1887

Chapter 21 : Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Conjugate Vaccines against Invasive Pneumococcal Disease

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Conjugate Vaccines against Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815820/9781555814083_Chap21-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815820/9781555814083_Chap21-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter reviews the results of four trials to study efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and explores the protection achieved against aggregate and individual serotypes using the common end point of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in all the four trials. It also discusses these results in terms of the different populations at risk and the schedules of vaccination. Children initially randomized in California received oral polio vaccines and diphtheria-tetanus whole-cell pertussis (DTwP) vaccines, while children randomized later received inactivated polio and diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines; children in an American Indian trial received inactivated or oral polio and DTaP vaccines. Meta-analyses of results were performed from intent-to-treat analyses, modified to include children who received at least one dose of vaccine or placebo. The demonstration of substantial conjugate pneumococcal vaccine efficacy in large clinical trials in four disparate regions of the world encourages the view that the vaccine is likely to prevent IPD in most countries in which vaccine serotypes are an important cause of IPD among infants. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has been considered as a probe to determine the burden of disease due to pneumococci in contexts such as pneumonia, and has greatly reduced the burden of IPD due to vaccine serotypes in the United States. The introduction of vaccine requires well-designed surveillance studies to understand the impact of the vaccine on the range of disease in populations in which it is introduced.

Citation: Klugman K, Cutts F, Adegbola R, Black S, Madhi S, O’Brien K, Santosham M, Shinefield H, Sterne J. 2008. Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Conjugate Vaccines against Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, p 317-326. In Siber G, Klugman K, Mäkelä P (ed), Pneumococcal Vaccines. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815820.ch21

Key Concept Ranking

Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine
0.5762699
Hepatitis B Vaccine
0.47327816
Respiratory syncytial virus
0.41042423
0.5762699
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Intent-to-treat efficacy against serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F, both including and excluding the HIV-infected children in the South African trial. IPD, invasive pneumococcal disease; 7v, seven-valent; DL, DerSimonian and Laird analysis; M-H, Mantel-Haenszel analysis; RR, relative risk; NCKP, Northern California Kaiser Permanente; I, statistic measuring between-trial heterogeneity ( ). References: NCKP ( ); Native American ( ); South Africa ( ); The Gambia ( ).

Citation: Klugman K, Cutts F, Adegbola R, Black S, Madhi S, O’Brien K, Santosham M, Shinefield H, Sterne J. 2008. Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Conjugate Vaccines against Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, p 317-326. In Siber G, Klugman K, Mäkelä P (ed), Pneumococcal Vaccines. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815820.ch21
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Intent-to-treat efficacy against all pneumococcal serotypes including and excluding the HIV-infected children in the South African trial. Abbreviations and references as in Fig. 1 .

Citation: Klugman K, Cutts F, Adegbola R, Black S, Madhi S, O’Brien K, Santosham M, Shinefield H, Sterne J. 2008. Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Conjugate Vaccines against Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, p 317-326. In Siber G, Klugman K, Mäkelä P (ed), Pneumococcal Vaccines. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815820.ch21
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Intent-to-treat efficacy against serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F, including the HIV-infected children in the South African trial. Abbreviations and references as in Fig. 1 .

Citation: Klugman K, Cutts F, Adegbola R, Black S, Madhi S, O’Brien K, Santosham M, Shinefield H, Sterne J. 2008. Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Conjugate Vaccines against Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, p 317-326. In Siber G, Klugman K, Mäkelä P (ed), Pneumococcal Vaccines. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815820.ch21
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Intent-to-treat efficacy against serotype 5, including the HIV-infected children in the South African trial. Abbreviations and references as in Fig. 1 .

Citation: Klugman K, Cutts F, Adegbola R, Black S, Madhi S, O’Brien K, Santosham M, Shinefield H, Sterne J. 2008. Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Conjugate Vaccines against Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, p 317-326. In Siber G, Klugman K, Mäkelä P (ed), Pneumococcal Vaccines. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815820.ch21
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 5
Figure 5

Intent-to-treat efficacy against serotype 1, including the HIV-infected children in the South African trial. Abbreviations and references as in Fig. 1 .

Citation: Klugman K, Cutts F, Adegbola R, Black S, Madhi S, O’Brien K, Santosham M, Shinefield H, Sterne J. 2008. Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Conjugate Vaccines against Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, p 317-326. In Siber G, Klugman K, Mäkelä P (ed), Pneumococcal Vaccines. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815820.ch21
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 6
Figure 6

Intent-to-treat efficacy against serotype 6A, including the HIV-infected children in the South African trial. Abbreviations and references as in Fig. 1 .

Citation: Klugman K, Cutts F, Adegbola R, Black S, Madhi S, O’Brien K, Santosham M, Shinefield H, Sterne J. 2008. Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Conjugate Vaccines against Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, p 317-326. In Siber G, Klugman K, Mäkelä P (ed), Pneumococcal Vaccines. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815820.ch21
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 7
Figure 7

Intent-to-treat efficacy against serotype 19A, including the HIV-infected children in the South African trial. Abbreviations and references as in Fig. 1 .

Citation: Klugman K, Cutts F, Adegbola R, Black S, Madhi S, O’Brien K, Santosham M, Shinefield H, Sterne J. 2008. Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Conjugate Vaccines against Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, p 317-326. In Siber G, Klugman K, Mäkelä P (ed), Pneumococcal Vaccines. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815820.ch21
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 8
Figure 8

Intent-to-treat efficacy against all non-vaccine types excluding serotype 6A, including the HIV-infected children in the South African trial. Abbreviations and references as in Fig. 1 .

Citation: Klugman K, Cutts F, Adegbola R, Black S, Madhi S, O’Brien K, Santosham M, Shinefield H, Sterne J. 2008. Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Conjugate Vaccines against Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, p 317-326. In Siber G, Klugman K, Mäkelä P (ed), Pneumococcal Vaccines. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815820.ch21
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815820.ch21
1. Anonymous. 2007. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for childhood immunization. WHO position paper. Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 82:93104.
2. Black, S.,, H. Shinefield,, B. Fireman,, E. Lewis,, P. Ray,, J. R. Hansen,, L. Elvin,, K. M. Ensor,, J. Hackell,, G. Siber,, F. Malinoski,, D. Madore,, I. Chang,, R. Kohberger,, W. Watson,, R. Austrian,, K. Edwards, et al. 2000. Efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 19:187195.
3. Cutts, F. T.,, S. M. Zaman,, G. Enwere,, S. Jaffar,, O. S. Levine,, J. B. Okoko,, C. Oluwalana,, A. Vaughan,, S. K. Obaro,, A. Leach,, K. P. McAdam,, E. Biney,, M. Saaka,, U. Onwuchekwa,, F. Yallop,, N. F. Pierce,, B. M. Greenwood, and, R. A. Adegbola. 2005. Efficacy of nine-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease in The Gambia: randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 365:11391146.
4. Davis, R. L.,, B. Fireman, and, H. R. Shinefield. 2004. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children. N. Engl. J. Med. 350:8485.
5. DerSimonian, R., and, N. Laird. 1986. Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control. Clin. Trials 7:177188.
6. Hausdorff, W. P.,, D. R. Feikin, and, K. P. Klugman. 2005. Epidemiological differences among pneumococcal serotypes. Lancet Infect. Dis. 5:8393.
7. Higgins, J. P., and, S. G. Thompson. 2002. Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Stat. Med. 21:15391558.
8. Jokinen, J. T.,, H. Ahman,, T. M. Kilpi,, P. H. Makela, and, M. H. Kayhty. 2004. Concentration of antipneumococcal antibodies as a serological correlate of protection: an application to acute otitis media. J. Infect. Dis. 190:545550.
9. Klugman, K. P.,, S. A. Madhi,, R. E. Huebner,, R. Kohberger,, N. Mbelle, and, N. Pierce. 2003. A trial of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children with and those without HIV infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 349:13411348.
10. Madhi, S. A.,, P. Adrian,, L. Kuwanda,, W. Jassat,, S. Jones,, T. Little,, A. Soininen,, C. Cutland, and, K. P. Klugman. 2007. Long-term immunogenicity and efficacy of a 9-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine in human immunodeficient virus infected and non-infected children in the absence of a booster dose of vaccine. Vaccine 25:24512457.
11. Madhi, S. A., and, K. P. Klugman. 2004. A role for Streptococcus pneumoniae in virus-associated pneumonia. Nat. Med. 10:811813.
12. Madhi, S. A.,, L. Kuwanda,, C. Cutland, and, K. P. Klugman. 2005. The impact of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the public health burden of pneumonia in HIV-infected and -uninfected children. Clin. Infect. Dis. 40:15111518.
13. Madhi, S. A.,, H. Ludewick,, L. Kuwanda,, N. Niekerk,, C. Cutland,, T. Little, and, K. P. Klugman. 2006. Pneumococcal coinfection with human metapneumovirus. J. Infect. Dis. 193:12361243.
14. O'Brien, K. L.,, L. H. Moulton,, R. Reid,, R. Weatherholtz,, J. Oski,, L. Brown,, G. Kumar,, A. Parkinson,, D. Hu,, J. Hackell,, I. Chang,, R. Kohberger,, G. Siber, and, M. Santosham. 2003. Efficacy and safety of seven-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine in American Indian children: group randomised trial. Lancet 362:355361.
15. Whitney, C. G.,, T. Pilishvili,, M. M. Farley,, W. Schaffner,, A. S. Craig,, R. Lynfield,, A. C. Nyquist,, K. A. Gershman,, M. Vazquez,, N. M. Bennett,, A. Reingold,, A. Thomas,, M. P. Glode,, E. R. Zell,, J. H. Jorgensen,, B. Beall, and, A. Schuchat. 2006. Effectiveness of seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against invasive pneumococcal disease: a matched case-control study. Lancet 368:14951502.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error