Chapter 6 : Regulation and Function of the Envelope Stress Response Controlled by σ

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This chapter discusses regulation and function of the σ envelope stress response. σ is regulated by its antisigma factor, RseA. The cytoplasmic fragment of RseA is degraded by ClpXP, an ATPdependent cytoplasmic protease, and active σ is released. This proteolytic cascade is activated by unassembled porins, which accumulate during appropriate envelope stress. Degradation of RseA by appropriate envelope stress releases σ that is active for transcription. Two issues remain to be resolved concerning the proposed mechanism of induction. First, the critical contact between DegS and the porin is made by the -1 position of the peptide, an amino acid that is not a critical determinant of induction ability. Second, whereas wild-type (wt) DegS is active only in the presence of added C-terminal peptides, DegSΔPDZ cleaves RseA on its own. The current validated σ regulon in K-12 is presented. It was recently shown that numerous proteins localized to the cytoplasmic membrane are controlled by σ , including two proteins essential for lipoprotein maturation: signal peptidase II and CutE. The porin signal allows the cell to use the σ response to respond to general envelope stress as well as specific problems in porin/LPS status. The core function of the regulon is to maintain porin and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) homeostasis so that the barrier function of the cell is intact. The signal transduction system and the transcriptional circuitry of the core regulon are set up to ensure that this function is performed efficiently.

Citation: Carol A. G, Virgil A. R, Irina L. G. 2007. Regulation and Function of the Envelope Stress Response Controlled by σ, p 107-121. In Ehrmann M (ed), The Periplasm. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815806.ch6

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Outer Membrane Proteins
Teichoic Acid Biosynthesis
Fatty Acid Biosynthesis
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Regulon functions of the core and extended σ regulons. Stresses such as heat lead to the accumulation of unassembled OMPs in the periplasm; this leads to the sequential proteolysis of RseA, releasing free σ into the cytoplasm. σ then binds to RNA polymerase (E) and regulates the expression of target core and extended regulon members ( ). Core regulon members are highly conserved across 9 genomes and are primarily involved in the regulation of the σ response. σ upregulates functions required for the synthesis, assembly, and/or the insertion of both OMPs and LPS, as well as envelope-folding catalysts and chaperones. σ also upreg-ulates expression of itself; its negative regulator, RseA; the cytoplasmic proteases ClpX and Lon, thereby ensuring there is sufficient protease degradation of RseA-cyto; and σ. Note that ClpXP protease is also expressed from the σ regulon. σ downregulates OMP production from σ promoters, thereby reducing the accumulation of unassembled OMPs, which presumably limits the duration of the response. The extended regulon is less well conserved across related genomes and encodes many functions involved in pathogenesis.

Citation: Carol A. G, Virgil A. R, Irina L. G. 2007. Regulation and Function of the Envelope Stress Response Controlled by σ, p 107-121. In Ehrmann M (ed), The Periplasm. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815806.ch6
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Generic image for table

Functional classification of the σ regulon members in K-12

Citation: Carol A. G, Virgil A. R, Irina L. G. 2007. Regulation and Function of the Envelope Stress Response Controlled by σ, p 107-121. In Ehrmann M (ed), The Periplasm. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815806.ch6
Generic image for table

Predicted core σ regulon members from

Citation: Carol A. G, Virgil A. R, Irina L. G. 2007. Regulation and Function of the Envelope Stress Response Controlled by σ, p 107-121. In Ehrmann M (ed), The Periplasm. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815806.ch6

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