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Chapter 22 : Efficacy and Safety of Conjugate Pneumococcal Vaccine in the Prevention of Pneumonia

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Efficacy and Safety of Conjugate Pneumococcal Vaccine in the Prevention of Pneumonia, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

The World Health Organization (WHO) clinical criteria for managing acute respiratory tract infections are sensitive for detecting episodes of severe pneumonia and have been useful in improving the management of childhood pneumonia in developing countries and contributing to the reduction of childhood mortality. The timing of the chest radiograph in relation to the onset of the lung infection, the initiation of antibiotics, and the immune response being mediated by the host may therefore influence the radiological presentation associated with bacterial pneumonia. Comparing the estimates of the efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) from different studies provides insight into the global potential of conjugate vaccines to prevent pneumococcal pneumonia, although the findings of such an undertaking need to be interpreted with caution. A summary of conjugate pneumococcal vaccine efficacy (VE) and burdens of pneumonia prevented in efficacy trials in the United States, South Africa, and The Gambia is provided in this chapter. Despite the variation in estimates of vaccine efficacy against radiologically confirmed pneumonia, the estimates of the efficacy of PCV in reducing the incidence of clinically diagnosed lower respiratory-tract infection (LRTI) were almost identical (efficacy, 6.0 to 7.0%) among the studies for non-HIV-infected low-risk children. The effect that the introduction of PCV would have on the epidemiology of pneumococcal pneumonia in developing countries may be truly appreciated only following the widespread use of the vaccine in such countries.

Citation: Madhi S, Klugman K. 2008. Efficacy and Safety of Conjugate Pneumococcal Vaccine in the Prevention of Pneumonia, p 327-337. In Siber G, Klugman K, Mäkelä P (ed), Pneumococcal Vaccines. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815820.ch22

Key Concept Ranking

Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine
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Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine
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Bacterial Pneumonia
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Key demographic and study design differences among studies in which PCV has been evaluated for efficacy against pneumonia

Citation: Madhi S, Klugman K. 2008. Efficacy and Safety of Conjugate Pneumococcal Vaccine in the Prevention of Pneumonia, p 327-337. In Siber G, Klugman K, Mäkelä P (ed), Pneumococcal Vaccines. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815820.ch22
Generic image for table

Citation: Madhi S, Klugman K. 2008. Efficacy and Safety of Conjugate Pneumococcal Vaccine in the Prevention of Pneumonia, p 327-337. In Siber G, Klugman K, Mäkelä P (ed), Pneumococcal Vaccines. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815820.ch22
Generic image for table
Table 2

Summary of conjugate pneumococcal vaccine efficacy (VE) and burdens of pneumonia prevented in efficacy trials in the United States, South Africa, and The Gambia

Citation: Madhi S, Klugman K. 2008. Efficacy and Safety of Conjugate Pneumococcal Vaccine in the Prevention of Pneumonia, p 327-337. In Siber G, Klugman K, Mäkelä P (ed), Pneumococcal Vaccines. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815820.ch22

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