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Chapter 32 : Why Sex Is Good: On Fungi and Beyond

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Abstract:

Weismann argued that the increased genetic variation among the offspring would allow more efficient natural selection and in this way accelerate evolution. A general conclusion emerging from the theory is that a prerequisite for the validity of explanations for sex, i.e., that increased genetic variation among offspring favors both natural selection and elimination of deleterious mutations, is that the genetic variation for fitness in the population is lower than would result from a random distribution of the relevant alleles. In a similar way, sex may be maintained in different groups of organisms for reasons that differ between these groups and also from the reasons that have led to its evolution. This chapter discusses aspects of fungal biology that are relevant for an understanding of the occurrence of sex in fungi. The main advantages of sexual reproduction compared to asexuality are likely to be acceleration of adaptive evolution and more efficient elimination of deleterious mutations, while major disadvantages are the costs in terms of time and energy expenditure and of the production of male structures. Strikingly, in many fungi sex occurs at the end of the growing season, when the conditions for somatic growth become adverse, and furthermore, sex is often linked to the formation of specialized survival structures. Another possible example of a link between sex and an essential process, discussed in this chapter, is the presence of an efficient selection arena in the sexual, but not in the asexual, cycle.

Citation: Aanen D, Hoekstra R. 2007. Why Sex Is Good: On Fungi and Beyond, p 527-534. In Heitman J, Kronstad J, Taylor J, Casselton L (ed), Sex in Fungi. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815837.ch32
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Figure 32.1

(a) The heterothallic life cycle of a mushroom-forming basidiomycete. (b) The monokaryons exhibit two clearly distinct behaviors in mating: accepting a nucleus and donating a nucleus, which can be considered female and male roles, respectively. (c) An asexual (or [secondarily] homothallic) mutant that still can donate a nucleus has a 1.5-fold advantage, because it doubles its fitness via the female route while maintaining its fitness via the male route. The percentages indicate the representation of the hypothetical asexuality allele in the spores resulting from the female route (100%) and the male route (50%).

Citation: Aanen D, Hoekstra R. 2007. Why Sex Is Good: On Fungi and Beyond, p 527-534. In Heitman J, Kronstad J, Taylor J, Casselton L (ed), Sex in Fungi. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815837.ch32
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