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Chapter 26 : Pharmacoeconomics of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines
Category: Bacterial Pathogenesis; Immunology
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This chapter reviews key concepts in pharmacoeconomics and the pharmacoeconomic literature pertaining to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), with an emphasis on recent work and future advances. A cost minimization analysis assumes that all interventions being analyzed result in equal health outcomes and that the primary consideration is which alternative results in lower net costs. Cost-effectiveness analyses and cost-utility analyses are used predominantly in vaccine-related pharmacoeconomic evaluations. Pharmacoeconomic evaluations of pneumococcal vaccine’s value are built upon models of pneumococcal disease burden. In order to estimate the value for money represented by the introduction of PCV, epidemiologic data on pneumococcal disease incidence need to be integrated with demographic data from the population of interest to develop a proper understanding of the numbers of cases of disease, death, and disability resulting from pneumococcal infection. Most pharmacoeconomic evaluations assumed that PCV prevents invasive pneumococcal disease, pneumonia, and otitis media. One of the greatest challenges in modeling the economic value of PCV lies in developing estimates of pneumonia incidence that are (i) in accord with the vaccine efficacy data available from clinical trials and (ii) appropriate to the population being modeled. The most common direct non-health care cost included in the studies was the value of caregiver time spent tending to sick children.
Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio.
Estimated percentages of total costs averted by PCV by medical versus nonmedical costs in high-income countries. incl., including.
Estimated percentages of total costs averted by PCV by disease type (including medical and nonmedical costs) in high-income countries. IPD, invasive pneumococcal disease; incl., including.
Types of pharmacoeconomic evaluations a
Costs in pharmacoeconomic evaluations of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine c
Summary of pharmacoeconomic evaluations of heptavalent PCV in high-income countries in Australia, North America, and Europe a (part 1)
Summary of pharmacoeconomic evaluations of heptavalent PCV in high-income countries in Australia, North America, and Europe a (part 2)
Review of pharmacoeconomic evaluations for middle- and low-income countries a