J. Gren,, B. Nicolas,, M. Andonova,, F. Ranada,, M. J. Gubbins,, T. B. Ball,, P. Kitching,, Y. Li,, A. Kabani, and, F. Plummer. 2004. Development and characterization of neutralising monoclonal antibody to the SARS-coronavirus. J. Virol. Methods 120:8796.
22. Bestagno, M.,, I. Sola,, E. Dallegno,, P. Sabella,, M. Poggianella,, J. Plana-Duran,, L. Enjuanes, and, O. R. Burrone. 2007. Recombinant dimeric small immunoproteins neutralize transmissible gastroenteritis virus infectivity efficiently in vitro and confer passive immunity in vivo. J. Gen. Virol. 88:187195.
23. Bisht, H.,, A. Roberts,, L. Vogel,, A. Bukreyev,, P. L. Collins,, B. R. Murphy,, K. Subbarao, and, B. Moss. 2004. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein expressed by attenuated vaccinia virus protectively immunizes mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:66416646.
24. Bisht, H.,, A. Roberts,, L. Vogel,, K. Subbarao, and, B. Moss. 2005. Neutralizing antibody and protective immunity to SARS coronavirus infection of mice induced by a soluble recombinant polypeptide containing an N-terminal segment of the spike glycoprotein. Virology 334:160165.
25. Boots, A. M. H.,, B. J. Benaissatrouw,, W. Hesselink,, E. Rijke,, C. Schrier, and, E. J. Hensen. 1992. Induction of anti-viral immune responses by immunization with recombinant-DNA encoded avian coronavirus nucleocapsid protein. Vaccine 10:119124.
26. Boyer, J.,, A. Krause,, J. Qiu,, N. Hackett,, G. Kobinger,, Y. Zhi,, J. M. Wilson, and, R. G. Crystal. 2004. Anti-SARS humoral and cellular immunity evoked by an adenovirus vector expressing spike glycoprotein from SARS coronavirus. Mol. Ther. 9:210.
27. Bradbury, J. 2003. Custom-made vaccines at speed. Drug Discov. Today 8:518519.
28. Brim, T. A.,, J. L. Van Cott,, J. K. Lunney, and, L. J. Saif. 1995. Cellular immune responses of pigs after primary inoculation with porcine respiratory coronavirus or transmissible gastroenteritis virus and challenge with transmissible gastroenteritis virus. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 48:3554.
29. Brim, T. A.,, J. L. Van Cott,, J. K. Lunney, and, L. J. Saif. 1994. Lymphocyte proliferation responses of pigs inoculated with transmissible gastroenteritis virus or porcine respiratory coronavirus. Am. J. Vet. Res. 55:494501.
30. Britton, P.,, S. Evans,, B. Dove,, M. Davies,, R. Casais, and, D. Cavanagh. 2005. Generation of a recombinant avian corona-virus infectious bronchitis virus using transient dominant selection. J. Virol. Methods 123:203211.
31. Brockway, S. M., and, M. R. Denison. 2005. Mutagenesis of the murine hepatitis virus nsp1-coding region identifies residues important for protein processing, viral RNA synthesis, and viral replication. Virology 340:209223.
32. Buchholz, U. J.,, A. Bukreyev,, L. Yang,, E. W. Lamirande,, B. R. Murphy,, K. Subbarao, and, P. L. Collins. 2004. Contributions of the structural proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus to protective immunity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:98049809.
33. Bukreyev, A.,, E. W. Lamirande,, U. J. Buchholz,, L. N. Vogel,, W. R. Elkins,, M. St. Claire,, B. R. Murphy,, K. Subbarao, and, P. L. Collins. 2004. Mucosal immunisation of African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) with an attenuated parainfluenza virus expressing the SARS coronavirus spike protein for the prevention of SARS. Lancet 363:21222127.
34. Callebaut, P.,, L. Enjuanes, and, M. Pensaert. 1996. An adeno-virus recombinant expressing the spike glycoprotein of porcine respiratory coronavirus immunogenic in swine. J. Gen. Virol. 77:309313.
35. Carmichael, L. E. 1997. Vaccine for Dogs. Elsevier, New York, NY.
36. Casais, R.,, V. Thiel,, S. G. Siddell,, D. Cavanagh, and, P. Britton. 2001. Reverse genetics system for the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus. J. Virol. 75:1235912369.
37. Castro, R. F., and, S. Perlman. 1995. CD8 T-cell epitopes within the surface glycoprotein of a neurotropic coronavirus and correlation with pathogenicity. J. Virol. 69:81278131.
38. Cavanagh, D. 2003. Severe acute respiratory syndrome vaccine development: experiences of vaccination against avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus. Avian Pathol. 32:567582.
39. Cavanagh, D.,, K. Mawditt,, M. Sharma,, S. E. Drury,, H. L. Ainsworth,, P. Britton, and, R. E. Gough. 2001. Detection of a coronavirus from turkey poults in Europe genetically related to infectious bronchitis virus of chickens. Avian Pathol. 30:355368.
40. Chen, Z.,, L. Zhang,, C. Qin,, L. Ba,, C. E. Yi,, F. Zhang,, Q. Wei,, T. He,, W. Yu,, J. Yu,, H. Gao,, X. Tu,, A. Gettie,, M. Farzan,, K. Y. Yuen, and, D. D. Ho. 2005. Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing the spike glycoprotein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus induces protective neutralizing antibodies primarily targeting the receptor binding region. J. Virol. 79:26782688.
41. Chinese SARS Molecular Epidemiology Consortium. 2004. Molecular evolution of the SARS coronavirus during the course of the SARS epidemic in China. Science 303:16661669.
42. Chu, C. M.,, L. L. Poon,, V. C. Cheng,, K. S. Chan,, I. F. Hung,, M. M. Wong,, K. H. Chan,, W. S. Leung,, B. S. Tang,, V. L. Chan,, W. L. Ng,, T. C. Sim,, P. W. Ng,, K. I. Law,, D. M. Tse,, J. S. Peiris, and, K. Y. Yuen. 2004. Initial viral load and the outcomes of SARS. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 171:13491352.
43. Chunling, M.,, Y. Kun,, X. Jian,, Q. Jian,, S. Hua, and, Z. Minsheng. 2006. Enhanced induction of SARS-CoV nucleocapsid protein-specific immune response using DNA vaccination followed by adenovirus boosting in BALB/c mice. Intervirology 49:307318.
44. Compton, S. R.,, C. B. Stephensen,, S. W. Snyder,, D. G. Weismiller, and, K. V. Holmes. 1992. Coronavirus species specificity: murine coronavirus binds to a mouse-specific epitope on its carcinoembryonic antigen-related receptor glycoprotein. J. Virol. 66:74207428.
45. Cook, J. K. A.,, J. Chesher,, W. Baxendale,, N. Greenwood,, M. B. Huggins, and, S. J. Orbell. 2001. Protection of chickens against renal damage caused by a nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus. Avian Pathol. 30:423426.
46. Cook, J. K. A.,, S. J. Orbell,, M. A. Woods, and, M. B. Huggins. 1999. Breadth of protection of the respiratory tract provided by different live-attenuated infectious bronchitis vaccines against challenge with infectious bronchitis viruses of heterologous types. Avian Pathol. 28:471479.
47. Corapi, W. V.,, R. J. Darteil,, J.-C. Audonnet, and, G. E. Chappuis. 1995. Localization of antigenic sites of the S glycoprotein of feline infectious peritonitis virus involved in neutralization and antibody-dependent enhancement. J. Virol. 69:28582862.
48. Corapi, W. V.,, C. W. Olsen, and, F. W. Scott. 1992. Monoclonal antibody analysis of neutralization and antibody-dependent enhancement of feline infectious peritonitis virus. J. Virol. 66:66956705.
49. Corse, E., and, C. E. Machamer. 2003. The cytoplasmic tails of infectious bronchitis virus E and M proteins mediate their interaction. Virology 312:2534.
50. Corse, E., and, C. E. Machamer. 2000. Infectious bronchitis virus E protein is targeted to the Golgi complex and directs release of virus-like particles. J. Virol. 74:43194326.
51. Cox, E.,, J. Hooyberghs, and, M. B. Pensaert. 1990. Sites of replication of a porcine respiratory coronavirus related to transmissible gastroenteritis virus. Res. Vet. Sci. 48:165169.
52. Cox, E.,, M. B. Pensaert, and, P. Callebaut. 1993. Intestinal protection against challenge with transmissible gastroenteritis virus of pigs immune after infection with the porcine respiratory coronavirus. Vaccine 11:267272.
53. Cox, E.,, M. B. Pensaert,, P. Callebaut, and, K. van Deun. 1990. Intestinal replication of a porcine respiratory coronavirus closely related antigenically to the enteric transmissible gastroenteritis virus. Vet. Microbiol. 23:237243.
54. Crouch, C. F.,, S. Oliver,, D. C. Hearle,, A. Buckley,, A. J. Chapman, and, M. J. Francis. 2000. Lactogenic immunity following vaccination of cattle with bovine coronavirus. Vaccine 19:189196.
55. Curtis, K. M.,, B. Yount, and, R. S. Baric. 2002. Heterologous gene expression from transmissible gastroenteritis virus replicon particles. J. Virol. 76:14221434.
56. Daniel, C., and, P. J. Talbot. 1990. Protection from lethal coronavirus infection by affinity-purified spike glycoprotein of murine hepatitis virus, strain A59. Virology 174:8794.
57. Darbyshire, J. H., and, R. W. Peters. 1984. Sequential development of humoral immunity and assessment of protection in chickens following vaccination and challenge with avian infectious bronchitis virus. Res. Vet. Sci. 37:7786.
58. Darbyshire, J. H.,, J. G. Rowell,, J. K. Cook, and, R. W. Peters. 1979. Taxonomic studies on strains of avian infectious bronchitis virus using neutralisation tests in tracheal organ cultures. Arch. Virol. 61:227238.
59. DeDiego, M. L.,, E. Alvarez,, F. Almazan,, M. T. Rejas,, E. Lamirande,, A. Roberts,, W. J. Shieh,, S. R. Zaki,, K. Subbarao, and, L. Enjuanes. 2007. A severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus that lacks the E gene is attenuated in vitro and in vivo. J. Virol. 81:17011713.
60. de Haan, C. A.,, B. J. Haijema,, D. Boss,, F. W. Heuts, and, P. J. Rottier. 2005. Coronaviruses as vectors: stability of foreign gene expression. J. Virol. 79:1274212751.
61. de Haan, C. A.,, L. van Genne,, J. N. Stoop,, H. Volders, and, P. J. Rottier. 2003. Coronaviruses as vectors: position dependence of foreign gene expression. J. Virol. 77:1131211323.
62. de Haan,, C. A. M.,, P. S. Masters,, S. Shen,, S. Weiss, and, P. J., M. Rottier. 2002. The group-specific murine coronavirus genes are not essential, but their deletion, by reverse genetics, is attenuating in the natural host. Virology 296:177189.
63. de Haan, C. A. M.,, H. Vennema, and, P. J., M. Rottier. 2000. Assembly of the coronavirus envelope: homotypic interactions between the M proteins. J. Virol. 74:49674978.
64. de Haan, C. A. M.,, H. Volders,, C. A. Koetzner,, P. S. Masters, and, P. J., M. Rottier. 2002. Coronaviruses maintain viability despite dramatic rearrangements of the strictly conserved genome organization. J. Virol. 76:1249112502.
65. Delmas, B.,, J. Gelfi, and, H. Laude. 1986. Antigenic structure of transmissible gastroenteritis virus. II. Domains in the peplomer glycoprotein. J. Gen. Virol. 67:14051418.
66. Deming, D.,, T. Sheahan,, M. Heise,, B. Yount,, N. Davis,, A. Sims,, M. Suthar,, J. Harkema,, A. Whitmore,, R. Pickles,, A. West,, E. Donaldson,, K. Curtis,, R. Johnston, and, R. Baric. 2006. Vaccine efficacy in senescent mice challenged with recombinant SARS-CoV bearing epidemic and zoonotic spike variants. PLoS Med. 3:23592375.
67. Denison, M. R. 1999. The common cold. Rhinoviruses and coronaviruses, p. 253-280. In R. Dolin and P. F. Wright (ed.), Lung Biology in Health and Disease, vol. 127. Viral Infections of the Respiratory Tract. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY.
68. De Swart, R. L.,, T. Kuiken,, H. H. Timmerman,, G. van Amerongen,, B. G. Van Den Hoogen,, H. W. Vos,, H. J. Neijens,, A. C. Andeweg, and, A. D. Osterhaus. 2002. Immunization of macaques with formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) induces interleukin-13-associated hypersensitivity to subsequent RSV infection. J. Virol. 76:1156111569.
69. Donnelly, J. J.,, B. Wahren, and, M. A. Liu. 2005. DNA vaccines: progress and challenges. J. Immunol. 175:633639.
70. Drosten, C.,, S. Günther,, W. Preiser,, S. van der Werf,, H.-R. Brodt,, S. Becker,, H. Rabenau,, M. Panning,, L. Kolesnikova,, R. A., M. Fouchier,, A. Berger,, A.-M. Burguière,, J. Cinatl,, M. Eickmann,, N. Escriou,, K. Grywna,, S. Kramme,, J.-C. Manuguerra,, S. Müller,, V. Rickerts,, M. Stürmer,, S. Vieth,, H.-D. Klenk,, A. D., M. E. Osterhaus,, H. Schmitz, and, H. W. Doerr. 2003. Identification of a novel coronavirus in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 348:19671976.
71. Du, L.,, Y. He,, Y. Wang,, H. Zhang,, S. Ma,, C. K. Wong,, S. H. Wu,, F. Ng,, J. D. Huang,, K. Y. Yuen,, S. Jiang,, Y. Zhou, and, B. J. Zheng. 2006. Recombinant adeno-associated virus expressing the receptor-binding domain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus S protein elicits neutralizing antibodies: implication for developing SARS vaccines. Virology 353:616.
72. Enjuanes, L. (ed.). 2005. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology vol. 287. Coronavirus Replication and Reverse Genetics. Springer, Berlin, Germany.
73. Enjuanes, L.,, F. Almazan, and, J. Ortego. 2003. Virus-based vectors for gene expression in mammalian cells: coronavirus, p. 151-168. In S. C. Makrides (ed.), Gene Transfer and Expression in Mammalian Cells. Elsevier Science B.V., Boston, MA.
74. Enjuanes, L.,, M. L. DeDiego,, E. Alvarez,, D. Deming,, T. Sheahan, and, R. Baric. Vaccines to prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-induced disease. Virus Res., in press. [Epub ahead of print.] doi:10.1016/j.virres.2007.01.010.
75. Enjuanes, L.,, C. Smerdou,, J. Castilla,, I. M. Anton,, J. M. Torres,, I. Sola,, J. Golvano,, J. M. Sanchez, and, B. Pintado. 1995. Development of protection against coronavirus induced diseases. A review. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 380:197211.
76. Enjuanes, L.,, I. Sola,, F. Almazán,, J. Ortego,, A. Izeta,, J. M. González,, S. Alonso,, J. M. Sánchez-Morgado,, D. Escors,, E. Calvo,, C. Riquelme, and, C. M. Sánchez. 2001. Coronavirus derived expression systems. J. Biotechnol. 88:183204.
77. Enjuanes, L.,, I. Sola,, S. Alonso,, D. Escors, and, S. Zúñiga. 2005. Coronavirus reverse genetics and development of vectors for gene expression. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 287:161197.
78. Enjuanes, L., and, B. A. M. Van der Zeijst. 1995. Molecular basis of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus epidemiology, p. 337-376. In S. G. Siddell (ed.), The Coronaviridae. Plenum Press, New York, NY.
79. Faber, M.,, E. W. Lamirande,, A. Roberts,, A. B. Rice,, H. Koprowski,, B. Dietzschold, and, M. J. Schnell. 2005. A single immunization with a rhabdovirus-based vector expressing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) S protein results in the production of high levels of SARS-CoV-neutralizing antibodies. J. Gen. Virol. 86:14351440.
80. Farsang, A.,, C. Ros,, L. H. Renstrom,, C. Baule,, T. Soos, and, S. Belak. 2002. Molecular epizootiology of infectious bronchitis virus in Sweden indicating the involvement of a vaccine strain. Avian Pathol. 31:229236.
81. Fehr, D.,, E. Holznagel,, S. Bolla,, B. Hauser,, A. A. Herrewegh,, M. C. Horzinek, and, H. Lutz. 1997. Placebo-controlled evaluation of a modified live virus vaccine against feline infectious peritonitis: safety and efficacy under field conditions. Vaccine 15:11011109.
82. Fischer, F.,, C. F. Stegen,, C. A. Koetzner, and, P. S. Masters. 1997. Analysis of a recombinant mouse hepatitis virus expressing a foreign gene reveals a novel aspect of coronavirus transcription. J. Virol. 71:51485160.
83. Frasca, D.,, R. L. Riley, and, B. B. Blomberg. 2005. Humoral immune response and B-cell functions including immunoglobulin class switch are downregulated in aged mice and humans. Semin. Immunol. 17:378384.
84. Frech, S. A.,, R. T. Kenney,, C. A. Spyr,, H. Lazar,, J. F. Viret,, C. Herzog,, R. Gluck, and, G. M. Glenn. 2005. Improved immune responses to influenza vaccination in the elderly using an immunostimulant patch. Vaccine 23:946950.
85. Frolov, I.,, T. A. Hoffman,, B. M. Prágai,, S. A. Dryga,, H. V. Huang,, S. Schlesinger, and, C. M. Rice. 1996. Alphavirus-based expression vectors: strategies and applications. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:1137111377.
86. Fulker, R.,, T. Wasmoen,, R. Atchison,, H. J. Chu, and, W. Acree. 1995. Efficacy of an inactivated vaccine against clinical disease caused by canine coronavirus. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 380:229234.
87. Gao, W.,, A. Tamin,, A. Soloff,, L. D’Aiuto,, E. Nwanegbo,, P. D. Robbins,, W. J. Bellini,, S. Barratt-Boyes, and, A. Gambotto. 2003. Effects of a SARS-associated coronavirus vaccine in monkeys. Lancet 362:18951896.
88. Gebauer, F.,, W. A., P. Posthumus,, I. Correa,, C. Suñé,, C. M. Sánchez,, C. Smerdou,, J. A. Lenstra,, R. Meloen, and, L. Enjuanes. 1991. Residues involved in the formation of the antigenic sites of the S protein of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus. Virology 183:225238.
89. Gelb, J.,, Jr., Y. Weisman,, B. S. Ladman, and, R. Meir. 2005. S1 gene characteristics and efficacy of vaccination against infectious bronchitis virus field isolates from the United States and Israel (1996 to 2000). Avian Pathol. 34:194203.
90. Gerber, J. D. 1995. Overview of the development of a modified live temperature sensitive FIPV vaccine. Feline Pract. 23:6266.
91. Gerber, J. D.,, J. D. Ingersoll,, A. M. Gast,, K. K. Christianson,, N. L. Selzer,, R. M. Landon,, N. E. Pfeiffer,, R. L. Sharpee, and, W. H. Beckenhauer. 1990. Protection against feline infectious peritonitis by intranasal inoculation of a temperature-sensitive FIPV vaccine. Vaccine 8:536541.
92. German, A. C.,, C. R. Helps, and, D. A. Harbour. 2004. FIP: a novel approach to vaccination. Proceedings from the 2nd International FCoV/FIP Symposium, Glasgow, 4-7 August 2002. J. Feline Med. Surg. 6:119124.
93. Gerna, G.,, G. Campanini,, F. Rovida,, E. Percivalle,, A. Sarasini,, A. Marchi, and, F. Baldanti. 2006. Genetic variability of human coronavirus OC43-, 229E-, and NL63-like strains and their association with lower respiratory tract infections of hospitalized infants and immunocompromised patients. J. Med. Virol. 78:938949.
94. Glansbeek, H. L.,, B. L. Haagmans,, E. G. te Lintelo,, H. F. Egberink,, V. Duquesne,, A. Aubert,, M. C. Horzinek, and, P. J. Rottier. 2002. Adverse effects of feline IL-12 during DNA vaccination against feline infectious peritonitis virus. J. Gen. Virol. 83:110.
95. Glass, W. G.,, K. Subbarao,, B. Murphy, and, P. M. Murphy. 2004. Mechanisms of host defense following severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) pulmonary infection of mice. J. Immunol. 173:40304039.
96. Godeke, G. J.,, C. A. de Haan,, J. W. Rossen,, H. Vennema, and, P. J. Rottier. 2000. Assembly of spikes into coronavirus particles is mediated by the carboxy-terminal domain of the spike protein. J. Virol. 74:15661571.
97. Gonzalez, J. M.,, P. Gomez-Puertas,, D. Cavanagh,, A. E. Gorbalenya, and, L. Enjuanes. 2003. A comparative sequence analysis to revise the current taxonomy of the family Coronaviridae. Arch. Virol. 148:22072235.
98. Gonzalez, J. M.,, Z. Penzes,, F. Almazan,, E. Calvo, and, L. Enjuanes. 2002. Stabilization of a full-length infectious cDNA clone of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus by the insertion of an intron. J. Virol. 76:46554661.
99. Gough, R. E., and, D. J. Alexander. 1979. Comparison of duration of immunity in chickens infected with a live infectious bronchitis vaccine by three different routes. Res. Vet. Sci. 26:329332.
100. Graham, R. L.,, A. C. Sims,, S. M. Brockway,, R. S. Baric, and, M. R. Denison. 2005. The nsp2 replicase proteins of murine hepatitis virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus are dispensable for viral replication. J. Virol. 79:1339913411.
101. Gupta, V.,, T. M. Tabiin,, K. Sun,, A. Chandrasekaran,, A. Anwar,, K. Yang,, P. Chikhlikar,, J. Salmon,, V. Brusic,, E. T. Marques,, S. N. Kellathur, and, T. J. August. 2006. SARS coronavirus nucleocapsid immunodominant T-cell epitope cluster is common to both exogenous recombinant and endogenous DNA-encoded immunogens. Virology 347:127139.
102. Haijema, B. J.,, H. Volders, and, P. J. Rottier. 2004. Live, attenuated coronavirus vaccines through the directed deletion of group-specific genes provide protection against feline infectious peritonitis. J. Virol. 78:38633871.
103. Haijema, B. J.,, H. Volders, and, P. J., M. Rottier. 2003. Switching species tropism: an effective way to manipulate the feline coronavirus genome. J. Virol. 77:45284538.
104. Hancock, G. E.,, D. J. Speelman,, K. Heers,, E. Bortell,, J. Smith, and, C. Cosco. 1996. Generation of atypical pulmonary inflammatory responses in BALB/c mice after immunization with the native attachment (G) glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus. J. Virol. 70:77837791.
105. Hasoksuz, M.,, S. L. Lathrop,, K. L. Gadfield, and, L. J. Saif. 1999. Isolation of bovine respiratory coronaviruses from feedlot cattle and comparison of their biological and antigenic properties with bovine enteric coronaviruses. Am. J. Vet. Res. 60:12271233.
106. He, Y.,, J. Li,, S. Heck,, S. Lustigman, and, S. Jiang. 2006. Antigenic and immunogenic characterization of recombinant baculovirus-expressed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein: implication for vaccine design. J. Virol. 80:57575767.
107. He, Y.,, J. Li,, W. Li,, S. Lustigman,, M. Farzan, and, S. Jiang. 2006. Cross-neutralization of human and palm civet severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses by antibodies targeting the receptor-binding domain of spike protein. J. Immunol. 176:60856092.
108. Hebben, M.,, V. Duquesne,, J. Cronier,, B. Rossi, and, A. Aubert. 2004. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara as a vaccine against feline coronavirus: immunogenicity and efficacy. J. Feline Med. Surg. 6:111118.
109. Ho, Y.,, P. H. Lin,, C. Y. Liu,, S. P. Lee, and, Y. C. Chao. 2004. Assembly of human severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-like particles. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 318:833838.
110. Hogan, R. J.,, G. Gao,, T. Rowe,, P. Bell,, D. Flieder,, J. Paragas,, G. P. Kobinger,, N. A. Wivel,, R. G. Crystal,, J. Boyer,, H. Feldmann,, T. G. Voss, and, J. M. Wilson. 2004. Resolution of primary severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus infection requires Stat1. J. Virol. 78:1141611421.
111. Holmes, K. V., and, S. R. Compton. 1995. Coronavirus receptors, p. 55-72. In S. G. Siddell (ed.), The Coronaviridae. Plenum Press, New York, NY.
112. Holmes, K. V., and, L. Enjuanes. 2003. The SARS coronavirus: a postgenomic era. Science 300:13771378.
113. Hu, S.,, J. Bruszewski,, R. Smallig, and, J. K. Browne. 1987. Studies of TGEV spike protein GP195 expressed in E. coli and by a TGE-vaccinia virus recombinant, p. 63-82. In M. Zouhair Attasi and H. L. Bachrach (ed.), Immunobiology of Proteins and Peptides—III. Viral and Bacterial Antigens. Plenum Press, New York, NY.
114. Huang, C.,, N. Ito,, C. T. Tseng, and, S. Makino. 2006. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 7a accessory protein is a viral structural protein. J. Virol. 80:72877294.
115. Huang, C.,, K. Narayanan,, N. Ito,, C. J. Peters, and, S. Makino. 2006. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 3a protein is released in membranous structures from 3a protein-expressing cells and infected cells. J. Virol. 80:210217.
116. Huang, Y.,, Z. Y. Yang,, W. P. Kong, and, G. J. Nabel. 2004. Generation of synthetic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus pseudoparticles: implications for assembly and vaccine production. J. Virol. 78:1255712565.
117. Huang, Y. P., and, C. H. Wang. 2006. Development of attenuated vaccines from Taiwanese infectious bronchitis virus strains. Vaccine 24:785791.
118. Hung, I. F.,, V. C. Cheng,, A. K. Wu,, B. S. Tang,, K. H. Chan,, C. M. Chu,, M. M. Wong,, W. T. Hui,, L. L. Poon,, D. M. Tse,, K. S. Chan,, P. C. Woo,, S. K. Lau,, J. S. Peiris, and, K. Y. Yuen. 2004. Viral loads in clinical specimens and SARS manifestations. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:15501557.
119. Ignjatovic, J., and, L. Galli. 1994. The S1 glycoprotein but not the N or M proteins of avian infectious bronchitis virus induces protection in vaccinated chickens. Arch. Virol. 138:117134.
120. Ignjatovic, J., and, P. G. McWaters. 1991. Monoclonal antibodies to three structural proteins of avian infectious bronchitis virus: characterization of epitopes and antigenic differentiation of Australian strains. J. Gen. Virol. 72:29152922.
121. Ishii, K.,, H. Hasegawa,, N. Nagata,, T. Mizutani,, S. Morikawa,, T. Suzuki,, F. Taguchi,, M. Tashiro,, T. Takemori,, T. Miyamura, and, Y. Tsunetsugu-Yokota. 2006. Induction of protective immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome corona-virus (SARS-CoV) infection using highly attenuated recombinant vaccinia virus DIs. Virology 351:368380.
122. Ito, N.,, E. C. Mossel,, K. Narayanan,, V. L. Popov,, C. Huang,, T. Inoue,, C. J. Peters, and, S. Makino. 2005. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 3a protein is a viral structural protein. J. Virol. 79:31823186.
123. Jackwood, M. W.,, D. A. Hilt, and, T. P. Brown. 2003. Attenuation, safety, and efficacy of an infectious bronchitis virus GA98 serotype vaccine. Avian Dis. 47:627632.
124. Jacobs, L.,, R. De Groot,, B. A., M. Van der Zeijst,, M. C. Horzinek, and, W. Spaan. 1987. The nucleotide sequence of the peplomer gene of porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV): comparison with the sequence of the peplomer protein of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). Virus Res. 8:363371.
125. Jeffers, S. A.,, S. M. Tusell,, L. Gillim-Ross,, E. M. Hemmila,, J. E. Achenbach,, G. J. Babcock,, W. D. Thomas,, Jr., L., B. Thackray,, M. D. Young,, R. J. Mason,, D. M. Ambrosino,, D. E. Wentworth,, J. C. Demartini, and, K. V. Holmes. 2004. CD209L (L-SIGN) is a receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:1574815753.
126. Jiang, S.,, Y. He, and, S. Liu. 2005. SARS vaccine development. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:10161020.
127. Jin, H.,, C. Xiao,, Z. Chen,, Y. Kang,, Y. Ma,, K. Zhu,, Q. Xie,, Y. Tu,, Y. Yu, and, B. Wang. 2005. Induction of Th1 type response by DNA vaccinations with N, M, and E genes against SARS-CoV in mice. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 328:979986.
128. Kamitani, W.,, K. Narayanan,, C. Huang,, K. Lokugamage,, T. Ikegami,, N. Ito,, H. Kubo, and, S. Makino. 2006. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nsp1 protein suppresses host gene expression by promoting host mRNA degradation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:1288512890.
129. Kan, B.,, M. Wang,, H. Jing,, H. Xu,, X. Jiang,, M. Yan,, W. Liang,, H. Zheng,, K. Wan,, Q. Liu,, B. Cui,, Y. Xu,, E. Zhang,, H. Wang,, J. Ye,, G. Li,, M. Li,, Z. Cui,, X. Qi,, K. Chen,, L. Du,, K. Gao,, Y. T. Zhao,, X. Z. Zou,, Y. J. Feng,, Y. F. Gao,, R. Hai,, D. Yu,, Y. Guan, and, J. Xu. 2005. Molecular evolution analysis and geographic investigation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-like virus in palm civets at an animal market and on farms. J. Virol. 79:1189211900.
130. Kapadia, S. U.,, J. K. Rose,, E. Lamirande,, L. Vogel,, K. Subbarao, and, A. Roberts. 2005. Long-term protection from SARS coronavirus infection conferred by a single immunization with an attenuated VSV-based vaccine. Virology 340:174182.
131. Keng, C. T.,, A. Zhang,, S. Shen,, K. M. Lip,, B. C. Fielding,, T. H. Tan,, C. F. Chou,, C. B. Loh,, S. Wang,, J. Fu,, X. Yang,, S. G. Lim,, W. Hong, and, Y. J. Tan. 2005. Amino acids 1055 to 1192 in the S2 region of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus S protein induce neutralizing antibodies: implications for the development of vaccines and antiviral agents. J. Virol. 79:32893296.
132. Kim, H. W.,, J. G. Canchola,, C. D. Brandt,, G. Pyles,, R. M. Chanock,, K. Jensen, and, R. H. Parrott. 1969. Respiratory syncytial virus disease in infants despite prior administration of antigenic inactivated vaccine. Am. J. Epidemiol. 89:422434.
133. Kim, T. S., and, S. Perlman. 2003. Protection against CTL escape and clinical disease in a murine model of virus persistence. J. Immunol. 171:20062013.
134. Kim, T. W.,, J. H. Lee,, C. F. Hung,, S. Peng,, R. Roden,, M. C. Wang,, R. Viscidi,, Y. C. Tsai,, L. He,, P. J. Chen,, D. A. Boyd, and, T. C. Wu. 2004. Generation and characterization of DNA vaccines targeting the nucleocapsid protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. J. Virol. 78:46384645.
135. Kiss, I.,, A. M. Poland, and, N. C. Pedersen. 2004. Disease outcome and cytokine responses in cats immunized with an avirulent feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV)-UCD1 and challenge-exposed with virulent FIPV-UCD8. J. Feline Med. Surg. 6:8997.
136. Kiyono, H.,, P. L. Ogra, and, J. R. McGhee. 1996. Mucosal Vaccines. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, CA.
137. Klepfer, S.,, A. P. Reed,, M. Martinez,, B. Bhogal,, E. Jones, and, T. J. Miller. 1995. Cloning and expression of FECV spike gene in vaccinia virus. Immunization with FECV S causes early death after FIPV challenge. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 380:235241.
138. Koch, G.,, L. Hartog,, A. Kant, and, D. J. van Roozelaar. 1990. Antigenic domains on the peplomer protein of avian infectious bronchitis virus: correlation with biological functions. J. Gen. Virol. 71:19291935.
139. Kong, W. P.,, L. Xu,, K. Stadler,, J. B. Ulmer,, S. Abrignani,, R. Rappuoli, and, G. J. Nabel. 2005. Modulation of the immune response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome spike glycoprotein by gene-based and inactivated virus immunization. J. Virol. 79:1391513923.
140. Koo, M.,, M. Bendahmane,, G. A. Lettieri,, A. D. Paoletti,, T. E. Lane,, J. H. Fitchen,, M. J. Buchmeier, and, R. N. Beachy. 1999. Protective immunity against murine hepatitis virus (MHV) induced by intranasal or subcutaneous administration of hybrids of tobacco mosaic virus that carries an MHV epitope. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:77747779.
141. Koolen, M., J. M.,, M. A., J. Borst,, M. C. Horzinek, and, W. J., M. Spaan. 1990. Immunogenic peptide comprising a mouse hepatitis virus A59 B-cell epitope and an influenza virus T-cell epitope protects against lethal infection. J. Virol. 64:62706273.
142. Kopecky-Bromberg, S. A.,, L. Martinez-Sobrido,, M. Frieman,, R. A. Baric, and, P. Palese. 2007. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus open reading frame (ORF) 3b, ORF 6, and nucleocapsid proteins function as interferon antagonists. J. Virol. 81:548557.
143. Kuo, L.,, G.-J. Godeke,, M. J., B. Raamsman,, P. S. Masters, and, P. J., M. Rottier. 2000. Retargeting of coronavirus by substitution of the spike glycoprotein ectodomain: crossing the host cell species barrier. J. Virol. 74:13931406.
144. Kuo, L., and, P. S. Masters. 2003. The small envelope protein E is not essential for murine coronavirus replication. J. Virol. 77:45974608.
145. Kusters, J. G.,, E. J. Jager,, H. G. Niesters, and, B., A. Van der Zeijst. 1990. Sequence evidence for RNA recombination in field isolates of avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus. Vaccine 8:605.
146. Ladman, B. S.,, C. R. Pope,, A. F. Ziegler,, T. Swieczkowski,, C. J. Callahan,, S. Davison, and, J. Gelb, Jr. 2002. Protection of chickens after live and inactivated virus vaccination against challenge with nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus PA/Wolgemuth/98. Avian Dis. 46:938944.
147. Lai, M. M. C., and, D. Cavanagh. 1997. The molecular biology of coronaviruses. Adv. Virus Res. 48:1100.
148. Lamphear, B. J.,, J. M. Jilka,, L. Kesl,, M. Welter,, J. A. Howard, and, S. J. Streatfield. 2004. A corn-based delivery system for animal vaccines: an oral transmissible gastroenteritis virus vaccine boosts lactogenic immunity in swine. Vaccine 22:24202424.
149. Lamphear, B. J.,, S. J. Streatfield,, J. M. Jilka,, C. A. Brooks,, D. K. Barker,, D. D. Turner,, D. E. Delaney,, M. Garcia,, B. Wiggins,, S. L. Woodard,, E. E. Hood,, I. R. Tizard,, B. Lawhorn, and, J. A. Howard. 2002. Delivery of subunit vaccines in maize seed. J. Control. Release 85:169180.
150. Lau, S. K.,, P. C. Woo,, K. S. Li,, Y. Huang,, H. W. Tsoi,, B. H. Wong,, S. S. Wong,, S. Y. Leung,, K. H. Chan, and, K. Y. Yuen. 2005. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-like virus in Chinese horseshoe bats. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:1404014045.
151. Laude, H.,, K. Van Reeth, and, M. Pensaert. 1993. Porcine respiratory coronavirus: molecular features and virus-host interactions. Vet. Res. 24:125150.
152. Li, W.,, Z. Shi,, M. Yu,, W. Ren,, C. Smith,, J. H. Epstein,, H. Wang,, G. Crameri,, Z. Hu,, H. Zhang,, J. Zhang,, J. McEachern,, H. Field,, P. Daszak,, B. T. Eaton,, S. Zhang, and, L. F. Wang. 2005. Bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses. Science 310:676679.
153. Lin, K. Y.,, H. C. Wang, and, C. H. Wang. 2005. Protective effect of vaccination in chicks with local infectious bronchitis viruses against field virus challenge. J. Microbiol. Immunol. Infect. 38:2530.
154. Liu, I. J.,, P. R. Hsueh,, C. T. Lin,, C. Y. Chiu,, C. L. Kao,, M. Y. Liao, and, H. C. Wu. 2004. Disease-specific B cell epitopes for serum antibodies from patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and serologic detection of SARS antibodies by epitope-based peptide antigens. J. Infect. Dis. 190:797809.
155. Liu, R. Y.,, L. Z. Wu,, B. J. Huang,, J. L. Huang,, Y. L. Zhang,, M. L. Ke,, J. M. Wang,, W. P. Tan,, R. H. Zhang,, H. K. Chen,, Y. X. Zeng, and, W. Huang. 2005. Adenoviral expression of a truncated S1 subunit of SARS-CoV spike protein results in specific humoral immune responses against SARS-CoV in rats. Virus Res. 112:2431.
156. Liu, S. J.,, C. H. Leng,, S. P. Lien,, H. Y. Chi,, C. Y. Huang,, C. L. Lin,, W. C. Lian,, C. J. Chen,, S. L. Hsieh, and, P. Chong. 2006. Immunological characterizations of the nucleocapsid protein based SARS vaccine candidates. Vaccine 24:31003108.
157. Makino, S.,, J. O. Fleming,, J. G. Keck,, S. T. Stohlman, and, M. M., C. Lai. 1987. RNA recombination of coronaviruses: localization of neutralizing epitopes and neuropathogenic determinants on the carboxyl terminus of peplomers. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:65676571.
158. Marra, M. A.,, S. J., M. Jones,, C. R. Astell,, R. A. Holt,, A. Brooks-Wilson,, Y. S., N. Butterfield,, J. Khattra,, J. K. Asano,, S. A. Barber,, S. Y. Chan,, A. Cloutier,, S. M. Coughlin,, D. Freeman,, N. Girn,, O. L. Griffith,, S. R. Leach,, M. Mayo,, H. McDonald,, S. B. Montgomery,, P. K. Pandoh,, A. S. Petrescu,, A. G. Robertson,, J. E. Schein,, A. Siddiqui,, D. E. Smailus,, J. M. Stott,, G. S. Yang,, F. Plummer,, A. Andonov,, H. Artsob,, N. Bastien,, K. Bernard,, T. F. Booth,, D. Bowness,, M. Czub,, M. Drebot,, L. Fernando,, R. Flick,, M. Garbutt,, M. Gray,, A. Grolla,, S. Jones,, H. Feldmann,, A. Meyers,, A. Kabani,, Y. Li,, S. Normand,, U. Stroher,, G. A. Tipples,, S. Tyler,, R. Vogrig,, D. Ward,, B. Watson,, R. C. Brunham,, M. Krajden,, M. Petric,, D. M. Skowronski,, C. Upton, and, R. L. Roper. 2003. The genome sequence of the SARS-associated coronavirus. Science 300:13991404.
159. Marshall, E., and, M. Enserink. 2004. Medicine. Caution urged on SARS vaccines. Science 303:944946.
160. Martin, M. L. 1985. Canine coronavirus enteritis and a recent outbreak following modified-live virus vaccination. Comp. Cont. Educ. Pract. Vet. 7:10131017.
161. Martina, B. E.,, B. L. Haagmans,, T. Kuiken,, R. A. Fouchier,, G. F. Rimmelzwaan,, G. Van Amerongen,, J. S. Peiris,, W. Lim, and, A. D. Osterhaus. 2003. SARS virus infection of cats and ferrets. Nature 425:915.
162. Masters, P. S., and, P. J. Rottier. 2005. Coronavirus reverse genetics by targeted RNA recombination. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 287:133159.
163. Matthijs, M. G.,, J. H. van Eck,, J. J. de Wit,, A. Bouma, and, J. A. Stegeman. 2005. Effect of IBV-H120 vaccination in broilers on colibacillosis susceptibility after infection with a virulent Massachusetts-type IBV strain. Avian Dis. 49:540545.
164. McArdle, F.,, B. Tennant,, M. Bennet,, D. F. Kelly,, C. J. Gaskell, and, R. M. Gaskell. 1995. Independent evaluation of a modified live FIPV vaccine under experimental conditions (University of Liverpool experiences). Feline Pract. 23:6771.
165. McAuliffe, J.,, L. Vogel,, A. Roberts,, G. Fahle,, S. Fischer,, W. J. Shieh,, E. Butler,, S. Zaki,, M. St. Claire,, B. Murphy, and, K. Subbarao. 2004. Replication of SARS coronavirus administered into the respiratory tract of African Green, rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys. Virology 330:815.
166. McElhaney, J. E. 2005. The unmet need in the elderly: designing new influenza vaccines for older adults. Vaccine 23 (Suppl. 1):1025.
167. Meulemans, M.,, M. Boschmans,, T. P. Decaesstecker,, P. van den Berg,, D. Denis, and, G. Cavanagh. 2001. Epidemiology of infectious bronchitis virus in Belgian broilers: a retrospective study, 1986 to 1995. Avian Pathol. 30:411421.
168. Mortola, E., and, P. Roy. 2004. Efficient assembly and release of SARS coronavirus-like particles by a heterologous expression system. FEBS Lett. 576:174178.
169. Newby, T. J. 1984. Protective immune responses in the intestinal tract, p. 143-198. In T. J. Newby and C. R. Stokes (ed.), Local Immune Responses of the Gut. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
170. Ng, P. C.,, C. W. Leung,, W. K. Chiu,, S. F. Wong, and, E. K. Hon. 2004. SARS in newborns and children. Biol. Neonate 85:293298.
171. O’Connor, A.,, S. W. Martin,, E. Nagy,, P. Menzies, and, R. Harland. 2001. The relationship between the occurrence of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease and titer changes to bovine coronavirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus in 3 Ontario feedlots. Can. J. Vet. Res. 65:137142.
172. Ogra, P. L. 1996. Mucosal immunoprophylaxis: an introductory overview. In H. Kiyono, P. L. Ogra, and J. R. McGhee (ed.), Mucosal Vaccine. Academic Press., San Diego, CA.
173. Ogra, P. L.,, J. Mestechy,, M. E. Lann,, W. Strober,, J. Bienenstock, and, J. R. McGhee. 1999. Mucosal Immunity, 2nd ed. Academic Press, London, United Kingdom.
174. Olsen, C. W. 1993. A review of feline infectious peritonitis virus: molecular biology, immunopathogenesis, clinical aspects, and vaccination. Vet. Microbiol. 36:137.
175. Olsen, C. W.,, W. V. Corapi,, R. H. Jacobson,, R. A. Simkins,, L. J. Saif, and, F. W. Scott. 1993. Identification of antigenic sites mediating antibody-dependent enhancement of feline infectious peritonitis virus infectivity. J. Gen. Virol. 74:745749.
176. Olsen, C. W.,, W. V. Corapi,, C. K. Ngichabe,, J. D. Baines, and, F. W. Scott. 1992. Monoclonal antibodies to the spike protein of feline infectious peritonitis virus mediate antibody-dependent enhancement of infection of feline macrophages. J. Virol. 66:956965.
177. Ortego, J.,, D. Escors,, H. Laude, and, L. Enjuanes. 2002. Generation of a replication-competent, propagation-deficient virus vector based on the transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus genome. J. Virol. 76:1151811529.
178. Ortego, J.,, I. Sola,, F. Almazan,, J. E. Ceriani,, C. Riquelme,, M. Balasch,, J. Plana-Durán, and, L. Enjuanes. 2003. Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus gene 7 is not essential but influences in vivo virus replication and virulence. Virology 308:1322.
179. Pang, H.,, Y. Liu,, X. Han,, Y. Xu,, F. Jiang,, D. Wu,, X. Kong,, M. Bartlam, and, Z. Rao. 2004. Protective humoral responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus: implications for the design of an effective protein-based vaccine. J. Gen. Virol. 85:31093113.
180. Pedersen, N. C. 1987. Virologic and immunologic aspects of feline infectious peritonitis virus infection. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 218:529550.
181. Pedersen, N. C.,, J. F. Boyle,, K. Floyd,, A. Fudge, and, J. Barker. 1981. An enteric coronavirus infection of cats and its relationship to feline infectious peritonitis. Am. J. Vet. Res. 42:368377.
182. Pedersen, N. C., and, K. Floyd. 1985. Experimental studies with three new strains of feline infectious peritonitis virus: FIPV-UCD2, FIPV-UCD3, and FIPV-UCD4. Comp. Cont. Educ. Pract. Vet. 7:10011011.
183. Peiris, J. S.,, K. Y. Yuen,, A. D. Osterhaus, and, K. Stohr. 2003. The severe acute respiratory syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 349:24312441.
184. Peiris, J. S. M.,, S. T. Lai,, L. L., M. Poon,, Y. Guan,, L. Y., C. Yam,, W. Lim,, J. Nicholls,, W. K., S. Yee,, W. W. Yan, and, M. T. Cheung. 2003. Coronavirus as a possible cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Lancet 361:13191325.
185. Peng, H.,, L. T. Yang,, L. Y. Wang,, J. Li,, J. Huang,, Z. Q. Lu,, R. A. Koup,, R. T. Bailer, and, C. Y. Wu. 2006. Long-lived memory T lymphocyte responses against SARS coronavirus nucleocapsid protein in SARS-recovered patients. Virology 351:466475.
186. Pensaert, M. B., and, P. De Bouck. 1978. A new coronavirus-like particle associated with diarrhea in swine. Arch. Virol. 58:243247.
187. Penzes, Z.,, J. M. González,, E. Calvo,, A. Izeta,, C. Smerdou,, A. Mendez,, C. M. Sánchez,, I. Sola,, F. Almazán, and, L. Enjuanes. 2001. Complete genome sequence of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus PUR46-MAD clone and evolution of the Purdue virus cluster. Virus Genes 23:105118.
188. Perlman, S. 1998. Pathogenesis of coronavirus-induced infections: review of pathological and immunological aspects. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 440:503514.
189. Pewe, L.,, S. Xue, and, S. Perlman. 1998. Infection with cytotoxic T-lymphocyte escape mutants results in increased mortality and growth retardation in mice infected with a neurotropic coronavirus. J. Virol. 72:59125918.
190. Plummer, P. J.,, B. W. Rohrbach,, R. A. Daugherty,, R. A. Daugherty,, K. V. Thomas,, R. P. Wilkes,, F. E. Duggan, and, M. A. Kennedy. 2004. Effect of intranasal vaccination against bovine enteric coronavirus on the occurrence of respiratory tract disease in a commercial backgrounding feedlot. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 225:726731.
191. Poccia, F.,, C. Agrati,, C. Castilletti,, L. Bordi,, C. Gioia,, D. Horejsh,, G. Ippolito,, P. K., S. Chan,, D. S., C. Hui,, J. J., Y. Sung,, M. R. Capobianchi, and, M. Malkovsky. 2006. Anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus immune responses: the role played by Vγ9Vδ2 T cells. J. Infect. Dis. 193:12441249.
192. Poon, L. L.,, D. K. Chu,, K. H. Chan,, O. K. Wong,, T. M. Ellis,, Y. H. Leung,, S. K. Lau,, P. C. Woo,, K. Y. Suen,, K. Y. Yuen,, Y. Guan, and, J. S. Peiris. 2005. Identification of a novel coronavirus in bats. J. Virol. 79:20012009.
193. Porterfield, J. S. 1986. Antibody-dependent enhancement of viral infectivity. Adv. Virus Res. 31:335355.
194. Posthumus, W. P. A.,, J. A. Lenstra,, W. M., M. Schaaper,, A. P. van Nieuwstadt,, L. Enjuanes, and, R. H. Meloen. 1990. Analysis and simulation of a neutralizing epitope of transmissible gastroenteritis virus. J. Virol. 64:33043309.
195. Pratelli, A.,, A. Tinelli,, N. Decaro,, F. Cirone,, G. Elia,, S. Roperto,, M. Tempesta, and, C. Buonavoglia. 2003. Efficacy of an inactivated canine coronavirus vaccine in pups. New Microbiol. 26:151155.
196. Pratelli, A.,, A. Tinelli,, N. Decaro,, V. Martella,, M. Camero,, M. Tempesta,, M. Martini,, L. E. Carmichael, and, C. Buonavoglia. 2004. Safety and efficacy of a modified-live canine coronavirus vaccine in dogs. Vet. Microbiol. 99:4349.
197. Pyrc, K.,, M. F. Jebbink,, B. Berkhout, and, L. van der Hoek. 2004. Genome structure and transcriptional regulation of human coronavirus NL63. Virol. J. 1:17.
198. Qin, C.,, J. Wang,, Q. Wei,, M. She,, W. A. Marasco,, H. Jiang,, X. Tu,, H. Zhu,, L. Ren,, H. Gao,, L. Guo,, L. Huang,, R. Yang,, Z. Cong,, Y. Wang,, Y. Liu,,