Chapter 19 : Osmoregulation in the Periplasm

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Osmoregulated periplasmic glucans (OPGs) were detected during the study of phospholipid turnover in by E. P. Kennedy’s group. In absence of OPGs, one may wonder if other periplasmic components can substitute for OPGs. The chapter talks about genomic overview of OPG biosynthesis, and mechanisms of OPG biosynthesis. The protein was recently shown to be composed of six transmembrane segments determining four large cytoplasmic domains and three very small periplasmic regions. OPG synthesis has been shown to be osmotically regulated in a wide range of proteobacteria. The virulence of depends on transport of OPGs to the periplasm, and the virulence of cannot be restored by coinoculation of mutant bacteria with purified OPGs. OPG-defective mutants characterized in various bacterial species have in common a highly pleiotropic phenotype, which is indicative of a global alteration of their envelope properties. Kennedy proposed that OPGs function as periplasmic osmoprotectants on the basis of their anionic character, where OPGs would participate in the Donnan equilibrium through the outer membrane, and he found, according to this hypothesis, that OPG synthesis is osmoregulated in . In an opgH mutant this system is constitutively opgH mutant regulator system is constitutively activated, and RcsC or/and RcsD could sense directly the OPGs present in the periplasm.

Citation: Jean-Pierre B, Jean-Marie L. 2007. Osmoregulation in the Periplasm, p 325-341. In Ehrmann M (ed), The Periplasm. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815806.ch19

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Image of FIGURE 1

Working model of the OPG biosynthetic complex of The variety of backbone structures and patterns of substitution are schematically represented (see text for details). In the inset is a typical DEAE-Sephacel anion-exchange column chromatography profile of [U-C]glucose-labeled OPGs according to ( ). Each peak consists of various backbone structures with similar charge/mass ratios (A. Bohin and J.-P. Bohin, unpublished observation).

Citation: Jean-Pierre B, Jean-Marie L. 2007. Osmoregulation in the Periplasm, p 325-341. In Ehrmann M (ed), The Periplasm. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815806.ch19
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Generic image for table

Occurrences of OPG genes in various representative genomes

Citation: Jean-Pierre B, Jean-Marie L. 2007. Osmoregulation in the Periplasm, p 325-341. In Ehrmann M (ed), The Periplasm. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815806.ch19

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