1887

Chapter 13 : Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy in Superantigen-Mediated Toxic Shock Syndrome

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy in Superantigen-Mediated Toxic Shock Syndrome, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815844/9781555814243_Chap13-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815844/9781555814243_Chap13-2.gif

Abstract:

Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a serious acute bacterial disease characterized by fever, diffuse erythematous rash, hypotension, multiorgan involvement, and desquamation of the skin one to two weeks after onset. Various immunomodulatory agents and antisuperantigen therapeutic strategies have been proposed. One such strategy includes the administration of intravenous polyspecific immunoglobulin (IVIG). This chapter reviews the mechanistic actions and use of IVIG as adjunctive therapy for TSS. Patients were considered to have streptococcal TSS if they had hypotension in combination with two or more of the following: acute renal failure, coagulation abnormalities, liver abnormalities, adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), generalized rash, and necrotizing fasciitis. The observation that staphylococcal TSS patients normally do not have detectable bacteremia, yet the patients demonstrate significant systemic features, suggested that TSS was the result of a toxemia. Most strains express several different superantigens, and strains harbor in general genes encoding three to five of the superantigens, but the repertoire of genes varies between strains. and are major human pathogens largely due to their ability to modulate and exploit the host defense mechanisms. Conventional therapy of invasive infections has consisted of antimicrobials and, when necessary in severe invasive disease, support of vital functions for those patients with streptococcal TSS and surgery for those patients with necrotizing fasciitis.

Citation: Norrby-Teglund A, Low D, Kotb M. 2007. Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy in Superantigen-Mediated Toxic Shock Syndrome, p 197-215. In Kotb M, Fraser J (ed), Superantigens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815844.ch13

Key Concept Ranking

Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin 1
0.530303
0.530303
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Proposed mechanisms of action of intravenous immunoglobulin in TSS caused by or Intravenous immunoglobulin interacts at different stages in the bacterial pathogenesis to improve bacterial clearance and to neutralize toxins, superantigens, and proteases, as well as to improve immunosuppression through various immunomulatory effects. MSCRAMM, microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules; SAg, superantigens; SCP, streptococcal cysteine protease, i.e., SpeB; SLO, streptolysin O; EAP, extracellular adherence protein; PVL, Pan-ton-valentine leukocidin; APC, antigen-presenting cell; FcR, Fc receptor.

Citation: Norrby-Teglund A, Low D, Kotb M. 2007. Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy in Superantigen-Mediated Toxic Shock Syndrome, p 197-215. In Kotb M, Fraser J (ed), Superantigens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815844.ch13
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815844.ch13
1. Andersson, J.,, S. Nagy,, L. Björk,, J. Abrams,, S. Holm, and, U. Andersson. 1992. Bacterial toxin-induced cytokine production studied at the single-cell level. Immunol. Rev. 127:6996.
2. Andersson, J.,, U. Skansén-Saphir,, E. Sparrelid, and, U. Andersson. 1994. Intravenous immune globulin affects cytokine production in T lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 104(Suppl.):1020.
3. Andersson, U.,, L. Björck,, U. Skansén-Saphir, and, J. Andersson. 1994. Pooled human IgG modulates cytokine production in lymphocytes and monocytes. Immunol. Rev. 139:2143.
4. Andersson, U., and, K. J. Tracey. 2003. HMGB-1 in sepsis. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 35:577.
5. Arend, W. P.,, M. F. J. Smith,, R. W. Janson, and, F. G. Joslin. 1991. IL-1 receptor antagonist and IL-1 beta production in human monocytes are regulated differently. J. Immunol. 147:15301536.
6. Asano, T., and, S. Ogawa. 2000. Expression of IL-8 in Kawasaki disease. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 122:514519.
7. Ballow, M. 1997. Mechanisms of action of intravenous immune serum globulin in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 100:151157.
8. Barry, W.,, L. Hudgins,, S. T. Donta, and, E. L. Pesanti. 1992. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for toxic shock syndrome. JAMA 267:33153316.
9. Bartter, T.,, A. Dascal,, K. Carroll, and, F. J. Curley. 1988. ‘Toxic strep syndrome’. A manifestation of group A streptococcal infection. Arch. Intern. Med. 148:14211424.
10. Basma, H.,, A. Norrby-Teglund,, Y. Guedez,, A. McGeer,, D. E. Low,, O. El-Ahmedy,, B. Schwartz, and, M. Kotb. 1999. Risk factors in the pathogenesis of invasive group A streptococcal infections: Role of protective humoral immunity. Infect. Immun. 67:18711877.
11. Basma, H.,, A. Norrby-Teglund,, A. McGeer,, D. E. Low,, O. El-Ahmedy,, J. B. Dale,, B. Schwartz, and, M. Kotb. 1998. Opsonic antibodies to the surface M protein, present in pooled normal immunoglobulins (IVIG), may contribute to its clinical efficacy in severe invasive group A streptococcal infections. Infect. Immun. 66:22792283.
12. Bergdoll, M. S.,, B. A. Crass,, R. F. Reiser,, R. N. Robbins, and, J. P. Davis. 1981. A new staphylococcal enterotoxin, enterotoxin F, associated with toxic-shock-syndrome Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Lancet 1:10171021.
13. Bergdoll, M. S., and, P. M. Schlievert. 1984. Toxic-shock syndrome toxin. Lancet 2:691.
14. Bernhagen, J.,, T. Calandra, and, R. Bucala. 1998. Regulation of the immune response by macrophage migration inhibitory factor: biological and structural features. J. Mol. Med. 76:151161.
15. Bisno, A. L., and, D. L. Stevens. 1996. Streptococcal infections of skin and soft tissues. N. Engl. J. Med. 334:240245.
16. Bone, R. C. 1991. The pathogenesis of sepsis. Ann. Intern. Med. 115:457469.
17. Cavaillon, J. M.,, M. Adib-Conquy,, C. Fitting,, C. Adrie, and, D. Payen. 2003. Cytokine cascades in sepsis. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 35:535544.
18. Cawley, M. J.,, M. Briggs,, L. R. J. Haith,, K. J. Reilly,, R. E. Guilday,, G. R. Braxton, and, M. L. Patton. 1999. Intravenous immunoglobulin as adjunctive treatment for streptococcal toxic shock syndrome associated with necrotizing fasciitis: case report and review. Pharmacotherapy 19:10941098.
19. Chiu, C. H.,, J. T. Ou,, K. S. Chang, and, T. Y. Lin. 1997. Successful treatment of severe streptococcal toxic shock syndrome with a combination of intravenous immunoglobulin, dexamethasone and antibiotics. Infection 25:4748.
20. Cone, L. A.,, D. R. Woodard,, P. M. Schlievert, and, G. S. Tomory. 1987. Clinical and bacteriological observations of a toxic shock-like syndrome due to Streptococcus pyogenes. N. Engl. J. Med. 317:146149.
21. Cunningham, M. W. 2000. Pathogenesis of group A streptococcal infections. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 13:470511.
22. Darenberg, J.,, N. Ihendyane,, J. Sjölin,, E. Aufwerber,, S. Haidl,, P. Follin,, J. Andersson,, A. Norrby-Teglund, and the StreptIg Study Group. 2003. Intravenous immunoglobulin G therapy in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome: a European randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37:333340.
23. Darenberg, J.,, B. Söderquist,, B. Henriques Normark, and, A. Norrby-Teglund. 2004. Differences in potency of intravenous polyspecific immunoglobulin G against streptococcal and staphylococcal superantigens: implications for therapy of toxic shock syndrome. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38:836842.
24. Darville, T.,, L. B. Milligan, and, K. K. Laffoon. 1997. Intravenous immunoglobulin inhibits staphylococcal toxin-induced human mononuclear phagocyte tumor necrosis factor alpha production. Infect. Immun. 65:366l372.
25. Dass, R.,, P. Nishad, and, S. Singhi. 2004. Toxic shock syndrome. Indian J. Pediatr. 71:433435.
26. Davies, D. H.,, A. McGeer,, B. Schwartz,, K. Green,, D. Cann,, A. E. Simor,, D. E. Low, and the Ontario Group A Streptococcal Study Group. 1996. Invasive group A streptococcal infections in Ontario, Canada. N. Engl. J. Med. 135:547554.
27. Demers, B.,, A. E. Simor,, H. Vellend,, P. M. Schlievert,, S. Byrne,, F. Jamieson,, S. Walmsley, and, D. E. Low. 1993. Severe invasive group A streptococcal infections in Ontario, Canada: 1987–1991. Clin. Infect. Dis. 16:792800.
28. Dinges, M. M.,, P. M. Orwin, and, P. M. Schlievert. 2000. Exotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 13:1634.
29. Edwards-Jones, V.,, M. M. Dawson, and, C. Childs. 2000. A survey into toxic shock syndrome (TSS) in UK burns units. Burns 26:323333.
30. Ekelund, K.,, P. Skinhoj,, J. Madsen, and, H. B. Konradsen. 2005. Invasive group A, B, C and G streptococ-cal infections in Denmark 1999–2002: epidemiological and clinical aspects. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 11:569576.
31. Eriksson, B. K.,, J. Andersson,, S. E. Holm, and, M. Norgren. 1999. Invasive group A streptococcal infections: T1M1 isolates expressing pyrogenic exotoxins A and B in combination with selective lack of toxin-neutralizing antibodies are associated with increased risk of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. J. Infect. Dis. 180:410418.
32. Ferry, T.,, T. Perpoint,, F. Vandanesch, and, J. Etienne. 2005. Virulence determinants in Staphylococcus aureus and their involvement in clinical syndromes. Curr. Infect. Dis. Rep. 7:420428.
33. Fisher, G. W.,, T. J. Cieslak,, S. R. Wilson,, L. E. Weisman, and, V. G. Heeming. 1994. Opsonic antibodies to Staphylococcus epidermis: in vitro and in vivo studies using human intravenous immune globulin. J. Infect. Dis. 169:324329.
34. Gauduchon, V.,, G. Cozon,, F. Vandenesch,, A. L. Genestier,, N. Eyssade,, S. Peyrol,, J. Etienne, and, G. Lina. 2004. Neutralization of Staphylococcus aureus Panton Valentine leukocidin by intravenous immunoglobulin in vitro. J. Infect. Dis. 189:346353.
35. Gillet, Y.,, B. Issartel,, P. Vanhems,, J. C. Fournet,, G. Lina,, M. Bes,, F. Vandenesch,, Y. Piemont,, N. Brousse,, D. Floret, and, J. Etienne. 2002. Association between Staphylococcus aureus strains carrying gene for Panton-Valentine leukocidin and highly lethal necrotising pneumonia in young immunocompetent patients. Lancet 359:753759.
36. Goepel, J. R.,, D. G. Richards,, D. M. Harris, and, L. Henry. 1980. Fulminant Streptococcus pyogenes infection. Brit. Med. J. 281:1412.
37. Haggar, A.,, O. Shannon,, A. Norrby-Teglund, and, J-I. Flock. 2005. Dual effects of extracellular adherence protein from Staphylococcus aureus on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J. Infect. Dis. 192:210217.
38. Hajjeh, R. A.,, A. Reingold,, A. Weil,, K. Shutt,, A. Schuchat, and, B. A. Perkins. 1999. Toxic shock syndrome in the United States: surveillance update, 1979–1996. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:807810.
39. Hampson, F. G.,, S. W. Hancock, and, R. A. Primhak. 2006. Disseminated sepsis due to a Panton-Valentine leukocidin producing strain of community acquired meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and use of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Arch. Dis. Child. 91:201.
40. Herwald, H.,, H. Cramer,, M. Mörgelin,, W. Russell,, U. Sollenberg,, A. Norrby-Teglund,, H. Flodgaard,, L. Lindblom, and, L. Björck. 2004. M protein, a classical bacterial virulence determinant, forms complexes with fibrinogen that induce vascular leakage. Cell 116:367379.
41. Hiemstra, P. S.,, J. Brands-Tajouiti, and, R. van Furth. 1994. Comparison of antibody activity against various microorganisms in intravenous immunoglobulin preparations determined by ELISA and opsonic assay. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 123:241246.
42. Holm, S. E.,, A. Norrby,, A.-M. Bergholm, and, M. Norgren. 1992. Aspects of the pathogenesis in serious group A streptococcal infections in Sweden 1988–1989. J. Infect. Dis. 166:3137.
43. Holtfreter, S.,, K. Bauer,, D. Thomas,, C. Feig,, V. Lorenz,, K. Roschack,, E. Friebe,, K. Selleng,, S. Lövenich,, T. Greve,, A. Greinacher,, B. Panzig,, S. Engelmann,, G. Lina, and, B. M. Bröker. 2004. egc-encoded superantigens from Staphylococcus aureus are neutralized by human sera much less efficiently than are classical staphylococcal enterotoxins or toxic shock syndrome toxin. Infect. Immun. 72:40614071.
44. Hook, E. W.,, C. A. Horton, and, D. R. Schaberg. 1983. Failure of intensive care unit support to influence mortality from pneumococcal bacteremia. JAMA 249:10551057.
45. Hotchkiss, R. S., and, I. E. Karl. 2003. The pathophysiology and treatment of sepsis. N. Engl. J. Med. 348:138150.
46. Johnson, D. R.,, E. L. Kaplan,, A. VanGheem,, R. R. Facklam, and, B. Beall. 2006. Characterization of group A streptococci (Streptococcus pyogenes): correlation of M-protein and emm-gene type with T-protein agglutination pattern and serum opacity factor. J. Med. Microbiol. 55:157164.
47. Kamezawa, Y.,, T. Nakahara,, S. Nakano,, Y. Abe,, J. Nozaki-Renard, and, T. Isono. 1997. Streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin Z, a novel acidic superantigenic toxin produced by a T1 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes. Infect. Immun. 65:38283833.
48. Kaul, R.,, A. McGeer,, A. Norrby-Teglund,, M. Kotb,, B. Schwartz,, K. O’Rourke,, J. Talbot,, D. E. Low, and the Canadian Streptococcal Study Group. 1999. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for streptococcal toxic shock syndrome—a comparative observational study. Clin. Infect. Dis. 28:800807.
49. Kotb, M. 1995. Bacterial pyrogenic exotoxins as superantigens. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 8:411426.
50. Kotb, M. 1998. Superantigens of gram-positive bacteria: structure-function analyses and their implications for biological activity. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 1:5665.
51. Kotb, M.,, A. Norrby-Teglund,, A. McGeer,, M. K. Dorak,, A. Khurshid,, H. El-Shirbini,, K. Green,, J. Peeples,, J. Wade,, G. Thomson,, B. Schwartz, and, D. E. Low. 2002. Immunogenetic and molecular basis for the differences in outcomes of invasive group A streptococcal infections. Nat. Med. 8:13981404.
52. Kuroda, M.,, T. Ohta,, I. Uchiyama,, T. Baba,, H. Yuzawa,, I. Kobayashi,, L. Cui,, A. Oguchi,, K. Aoki,, Y. Nagai,, J. Lian,, T. Ito,, M. Kanamori,, H. Matsumaru,, A. Maruyama,, H. Murakami,, A. Hosoyama,, Y. Mizutani-Ui,, N. K. Takahashi,, T. Sawano,, R. Inoue,, C. Kaito,, K. Sekimizu,, H. Hirakawa,, S. Kuhara,, S. Goto,, J. Yabuzaki,, M. Kanehisa,, A. Yamashita,, K. Oshima,, K. Furuya,, C. Yoshino,, T. Shiba,, M. Hattori,, N. Ogasawara,, H. Hayashi, and, K. Hiramatsu. 2001. Whole-genome sequencing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Lancet 357:12251240.
53. Lamothe, F.,, P. D’Amico,, P. Ghosn,, C. Tremblay,, J. Braidy, and, J. Patenaude. 1995. Clinical usefulness of intravenous human immunoglobulins in invasive group A streptococcal disease: case report and review. J. Clin. Inf. Dis. 21:14691470.
54. Lancefield, R. C. 1962. Current knowledge of type-specific M antigen of group A streptococci. J. Immunol. 89:307313.
55. Leung, D. Y. 1996. Kawaski syndrome: immunomodulatory benefit and potential toxin neutralization by intravenous immune globulin. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 104(Suppl. 1):4954.
56. Leung, D. Y.,, R. S. Cotran,, E. Kurt-Jones,, J. C. Burns,, J. W. Newburger, and, J. S. Pober. 1989. Endothelial cell activation and high interleukin-1 secretion in the pathogenesis of acute Kawasaki disease. Lancet 2:12981302.
57. Lissner, R.,, W. G. Struff,, I. B. Autenrieth,, B. G. Woodcock, and, H. Karch. 1999. Efficacy and potential clinical applications of Pentaglobin, an IgM-enriched immunoglobulin concentrate suitable for intravenous infusion. Eur. J. Surg. 584(Suppl.):1725.
58. Low, D. E.,, B. Schwartz, and, A. McGeer. 1998. The reemergance of severe group A streptococcal disease: An evolutionary perspective, p. 93123. In W. M. Scheld,, D. Armstrong, and, J. M. Hughes (ed.), Emerging infections, vol. 7. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
59. Lowy, F. D. 1998. Staphylococcus aureus infections. N. Engl. J. Med. 339:520532.
60. Mahieu, L. M.,, S. E. Holm,, H. J. Goossens, and, K. J. Van Acker. 1995. Congenital streptococcal toxic shock syndrome with absence of antibodies against streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins. J. Pediatr. 127:987989.
61. Marrack, P., and, J. Kappler. 1990. The staphylococcal enterotoxins and their relatives. Science 248:705711.
62. Mascini, E. M.,, M. Jansze,, J. F. Schellekens,, J. M. Musser,, J. A. Faber,, L. A. Verhoef-Verhage,, L. Schouls,, W. J. van Leeuwen,, J. Verhoef, and, H. van Dijk. 2000. Invasive group A streptococcal disease in the Netherlands: evidence for a protective role of anti-exotoxin A antibodies. J. Infect. Dis. 181:631638.
63. McCormick, J. K.,, J. M. Yarwood, and, P. M. Schlievert. 2001. Toxic shock syndrome and bacterial superantigens: an update. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 55:77104.
64. Mollick, J. A.,, G. G. Miller,, J. Musser,, R. G. Cook,, D. Grossman, and, R. R. Rich. 1993. A novel super-antigen isolated from pathogenic strains of S. pyogenes with aminoterminal homology to staphylococcal enterotoxins B and C. J. Clin. Invest. 92:710719.
65. Mouthon, L.,, S. V. Kaveri,, S. H. Spalter,, S. Lacroix-Desmazes,, C. Lefranc,, R. Desai, and, M. D. Kazatchkine. 1996. Mechanisms of action of intravenous immune globulin in immune-mediated diseases. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 104 (Suppl.1):39.
66. Mulla, Z. D.,, P. E. Leaverton, and, S. T. Wiersma. 2003. Invasive group A streptococcal infections in Florida. South. Med. J. 96:968973.
67. Nadal, D.,, R. P. Lauener,, C. P. Braegger,, A. Kaufhold,, B. Simma,, R. Lutticken, and, R. A. Seger. 1993. T cell activation and cytokine release in streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome. J. Pediatr. 122:727729.
68. Norrby-Teglund, A.,, N. Ihendyane,, R. Kansal,, H. Basma,, M. Kotb,, J. Andersson, and, L. Ham-marström. 2000. Relative neutralizing activity in polyspecific IgM, IgA, and IgG preparations against group A streptococcal superantigens. Clin. Infect. Dis. 31:11751182.
69. Norrby-Teglund, A.,, R. Kaul,, D. E. Low,, A. McGeer,, J. Andersson,, U. Andersson, and, M. Kotb. 1996. Evidence for the presence of streptococcal superantigen neutralizing antibodies in normal polyspecific IgG (IVIG). Infect. Immun. 64:53955398.
70. Norrby-Teglund, A.,, R. Kaul,, D. E. Low,, A. McGeer,, D. Newton,, J. Andersson,, U. Andersson, and, M. Kotb. 1996. Plasma from patients with severe invasive group A streptococcal infections treated with normal polyspecific IgG inhibits streptococcal superantigen-induced T cell proliferation and cytokine production. J. Immunol. 156:30573064.
71. Norrby-Teglund, A.,, R. Lustig, and, M. Kotb. 1997. Differential induction of Th1 versus Th2 cytokines by group A streptococcal toxic shock syndrome isolates. Infect. Immun. 65:52095215.
72. Norrby-Teglund, A.,, M. P. Muller,, A. McGeer,, B. S. Gan,, V. Guru,, J. Bohnen,, P. Thulin, and, D. E. Low. 2005. Successful management of severe group A streptococcal soft tissue infections using intravenous poly-specific immunoglobulin and a conservative surgical approach. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 37:166172.
73. Norrby-Teglund, A.,, M. Norgren,, S. E. Holm,, U. Andersson, and, J. Andersson. 1994. Similar cytokine induction profiles of a novel streptococcal exotoxin, MF, and pyrogenic exotoxins A and B. Infect. Immun. 62:37313738.
74. Norrby-Teglund, A.,, R. Norrby, and, D. E. Low. 2003. The treatment of severe group A streptococcal infections. Curr. Infect. Dis. Rep. 5:2837.
75. Norrby-Teglund, A.,, K. Pauksens,, S. E. Holm, and, M. Norgren. 1994. Relation between low capacity of human sera to inhibit streptococcal mitogens and serious manifestation of disease. J. Infect. Dis. 170:585591.
76. Ogawa, M.,, S. Ueda,, N. Anzai,, K. Ito, and, M. Ohto. 1995. Toxic shock syndrome after staphylococcal pneumonia treated with intravenous immunoglobulin. Vox Sang. 68:5960.
77. Parsonnet, J. 1997. Case definition of staphylococcal TSS: a proposed revision incorporating laboratory findings, p. 15. In J. Arbuthnott and, B. Furman (ed.), International Congress Symposium Series European Conference on Toxic Shock Syndrome. Royal Society of Medicine Press, London, United Kingdom.
78. Patel, R.,, M. S. Rouse,, M. V. Florez,, K. E. Piper,, F. R. Cockerill,, W. R. Wilson, and, J. M. Steckelberg. 2000. Lack of benefit of intravenous immune globulin in a murine model of group A streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis. J. Infect. Dis. 181:230234.
79. Perez, C. M.,, B. M. Kubak,, H. G. Cryer,, S. Salemugodam,, P. Vespa, and, D. Farmer. 1997. Adjunctive treatment of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome with intravenous immunoglobulin: case report and review. Am. J. Med. 102:111113.
80. Poutsiaka, D. D.,, B. D. Clark,, E. Vannier, and, C. A. Dinarello. 1991. Production of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and interleukin-1 beta by peripheral blood mononuclear cells is differentially regulated. Blood 78:12751281.
81. Proft, T., and, J. D. Fraser. 2003. Bacterial superantigens. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 133:299306.
82. Proft, T.,, S. L. Moffatt,, C. J. Berkahn, and, J. D. Fraser. 1999. Identification and characterization of novel superantigens from Streptococcus pyogenes. J. Exp. Med. 189:89102.
83. Proft, T.,, S. L. Moffatt,, K. D. Weller,, A. Paterson,, D. Martin, and, J. D. Fraser. 2000. The streptococcal superantigen SMEZ exhibits wide allelic variation, mosaic structure, and significant antigenic variation. J. Exp. Med. 191:17651776.
84. Ruiz de Souza, V.,, M. P. Carreno,, S. V. Kaveri,, A. Ledur,, H. Sadeghi,, J. M. Cavaillon,, M. D. Kazatchkine, and, N. Haeffner-Cavaillon. 1995. Selective induction of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and interleukin-8 in human monocytes by normal polyspecific IgG (intravenous immunoglobulin). Eur. J. Immunol. 25:12671273.
85. Schlievert, P. M. 1986. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B and toxic-shock syndrome toxin-1 are significantly associated with non-menstrual TSS. Lancet i:11491150.
86. Schlievert, P. M.,, K. N. Shands,, B. B. Dan,, G. P. Schmid, and, R. D. Nishimura. 1981. Identification and characterization of an exotoxin from Staphylococcus aureus associated with toxic-shock syndrome. J. Infect. Dis. 143:509516.
87. Sharief, M. K.,, D. A. Ingram,, M. Swash, and, E. J. Thompson. 1999. IV immunoglobulin reduces circulating proinflammatory cytokines in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Neurology 52:18331838.
88. Shulman, S. R., and, M. Bendet. 1997. Kawasaki disease. Compr. Ther. 23:1318.
89. Skansen-Saphir, U.,, J. Andersson,, L. Björk, and, U. Andersson. 1994. Lymphokine production induced by streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin-A is selectively down-regulated by pooled human IgG. Eur. J. Immunol. 24:916922.
90. Smoot, L. M.,, J. K. McCormick,, J. C. Smoot,, N. P. Hoe,, I. Strickland,, R. L. Cole,, K. D. Barbian,, C. A. Earhart,, D. H. Ohlendorf,, L. G. Veasy,, H. R. Hill,, D. Y. Leung,, P. M. Schlievert, and, J. M. Musser. 2002. Characterization of two novel pyrogenic toxin superantigens made by an acute rheumatic fever clone of Streptococcus pyogenes associated with multiple disease outbreaks. Infect. Immun. 72:70957104.
91. Stegmayr, B.,, S. Bjorck,, S. Holm,, J. Nisell,, A. Rydvall, and, B. Settergren. 1992. Septic shock induced by group A streptococcal infection: clinical and therapeutic aspects. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 24:589597.
92. Stevens, D. L. 1999. The flesh-eating bacterium: what’s next? J. Infect. Dis. 179(Suppl. 2):S366S374.
93. Stevens, D. L. 1992. Invasive group A streptococcus infections. Clin. Infect. Dis. 14:213.
94. Stevens, D. L.,, A. L. Bisno,, H. F. Chambers,, E. D. Everett,, P. Dellinger,, E. J. Goldstein,, S. L. Gorbach,, J. V. Hirschmann,, E. L. Kaplan,, J. G. Montoya, and, J. C. Wade. 2005. Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of skin and soft-tissue infections. Clin. Infect. Dis. 41:13731406.
95. Stevens, D. L.,, M. H. Tanner,, J. Winship,, R. Swarts,, K. M. Ries,, P. M. Schlievert, and, E. Kaplan. 1989. Severe group A streptococcal infections associated with a toxic shock-like syndrome and scarlet fever toxin A. N. Engl. J. Med. 321:17.
96. Stolz, S. J.,, J. P. Davis,, J. M. Vergeron,, B. A. Crass,, P. J. Chesney,, P. J. Wand, and, M. S. Bergdoll. 1985. Development of serum antibody to toxic shock toxin among individuals with toxic shock syndrome in Wisconsin. J. Infect. Dis. 151:883889.
97. Strömberg, A.,, V. Romanus, and, L. G. Burman. 1991. Outbreak of group A streptococcal bacteremia in Sweden: an epidemiological and clinical study. J. Infect. Dis. 164:595598.
98. Takei, S.,, Y. K. Arora, and, S. M. Walker. 1993. Intravenous immunoglobulin contains specific antibodies inhibitory to activation of T cells by staphylococcal toxin superantigens. J. Clin. Invest. 91:602607.
99. The Working Group on Severe Streptococcal Infections. 1993. Defining the group A streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Rationale and consensus definition. JAMA 269:390391.
100. Todd, J. K.,, F. A. Kapral,, M. Fishaut, and, T. R. Welch. 1978. Toxic shock syndrome associated with phage group I staphylococci. Lancet 2:11161118.
101. Vandenesch, F.,, T. Naimi,, M. C. Enright,, G. Lina,, G. R. Nimmo,, H. Heffernan,, N. Liassine,, M. Bes,, T. Greenland,, M. E. Reverdy, and, J. Etienne. 2003. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes: worldwide emergence. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:978984.
102. Vergeront, J.,, S. Stoltz,, B. A. Crass,, D. Nelson,, J. P. Davis, and, M. Bergdoll. 1983. Prevalence of serum antibodies to staphylococcal enterotoxin F among Wisconsin residents: implication for toxic-shock syndrome. J. Infect. Dis. 4:692698.
103. Vernachio, J. H.,, A. S. Bayer,, B. Ames,, D. Bryant,, B. D. Prater,, P. J. Syribeys,, E. L. Gorovits, and, J. M. Patti. 2006. Human immunoglobulin G recognizing fibrinogen-binding surface proteins is protective against both Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis infections in vivo. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50:511518.
104. Wang, H.,, O. Bloom,, M. Zhang,, J. M. Vishnubhakat,, M. Ombrellino,, J. Che,, A. Frazier,, H. Yang,, S. Ivanova,, L. Borovikova,, K. R. Manogue,, E. Faist,, E. Abraham,, J. Andersson,, U. Andersson,, P. E. Molina,, N. N. Abumrad,, A. Sama, and, K. J. Tracey. 1999. HMG-1 as a late mediator of endotoxin lethality in mice. Science 285:248251.
105. Weisman, L. E.,, D. F. Cruess, and, G. W. Fisher. 1994. Opsonic activity of commercially available standard intravenous immunoglobulin preparations. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 13:11221125.
106. Yang, K. D.,, J. M. Bathras,, A. O. Shigeoka,, J. James,, S. H. Pincus, and, H. R. Hill. 1989. Mechanisms of bacterial opsonization by immune globulin intravenous: correlation of complement consumption with opsonic activity and protective efficacy. J. Infect. Dis. 159:701707.
107. Yong, J. M. 1994. Necrotising fasciitis. Lancet 343:1427.
108. Zimbelman, J.,, A. Palmer, and, J. Todd. 1999. Improved outcome of clindamycin compared with beta-lactam antibiotic treatment for invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infection. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 18:1096–1100.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Clinical and epidemiologic aspects of streptococcal and staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS)

Citation: Norrby-Teglund A, Low D, Kotb M. 2007. Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy in Superantigen-Mediated Toxic Shock Syndrome, p 197-215. In Kotb M, Fraser J (ed), Superantigens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815844.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Virulence factors of and grouped according to function

Citation: Norrby-Teglund A, Low D, Kotb M. 2007. Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy in Superantigen-Mediated Toxic Shock Syndrome, p 197-215. In Kotb M, Fraser J (ed), Superantigens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815844.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Intravenous polyspecific immunoglobulin (IVIG) as adjunctive therapy in streptococcal and staphylococcal TSS

Citation: Norrby-Teglund A, Low D, Kotb M. 2007. Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy in Superantigen-Mediated Toxic Shock Syndrome, p 197-215. In Kotb M, Fraser J (ed), Superantigens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815844.ch13

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error