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Chapter 23 : Environmental and Taxonomic Biodiversities of Gram-Positive Alkaliphiles
Category: Applied and Industrial Microbiology; Environmental Microbiology
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This chapter focuses on the environmental and taxonomic distributions of gram-positive alkaliphiles. Garbeva et al. developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system for studying the diversity of the species of Bacillus and related taxa using DNA directly obtained from soil. Detection of Bacillus halodurans by this procedure indicated that although the soil samples were slightly acidic, Bacillus halodurans might be one of the major Bacillus species in the soil samples used in that study. Microbial diversities of soda lakes in Africa, Europe, and North America have been detected on the basis of the analysis of DNA clone libraries produced by amplification of obtained DNA as well as from the isolation of microorganisms from the environments. The major gram-negative isolates are members of the gamma subdivision of Proteobacteria. Indigo-reducing bacteria have been isolated by Takahara and Tanabe and identified as Bacillus sp. they have been named Bacillus alcalophilus. This is the only species that can grow at 5°C among the currently known alkaliphilic Bacillus spp. The chapter provides facts that suggest that niches of Bacillus patagoniensis are in soil and in rhizosphere of certain plants. Some of the strains in this group were formally classified as Bacillus. In the next decade, the understanding of the distribution in the environment and of the taxonomic diversities of alkaliphiles will proceed further not only by isolation of novel species of alkaliphiles but also from results of analyses of DNA directly obtained from various environments.
Phylogenetic tree derived from 16S rRNA gene sequences of alkaliphilic Bacillus spp., constructed using the neighbor-joining method. Bacillus subtilis IAM 12118T and Paenibacillus polymixa NCDO 1774 are used as a representative strain of group I species and outgroup of the phylogenetic tree, respectively. The two strains are not alkaliphiles. Origin of alkaliphiles: a, soil; b, bauxite-processing red mud tailing pond; c, soda lake; d, bottom sediment of soda lake; e, algal mat from mineral pool; f, soil and horse meadow; g, rhizosphere of shrub; h, hot spa. GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession numbers are given in parentheses. Numbers indicate bootstrap values greater than 500. Bar, 0.1 K nuc.
Phylogenetic tree derived from 16S rRNA gene sequences of alkaliphiles that are high G+C and low G+C gram-positive bacteria. Thioalkalivibrio versutus DSM 13738T is used as an outgroup of the phylogenetic tree, and the strain is not a gram-positive alkaliphile. Origin of alkaliphiles: a, muddy sample in salt lake; b, salt for soy source; c, sediment of littoral zone of soda lake; d, soda soil in soda lake; e, soil; f, sewage; g, soda deposits in soda lake; h, alkaline water pool in gold mine; i, mixture of mud and surface cyanobacterial mud; j, soda lake; k, water and soil sample; l, potato-processing effluent; m, unknown; n, manure; o, marine organisms; p, washwaters of edible olive; q, highly saline mud; r, hypersaline soil; s, mud from deep sea; t kitchen refuse; u, salt lake. GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession numbers are given in parentheses. Numbers indicate bootstrap values greater than 500. Bar, 0.1 K nuc.
Characteristics of alkaliphilic Bacillus spp.
Characteristics of alkaliphilic obligately anaerobic and lactic acid bacterial groups
Characteristics of alkaliphilic aerobic mesophiles other than Bacillus spp. and thermophiles
Characteristics of alkaliphilic gram-positive high G+C bacteria