1887

Chapter 15 : Functional Assays for Pneumococcal Antibody

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Functional Assays for Pneumococcal Antibody, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815820/9781555814083_Chap15-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815820/9781555814083_Chap15-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter reviews opsonophagocytosis assay (OPA) methods for pneumococcal antibodies and the experience with OPA in clinical trials, stressing the need for further standardization of OPA. In the case of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV), studies suggest that the vaccine-induced antibodies primarily help phagocytes ingest and kill pneumococci. This mechanism of host protection is described in this chapter. Given that opsonophagocytosis is essential in host defense against pneumococci, pneumococcal vaccines are designed to induce opsonic antibodies. The chapter describes two different types of clinically available vaccines and the various laboratory measures that were used to estimate their protective efficacy. The PCV becomes T cell dependent, induces B-cell memory, and can elicit anti-polysaccharide (PS) antibodies in young children. OPA is the most desirable surrogate assay for measuring pneumococcal vaccine-induced immunity. This chapter uses a historical approach to describe the various OPA methods. However, this classical approach is very tedious to perform, primarily due to the counting of colonies. Consequently, many researchers have developed various alternative OPA methods requiring no colony counting, including a radiolabeled-bacterium uptake assay, a fluorescent-bacterium uptake assay, chemiluminescence, and an oxidative-burst generation assay. Clinical studies have measured opsonophagocytic antibody activity in young children and adults. Due to the past methodological difficulties, these studies tended to be small in size. They are nevertheless informative and are thus discusses in this chapter. Finally, the chapter finally talks about future activities for OPA. OPA will likely become the basis for evaluating the efficacy of protein vaccines.

Citation: Nahm M, Romero-Steiner S. 2008. Functional Assays for Pneumococcal Antibody, p 213-226. In Siber G, Klugman K, Mäkelä P (ed), Pneumococcal Vaccines. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815820.ch15

Key Concept Ranking

Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine
0.58704096
Outer Membrane Proteins
0.46050292
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
0.43557698
0.58704096
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815820.ch15
1. Anttila, M.,, M. Voutilainen,, V. Jantti,, J. Eskola, and, H. Kayhty. 1999. Contribution of serotype-specific IgG concentration, IgG subclasses and relative antibody avidity to opsonophagocytic activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 118:402407.
2. Bieging, K.,, G. Rajam,, P. Holder,, R. Udoff,, G. M. Carlone, and, S. Romero-Steiner. 2005. A fluorescent multivalent opsonophagocytic assay for the measurement of functional antibodies to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 12:12381242.
3. Bogaert, D.,, M. Sluijter,, R. De Groot, and, P. W. Hermans. 2004. Multiplex opsonophagocytosis assay (MOPA): a useful tool for the monitoring of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Vaccine 22:40144020.
4. Borrow, R.,, G. M. Carlone,, N. Rosenstein,, M. Blake,, I. Feavers,, D. Martin,, W. Zollinger,, J. Robbins,, I. Aaberge,, D. M. Granoff,, E. Miller,, B. Plikaytis,, L. van Alphen,, J. Poolman,, R. Rappuoli,, L. Danzig,, J. Hackell,, B. Danve,, M. Caulfield,, S. Lambert, and, D. Stephens. 2006. Neisseria meningitidis group B correlates of protection and assay standardization. International meeting report, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States, 16–17 March 2005. Vaccine 24:50935107.
5. Bortolussi, R.,, T. J. Marrie,, J. Cunningham, and, G. Schiffman. 1981. Serum antibody and opsonic responses after immunization with pneumococcal vaccine in kidney transplant recipients and controls. Infect. Immun. 34:2025.
6. Brown, E. J., and, H. D. Gresham. 2003. Phagocytosis, p. 11051126. In E. Paul (ed.), Fundamental Immunology, 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
7. Burton, R. L., and, M. H. Nahm. 2006. Development and validation of a fourfold multiplexed opsonization assay (MOPA4) for pneumococcal antibodies. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 13:10041009.
8. Caron, E., and, A. Hall. 1998. Identification of two distinct mechanisms of phagocytosis controlled by different Rho GTPases. Science 282:17171721.
9. Chen, S. C.,, B. Mehrad,, J. C. Deng,, G. Vassileva,, D. J. Manfra,, D. N. Cook,, M. T. Wiekowski,, A. Zlotnik,, T. J. Standiford, and, S. A. Lira. 2001. Impaired pulmonary host defense in mice lacking expression of the CXC chemokine lungkine. J. Immunol. 166:33623368.
10. Concepcion, N. F., and, C. E. Frasch. 2001. Pneumococcal type 22F polysaccharide absorption improves the specificity of a pneumococcal-polysaccharide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 8:266272.
11. Coughlin, R. T.,, A. C. White,, C. A. Anderson,, G. M. Carlone,, D. L. Klein, and, J. Treanor. 1998. Characterization of pneumococcal specific antibodies in healthy unvaccinated adults. Vaccine 16:17611767.
12. Ekstrom, N.,, M. Vakevainen,, J. Verho,, T. Kilpi, and, H. Kayhty. 2007. Functional antibodies elicited by two heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in the Finnish Otitis Media Vaccine Trial. Infect. Immun. 75:17941800.
13. Feikin, D. R.,, C. M. Elie,, M. B. Goetz,, J. L. Lennox,, G. M. Carlone,, S. Romero-Steiner,, P. F. Holder,, W. A. O'Brien,, C. G. Whitney,, J. C. Butler, and, R. F. Breiman. 2001. Randomized trial of the quantitative and functional antibody responses to a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and/or 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine among HIV-infected adults. Vaccine 20:545553.
14. Feikin, D. R.,, C. M. Elie,, M. B. Goetz,, J. L. Lennox,, G. M. Carlone,, S. Romero-Steiner,, P. F. Holder,, W. A. O'Brien,, C. G. Whitney,, J. C. Butler, and, R. F. Breiman. 2004. Specificity of the antibody response to the pneumococcal polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 11:137141.
15. Fleck, R. A.,, S. Romero-Steiner, and, M. H. Nahm. 2005. Use of HL-60 cell line to measure opsonic capacity of pneumococcal antibodies. A review. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 12:1927.
16. Gresham, H. D.,, J. H. Lowrance,, T. E. Caver,, B. S. Wilson,, A. L. Cheung, and, F. P. Lindberg. 2000. Survival of Staphylococcus aureus inside neutrophils contributes to infection. J. Immunol. 164:37133722.
17. Hampton, M. B., and, C. C. Winterbourn. 1999. Methods for quantifying phagocytosis and bacterial killing by human neutrophils. J. Immunol. Methods 232:1522.
18. Henckaerts, I.,, N. Durant,, D. De Grave,, L. Schuerman, and, J. Poolman. 2007. Validation of a routine opsonophagocytosis assay to predict invasive pneumococcal disease efficacy of conjugate vaccine in children. Vaccine 25:25182527.
19. Henckaerts, I.,, D. Goldblatt,, L. Ashton, and, J. Poolman. 2006. Critical differences between pneumococcal polysaccharide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with and without 22F inhibition at low antibody concentrations in pediatric sera. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 13:356360.
20. Hostetter, M. K. 2004. Interactions of Streptococcus pneumoniae with the proteins of the complement pathways, p. 201210. In E. I. Tuomanen (ed.), The Pneumococcus. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
21. Hu, B. T.,, X. Yu,, T. R. Jones,, C. Kirch,, S. Harris,, S. W. Hildreth,, D. V. Madore, and, S. A. Quataert. 2005. Approach to validating an opsonophagocytic assay for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 12:287295.
22. Jackson, L. A.,, K. M. Neuzil,, M. H. Nahm,, C. G. Whitney,, O. Yu,, J. C. Nelson,, P. T. Starkovich,, M. Dunstan,, B. Carste,, D. K. Shay,, J. Baggs, and, G. M. Carlone. 2007. Immunogenicity of varying dosages of 7-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine in seniors previously vaccinated with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Vaccine 25:40294037.
23. Jansen, W. T.,, J. Gootjes,, M. Zelle,, D. V. Madore,, J. Verhoef,, H. Snippe, and, A. F. Verheul. 1998. Use of highly encapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae strains in a flow-cytometric assay for assessment of the phagocytic capacity of serotype-specific antibodies. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 5:703710.
24. Jodar, L.,, J. C. Butler,, G. Carlone,, R. Dagan,, C. E. Frasch,, D. Goldblatt,, H. Käyhty,, K. Klugman,, B. D. Plikaytis,, G. Siber,, R. Kohberger,, I. Chang, and, T. Cherian. 2003. Serological criteria for evaluation and licensure of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine formultions for use in infants. Vaccine 21:32653272.
25. Johansson, P. J.,, E. Sternby, and, B. Ursing. 1992. Septicemia in granulocytopenic patients: a shift in bacterial etiology. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 24:357360.
26. Kelly, D. F.,, A. J. Pollard, and, E. R. Moxon. 2005. Immunological memory: the role of B cells in long-term protection against invasive bacterial pathogens. JAMA 294:30193023.
27. Kim, J. O.,, S. Romero-Steiner,, U. B. Sorensen,, J. Blom,, M. Carvalho,, S. Barnard,, G. Carlone, and, J. N. Weiser. 1999. Relationship between cell surface carbohydrates and intrastrain variation on opsonophagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Infect. Immun. 67:23272333.
28. Kim, K. H.,, J. Yu, and, M. H. Nahm. 2003. Efficiency of a pneumococcal opsonophagocytic killing assay improved by multiplexing and by coloring colonies. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 10:616621.
29. King, J. C., Jr.,, P. E. Vink,, J. J. Farley,, M. Smilie,, M. Parks, and, R. Lichenstein. 1997. Safety and immunogenicity of three doses of a five-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children younger than two years with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatrics 99:575580.
30. Klugman, K. P.,, S. A. Madhi,, R. E. Huebner,, R. Kohberger,, N. Mbelle, and, N. Pierce. 2003. A trial of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children with and those without HIV infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 349:13411348.
31. Kumar, D.,, C. Rotstein,, G. Miyata,, D. Arlen, and, A. Humar. 2003. Randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of pneumococcal vaccination in renal transplant recipients. J. Infect. Dis. 187:16391645.
32. Lee, L. H.,, C. E. Frasch,, L. A. Falk,, D. L. Klein, and, C. D. Deal. 2003. Correlates of immunity for pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Vaccine 21:21902196.
33. Lin, J. S.,, M. K. Park, and, M. H. Nahm. 2001. A chromogenic assay measuring opsonophagocytic killing capacities of anti-pneumococcal antisera. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 8:528533.
34. Liu, X.,, S. Wang,, L. Sendi, and, M. J. Caulfield. 2004. High-throughout imaging of bacterial colonies grown on filter plates with application to serum bactericidal assays. J. Immunol. Methods 292:187193.
35. Lottenbach, K. R.,, C. M. Mink,, S. J. Barenkamp,, E. L. Anderson,, S. M. Homan, and, D. C. Powers. 1999. Age-associated differences in immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG2 subclass antibodies to pneumococcal polysaccharides following vaccination. Infect. Immun. 67:49354938.
36. Madhi, S. A.,, L. Kuwanda,, C. Cutland,, A. Holm,, H. Kayhty, and, K. P. Klugman. 2005. Quantitative and qualitative antibody response to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine among African human immunodeficiency virus-infected and uninfected children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 24:410416.
37. Marchese, R. D.,, N. T. Jain,, J. Antonello,, L. Mallette,, K. L. Butterfield-Gerson,, J. Raab,, P. Burke,, C. Schulman,, H. Adgate,, D. J. Sikkema, and, N. Chirmule. 2006. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measuring antibodies to pneumococcal polysaccharides for the PNEUMOVAX 23 vaccine: assay operating characteristics and correlation to the WHO international assay. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 13:905912.
38. Martinez, J. E.,, E. A. Clutterbuck,, H. Li,, S. Romero-Steiner, and, G. M. Carlone. 2006. Evaluation of multiplex flow cytometric opsonophagocytic assays for determination of functional anticapsular antibodies to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 13:459466.
39. Martinez, J. E.,, S. Romero-Steiner,, T. Pilishvili,, S. Barnard,, J. Schinsky,, D. Goldblatt, and, G. M. Carlone. 1999. A flow cytometric opsonophagocytic assay for measurement of functional antibodies elicited after vaccination with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 6:581586.
40. Nahm, M. H.,, D. E. Briles, and, X. Yu. 2000. Development of a multi-specificity opsonophagocytic killing assay. Vaccine 18:27682771.
41. Nowak-Wegrzyn, A.,, J. A. Winkelstein,, A. J. Swift, and, H. M. Lederman, and the Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Study Group. 2000. Serum opsonic activity in infants with sickle-cell disease immunized with pneumococcal polysaccharide protein conjugate vaccine. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 7:788793.
42. Pai, R.,, M. R. Moore,, T. Pilishvili,, R. E. Gertz,, C. G. Whitney, and, B. Beall. 2005. Postvaccine genetic structure of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A from children in the United States. J. Infect. Dis. 192:19881995.
43. Park, M. K.,, Y. Sun,, J. V. Olander,, J. W. Hoffmann, and, M. H. Nahm. 1996. The repertoire of human antibodies to the carbohydrate capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae 6B. J. Infect. Dis. 174:7582.
44. Parkkali, T.,, M. Vakevainen,, H. Kayhty,, T. Ruutu, and, P. Ruutu. 2001. Opsonophagocytic activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae type 19F in allogeneic BMT recipients before and after vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Bone Marrow Transplant. 27:207211.
45. Pickering, J. W.,, T. B. Martins,, R. W. Greer,, M. C. Schroder,, M. E. Astill,, C. M. Litwin,, S. W. Hildreth, and, H. R. Hill. 2002. A multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay for antibodies to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 117:589596.
46. Plikaytis, B. D.,, D. Goldblatt,, C. E. Frasch,, C. Blondeau,, M. J. Bybel,, G. S. Giebink,, I. Jonsdottir,, H. Kayhty,, H. B. Konradsen,, D. V. Madore,, M. H. Nahm,, C. A. Schulman,, P. F. Holder,, T. Lezhava,, C. M. Elie, and, G. M. Carlone. 2000. An analytical model applied to a multicenter pneumococcal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay study. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:20432050.
47. Plikaytis, B. D.,, S. H. Turner,, L. L. Gheesling, and, G. M. Carlone. 1991. Comparisons of standard curve-fitting methods to quantitate Neisseria meningitidis group A polysaccharide antibody levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:14391446.
48. Prince, J. E.,, C. F. Brayton,, M. C. Fossett,, J. A. Durand,, S. L. Kaplan,, C. W. Smith, and, C. M. Ballantyne. 2001. The differential roles of LFA-1 and Mac-1 in host defense against systemic infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. J. Immunol. 166:73627369.
49. Putman, M.,, R. Burton, and, M. H. Nahm. 2005. Simplified method to automatically count bacterial colony forming unit. J. Immunol. Methods 302:99102.
50. Puumalainen, T.,, N. Ekstrom,, R. Zeta-Capeding,, J. Ollgren,, K. Jousimies,, M. Lucero,, H. Nohynek, and, H. Kayhty. 2003. Functional antibodies elicited by an 11-valent diphtheria-tetanus toxoid-conjugated pneumococcal vaccine. J. Infect. Dis. 187:17041748.
51. Quin, L. R.,, S. Carmicle,, S. Dave,, M. K. Pangburn,, J. P. Evenhuis, and, L. S. McDaniel. 2005. In vivo binding of complement regulator factor H by Streptococcus pneumoniae. J. Infect. Dis. 192:19962003.
52. Ren, B.,, M. A. McCrory,, C. Pass,, D. C. Bullard,, C. M. Ballantyne,, Y. Xu,, D. E. Briles, and, A. J. Szalai. 2004. The virulence function of Streptococcus pneumoniae surface protein A involves inhibition of complement activation and impairment of complement receptor-mediated protection. J. Immunol. 173:75067512.
53. Robbins, J. B.,, R. Austrian,, C. J. Lee,, S. C. Rastogi,, G. Schiffman,, J. Henrichsen,, P. H. Makela,, C. V. Broome,, R. R. Facklam,, R. H. Tiesjema, and, J. C. Parke, Jr. 1983. Considerations for formulating the second-generation pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine with emphasis on the cross-reactive types within groups. J. Infect. Dis. 148:11361159.
54. Romero-Steiner, S.,, C. Frasch,, N. Concepcion,, D. Goldblatt,, H. Kayhty,, M. Vakevainen,, C. Laferriere,, D. Wauters,, M. H. Nahm,, M. F. Schinsky,, B. D. Plikaytis, and, G. M. Carlone. 2003. Multilaboratory evaluation of a viability assay for measurement of opsonophagocytic antibodies specific to the capsular polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 10:10191024.
55. Romero-Steiner, S.,, C. E. Frasch,, G. Carlone,, R. A. Fleck,, D. Goldblatt, and, M. H. Nahm. 2006. Use of opsonophagocytosis for the serological evaluation of pneumococcal vaccines. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 13:165169.
56. Romero-Steiner, S.,, D. Libutti,, L. B. Pais,, J. Dykes,, P. Anderson,, J. C. Whitin,, H. L. Keyserling, and, G. M. Carlone. 1997. Standardization of an opsonophagocytic assay for the measurement of functional antibody activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae using differentiated HL-60 cells. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 4:415422.
57. Romero-Steiner, S.,, D. M. Musher,, M. S. Cetron,, L. B. Pais,, J. E. Groover,, A. F. Fiore,, B. D. Plikaytis, and, G. M. Carlone. 1999. Reduction in functional antibody activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae in vaccinated elderly individuals highly correlates with decreased IgG antibody avidity. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29:281288.
58. Romero-Steiner, S.,, T. Pilishvili,, J. S. Sampson,, S. E. Johnson,, A. Stinson,, G. M. Carlone, and, E. W. Ades. 2003. Inhibition of pneumococcal adherence to human nasopharyngeal epithelial cells by anti-PsaA antibodies. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 10:246251.
59. Saeland, E.,, G. Vidarsson,, J. H. Leusen,, E. Van Garderen,, M. H. Nahm,, H. Vile-Weekhout,, V. Walraven,, A. M. Stemerding,, J. S. Verbeek,, G. T. Rijkers,, W. Kuis,, E. A. Sanders, and, J. G. Van De Winkel. 2003. Central role of complement in passive protection by human IgG1 and IgG2 anti-pneumococcal antibodies in mice. J. Immunol. 170:61586164.
60. Sanders, L. A. M.,, J. G. J. van de Winkel,, G. T. Rijkers,, M. M. Voorhorst-Ogink,, M. de Haas,, P. J. A. Capel, and, B. J. M. Zegers. 1994. Fcg receptor IIa (CD32) heterogeneity in patients with recurrent bacterial respiratory tract infections. Infect. Dis. 170:854861.
61. Schuerman, L.,, R. Prymula,, I. Henckaerts, and, J. Poolman. 2007. ELISA IgG concentrations and opsonophagocytic activity following pneumococcal protein D conjugate vaccination and relationship to efficacy against acute otitis media. Vaccine 25:19621968.
62. Shah, C.,, R. Hari-Dass, and, J. G. Raynes. 2006. Serum amyloid A is an innate immune opsonin for Gram-negative bacteria. Blood 108:17511757.
63. Shapiro, E. D.,, A. T. Berg,, R. Austrian,, D. Schroeder,, V. Parcells,, A. Margolis,, R. K. Adair, and, J. D. Clemens. 1991. The protective efficacy of polyvalent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. N. Engl. J. Med. 325:14531460.
64. Shatz, D. V.,, M. F. Schinsky,, L. B. Pais,, S. Romero-Steiner,, O. C. Kirton, and, G. M. Carlone. 1998. Immune responses of splenectomized trauma patients to the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine at 1 versus 7 versus 14 days after splenectomy. J. Trauma 44:760765.
65. Stuart, L. M., and, R. A. Ezekowitz. 2005. Phagocytosis: elegant complexity. Immunity 22:539550.
66. Sun, Y.,, Y. Hwang, and, M. H. Nahm. 2001. Avidity, potency, and cross-reactivity of monoclonal antibodies to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide serotype 6B. Infect. Immun. 69:336344.
67. Tarragó, D.,, J. Casal,, J. Ruiz-Contreras,, J. T. Ramos,, P. Rojo,, H. Snippe, and, W. T. Jansen. 2005. Assessment of antibody response elicited by a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 12:165170.
68. Usinger, W. R., and, A. H. Lucas. 1999. Avidity as a determinant of the protective efficacy of human antibodies to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides. Infect. Immun. 67:23662370.
69. Vakevainen, M.,, W. Jansen,, E. Saeland,, I. Jonsdottir,, H. Snippe,, A. Verheul, and, H. Kayhty. 2001. Are the opsonophagocytic activities of antibodies in infant sera measured by different pneumococcal phagocytosis assays comparable? Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 8:363369.
70. van de Winkel, J. G., and, C. L. Anderson. 1991. Biology of human immunoglobulin G Fc receptors. J. Leukoc. Biol. 49:511524.
71. Vernacchio, L.,, S. Romero-Steiner,, J. E. Martinez,, K. MacDonald,, S. Barnard,, T. Pilishvili,, G. M. Carlone,, D. M. Ambrosino, and, D. C. Molrine. 2000. Comparison of an opsonophagocytic assay and IgG ELISA to assess responses to pneumococcal polysaccharide and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in children and young adults with sickle cell disease. J. Infect. Dis. 181:11621166.
72. Vidarsson, G.,, S. T. Sigurdardottir,, T. Gudnason,, S. Kjartansson,, K. G. Kristinsson,, G. Ingolfsdottir,, S. Jonsson,, H. Valdimarsson,, G. Schiffman,, R. Schneerson, and, I. Jonsdottir. 1998. Isotypes and opsonophagocytosis of pneumococcus type 6B antibodies elicited in infants and adults by an experimental pneumococcus type 6B-tetanus toxoid vaccine. Infect. Immun. 66:28662870.
73. Wernette, C. M.,, C. E. Frasch,, D. Madore,, G. Carlone,, D. Goldblatt,, B. Plikaytis,, W. Benjamin,, S. A. Quataert,, S. Hildreth,, D. J. Sikkema,, H. Kayhty,, I. Jonsdottir, and, M. H. Nahm. 2003. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantitation of human antibodies to pneumococcal polysaccharides. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 10:514519.
74. Whitney, C. G.,, M. M. Farley,, J. Hadler,, L. H. Harrison,, N. M. Bennett,, R. Lynfield,, A. Reingold,, P. R. Cieslak,, T. Pilishvili,, D. Jackson,, R. R. Facklam,, J. H. Jorgensen, and, A. Schuchat. 2003. Decline in invasive pneumococcal disease after the introduction of protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccine. N. Engl. J. Med. 348:17371746.
75. WHO. 2005. WHO Technical Report Series, vol. 927, p. 910. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland. http://www.who.int/biologicals/WHO_TRS_%20927%20full%20tex.pdf.
76. Winkelstein, J. A. 1981. The role of complement in the host's defense against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Rev. Infect. Dis. 3:289298.
77. Wuorimaa, T. K.,, R. Dagan,, F. Bailleux,, R. Haikala,, N. Ekstrom,, J. Eskola,, M. Yaich, and, H. Kayhty. 2005. Functional activity of antibodies after immunization of Finnish and Israeli infants with an 11-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Vaccine 23:53285332.
78. Yu, X.,, B. Gray,, S. J. Chang,, J. I. Ward,, K. M. Edwards, and, M. H. Nahm. 1999. Immunity to cross-reactive serotypes induced by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in infants. J. Infect. Dis. 180:15691576.
79. Yu, X.,, Y. Sun,, C. E. Frasch,, N. Concepcion, and, M. H. Nahm. 1999. Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide preparations may contain non-C-polysaccharide contaminants that are immunogenic. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 6:519524.
80. Zuluaga, A. F.,, B. E. Salazar,, C. A. Rodriguez,, A. X. Zapata,, M. Agudelo, and, O. Vesga. 2006. Neutropenia induced in outbred mice by a simplified low-dose cy-clophosphamide regimen: characterization and applicability to diverse experimental models of infectious diseases. BMC Infect. Dis. 6:55.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine trials with OPA estimates conducted in infant populations

Citation: Nahm M, Romero-Steiner S. 2008. Functional Assays for Pneumococcal Antibody, p 213-226. In Siber G, Klugman K, Mäkelä P (ed), Pneumococcal Vaccines. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815820.ch15
Generic image for table
Table 2

Pneumococcal vaccine studies with OPA estimates conducted with older children and adults

Citation: Nahm M, Romero-Steiner S. 2008. Functional Assays for Pneumococcal Antibody, p 213-226. In Siber G, Klugman K, Mäkelä P (ed), Pneumococcal Vaccines. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815820.ch15

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error